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A V 0 
^> V> ^ 

1 Association for 

[7=1 Information and Image 
lita Management 




( 1879 - 1886 ) 

Thomas E. Jeffrey 

Microfilm Editor and Associate Director 

Paul B. Israel 
Assistant Editor 

Mary Ann Hellrlgel Douglas G. Tarr 

David W. Hutchings Robert A. Rosenberg 

Editorial Associates 

Leonard DeGraaf 
Joseph P. Sullivan 
Alan Stein 
Karen Kozak 

John Deasey 
Barbara B. Tomblin 
Jacquelyn Miller 
Marla Antonakakls 

Student Assistants 

Keith A. Nler 
Assistant Editor 

Reese V. Jenkins 
Director and Editor 


Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site 
New Jersey Historical Commission 
Smithsonian Institution 

University Publications of America 
Frederick, Maryland 


Rutgers, The State University of 
New Jersey 

Edward J. Bloustein 
T. Alexander Pond 
Tilden G. Edelstein 
John Gillls 

New Jersey Historical Commission 
Bernard Bush 
Howard L Green 

National Park Service, Edison 
National Historic Site 
Roy W. Weaver 
Edward J. Pcrshey 

Bernard Finn 
Arthur P. Moleila 


James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technology 
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., Harvard University 
Neil Harris, University of Chicago 
Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pennsylvania 
Arthur Link, Princeton University 
Nathan Ueingold, Smithsonian Institution 
Robert E. Schofield, Iowa State University 


William C. Hittinger (chairman), RCA Corporation 
Edward J. Bloustein, Rutgers, The State University of N.J. 
Cees Bruynes, North American Philips Corporation 
Paul J. Christiansen, Charles Edison Fund 
Philip F. Dietz, Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Roland W. Schmitt, General Electric Corporation 
Harold W. Sonn, Public Service Electric and Gas Company 
Morris Tanenbaum, AT&T 


Reese V. Jenkins 
Director and Editor 

Thomas E. Jeffrey 

Associate Director and Microfilm Editor 

Assistant Editors 
Paul B. Israel 
Robert A. Rosenberg 
Keith A. Nler 
Andrew Butrlca 

Assistant to the Director 
Helen Endlck 

Research Associates 
Douglas G. Tarr 
Mary Ann Hcllrlgcl 
David W. Hutchings 

Grace Kurkowskl 

Student Assistants 

Leonard DeGraaf 
Alan Stein 
Jacquelyn Miller 

Joseph P. Sullivan 
Karen Kozak 
Granville Miller 



Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 
Charles Edison Fund 
Tlie Hyde and Watson Foundation 
Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 


National Science Foundation 
National Endowment for the Humanities 


Alabama Power Company 
Amerada Hess Corporation 

Atlantic Electric 

Association of Edison Illuminating 

Battellc Memorial Institute Foundation 
The Boston Edison Foundation 
Cabot Corporation Foundation 
Carolina Power and Light Company 
Consolidated Edison Company of 
New York, Inc. 

Consumers Power Company 
Corning Glass Works Foundation 
Duke Power Company 
Exxon Corporation 
Florida Power & Light Company 
General Electric Foundation 
Gould Inc. Foundation 
Gulf States Utilities Company 
Idaho Power Company 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Iowa Power and Light Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz 
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., 
McGraw-Edison Company 
Middle South Sendees, Inc. 

Minnesota Power 

Netv Jersey Bell Telephone Company 
New York State Electric & Gas 

North American Philips Corporation 
Philadelphia Electric Company 
Philips International B.V. 

Public Service Electric and Gas 
RCA Corporation 
Robert Bosch GmbH 
San Diego Gas & Electric 
Savannah Electric and Power Company 
Schering Plough Foundation 
Texas Utilities Company 
Transamcrica Deiaval Inc. 

Wcstinghouse Educational Foundation 
Wisconsin Public Service 

A Note on the Sources 

The pages which have been 
filmed are the best copies 
available. Every technical 
effort possible has been 
made to ensure legibility. 


Reel do plication of the whole or of 
any part of this film is prohibited. 
In lieu of transcripts, however, 
enlarged photocopies of selected 
items contained on these reels 
may be made in order to facilitate 



REEL 97 


Edison Company for Isolated Lighting Bulletins 

This bound volume contains eleven bulletins issued by the Edison Company for 
Isolated Lighting during the period May 1885-June 1886. These bulletins contain 
brief accounts of the activities of the various Edison electric light companies and 
of developments in the electric lighting field. Included are testimonials from 
Edison's customers, lists of isolated plants, and reprints of articles from 
newspapers and journals. There are also printed copies of letters by Edison, 
Francis R. Upton, and Edward Weston regarding comparative light bulb tests 
conducted by the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, along with reports of the test 
results; letters by Upton and William E. Sawyer relating to electric light litigation 
between Edison and Sawyer; comparisons between the Edison system and competing 
gas and electric light systems; and descriptions of Edison's exhibits at electrical 
exhibitions in Paris (1881), Boston (1883), Cincinnati (1883), Louisville (1883), and 
New Orleans (1884). The spine is stamped "Edison Company Bulletins for Agents 
1885-1886." Each bulletin is individually paginated. Bulletins 4, 5, and 13 are 

New yoitK, May 15,1885. 

Deaii Sin—In orclor to givo our agents and our friends gen¬ 
erally tlio bonofit of as full and comprolionsivo knowledge of 
•wliat is current in this offico, ns if tboy bad daily neeoss to it, 
we have decided to issue a weokly memorandum of information, 
together with'snob running comments ns tlio various officials of 
the Company may think judicious to make and useful to agents. 
In accordance with this determination, we bog leavo to submit 
the following items: 

I The copy of one of our . Bills of Complaint is sont simply 
that you may bo able to answer authoritatively the question 
/ so frequently put, viz.: IVhat is the Edison Company suing 
/ on? This is the oliief enso, but there are nineteen others 
almost equally fundamental in thoir olmraoter. 

Tlio counter suits brought by tl.o United Staton Electric 
Lighting Company against us are upon minor “ Improvement 
Patents," none of which imperil in tho slightest degree our 
enjoyment of tho right to do incandescent electric lighting, 
whilst our patents, if sustained, involvo honvy dumagos for past 
use, and prohibition of further use of tho incandescent system 
by any and all others than tho Edison Company and its 


At tho closo of tho Electrical Exhibition tho Brush Com¬ 
pany beenrno very nctivo in Philadelphia, and, by guaranteeing 
far boyond tho Edison Company’s figures, suceooded in selling 
two plants—one to Messrs. Polwell Bros., of 450 lamps, and 
ono to tho Eidolity Loan, Trust & Safe Deposit Company, of 
60 lamps, guaranteeing in oncli iustanoo ton lamps of 20-cnndlo 
power oncli por H. P., and 1,000 hours’ life. In neither enso 
have tlioy oven approximated this figuro, A tost of Polwell 
Bros, plant showed eleven InmpB of an nvorago of loss than 
12-candles each. In eonsoquonco of this failuro tho plant has 
not yet been accoptod, and will not bo until tho guarantee is 
mndo good. Soveral months of futile ofiort begins to mako 
this apparent to Polwoll Bros., who are now in negotiation 
with us to replace it with an Edison plant. 

Tho Pidolity plant has proven so unsatisfactory that tho 
Edison peoplo linvo boon given an ordor to show what tlioy 
can do. They put in Edison lamps and a 76-liglit dynamo. 
Tho latest report of tho running of which is heroin given in an 
extract from Agont Hoskin, of Philadelphia, to Managor 

I inn Informed that Messrs. Do Camp & Tisdale of the Brusli-Swun Corn^ 
pany, not knowing of the cliango of dynamos, called on u Mr. 
furnished the engine. On being told that the engine was runnlr 

bursting, unci It la worth your while to go and ace,” which they accordingly 
did. Our Sir. Walker being In the engine-room at the time, said the look of 
consternation that spread over their faces, when, Instead of their own, they 
saw an Edison dynamo ut work, was worth seeing. 


Aitkon, Son & Co., dry goods morcliants, Eighteenth streot 
and Broadway, Now York City, woro using our dynamo and 
taking steam from boiler belonging to tho estato owning tho 
building they occupy. They woro running tho plant at tlio 
cost of paying an engineer, furnishing oil, wasto and other inci¬ 
dentals, and woro also paying tho estato for tho stoani used. 
Tho agont of tho estato, who is interested indirectly in tlio 
United States Company, offorod to supply electric light to Ait¬ 
kon, Sou & Co., for tho same price ns they woro paying tho 
ostato for tho power alone. Such an arrangement onahlod Ait- 
ken, Son & Co. to got tho United StntoB Company's light at 
about ono-third tho cost to them of operating our plant. This 
offer, boing such a favornblo ono, it was ngroqd to upon tlio 
condition that tlio United Stntos light should be as efficient as 
tlio Edison. Tlio following copy of a lottor -written by Mossrs. 
Aitkon, Son & Co. to nn intending purchaser of an United 
States Elootrio Light Plant, speaks for itself: 

Ma. 13. O. Km.l.onn, Detroit, Mich.: 

Dkau Sat—Yours of tho 1st lust, to luind. Tho U. B. agont Is entirely 
wrong in his representations of our opinion of tho relntivo merits of the U. S. 
mid Edison light. Instead of being willing to lmvo “no other" than the V. S. 

lms promised to restore onr Edison plant In reply to our request unless tho 
U. S- light Is speedily improved. Tho latter hus never heoa up to tho Edison 
In duration of lamps, brilliancy and steadiness of light. 

ISxtmet from letter ,,r nr., c- 
Sims, engine builders IVovil of of Aniiiiigti 

Some months since 

t nTZT r - 1 »r «k„„.i,mte (1 i„ „„ •’ »ogoti«ti 0 „g tlll 

«.o **• Wport G 

notion , M1 this m„ttor, tlmt tlmv ' 0 1 0 by tie 

-O’other «„s company i„ ^U,” s?T"T 
, < bo,lof >'s tlmt'(he result *, “ diowii 

'“-•r W companies will s ./ bulr »otio.Mvill he th ni 
. V "'- V "S-Vrly” sort of ^ Mod ourlighl 

'.Mninios in (heir K as , V0I .|, S two 100 light 

tlTlSrl'i’ (,1 "- V ’lisoovere!]' '^V'' VS ° lnn ^ 

Jl'^smtoo-to havingf r' , ‘ 1 ' 0, : 0 "' UI1 «' l KO(lii.lnriiJ 

! S0 ®; lS 1,1 'Wl'lition to (lisnl ,U1, - tl011 010 t ' 0, " i,l K full. 

: ^Srr-r>Zz:uz£~r 

t to ;„h 1 ° e,,,,, I>«nios. in that .. 0 dlsta,lc «‘l 

o introihme the p ] . t,iat «<oy have boon the 
'^•-thoMnmu,, , c 1,110,1 sj’stom of stir, t , , 

opinion of tlio oliicers of tlio Edison Company tlmt 
of tlio most important movomonts yet made in tlio i: 
tlio oleetriu light, inasnnieli ns if it shall bo shown 1 
orimont that a gas company can introduce tlio oloctri 
l gradually supplant its own gas plant with an elect 
lation, tlio entire gas capital of the country is nvaih 
i.stmont in tlio electric light enterprise. The Intel 
n tlio Lockport Company is given in the following 
n L. Stioringor, electrical oxport: 

,, IIastisiih, Treasurer, (15 Fifth avcmai, N. Y.: 

Dkaii Sin—I Hill more lima suthdled with nil I wiw in Lookpoi 
Interview with the«e gas people was most pleiuuint nail Intcruatli 
ml to enlarge their electric light plant at once. I was shown Stan 
plana with a few changes for the Increase, v c I 

les IntcreHtuil expressed themselves as satisfied. I fliul a very 
lation, all consumers happy, ami a demand for more light. The 
nlng with a fall load on. To me, the Municipal System proves 
rest find—It Is a nugget. These gas people fully endorse this s 
pting and approving it, 


Tlio »Philadelphia Call" prints tlio following rel 
lini.t tost, now noiiur on ill Franklin Institute 

! tl0 “ ll "“ ""IwrlutWHlH tho lost. of tliellgl.islscoinpo^li 
0f tllu u,llv<!ri,1| y of I’m„>»ylv„„l„; Uuiiiu, mi .MiinlocitMl 
' unl ' of ,hu Plli,l, ' ll ' l l> l ‘l'>««» Work., mi,l f.l, Ilnlll I), 1I1C ,>M 
•o week. ll,o tost, of ,l,„ ,ly Iml „o. will 

of C'nmnmiiilor Jewell, U. S. N., hleule,.I Amlomdl 

Liimut Mtmlnck irnil Protaor Marks. Only „|., ,|, , r0 } 

i"* f ° r of ll.o K,11.01, .. ,■ of ,|,o 1V< j 

,ro uro expected. Tl.o to.,, will »o, !,o llal.hc.l before thofl 


ofteft £-! "T!"* r CeUUy nl ’l ,0nrU(1 "> «“> P»P0« to the | 
offoot that a patent ],,ul boon granted to Sawyer-Man of such j 
fundamental character as to make it trolling of tin, incan 
; 1 U f 1 ;" 1 ’- n t briof 0X l ,,,l,mtio1 * aoo,n«l to 1,0 noeossarv in 
k H ag0,,ts ,u »y 1,0 “Wo to “«Hwor queries ,,„ t to them 
. lmit ° r 18 " ot of 8»“‘ importance, ami it is only necessary 
o loniark that the statement made upon the authority of the 
Consolidated Electric Light Company (Sawyer & Man) that in 
- 0 , to Of the issue o/certain patent oflice ,itiga!ic Z 
“ °f pru-nty of invention of the incandescent lamp is given 
fac °Th U 1T 1 r te ". ,,0W iustissue<1 > is "'itliout foundation in 
of a 8 I0 " W ' ,S COn,illert 8il "Ply to the use 

J"" l0, ' K S ' ,IC ? ,Jeon “Imndoned by M nuZ^of incnmWont* 
Mr. Edison’s invention consists in tho discovery nf „ 

Sir ;: 1 r“ g tho “ c “ v 

*= J ““““Immonco, which method is clearly expressed in ■ 
the patent gmnted to him, No. 223,81)8, dated January 27th 
1880, m tho words of the first claim, as follows: 

lMtsiCf mboTof'ld' I | f0r , BiVl " S llSl ' 1 bj ’ l " cl, " llMc e«™, consisting of » niu- 
wires ns sot forth. m " ae " S <k ' Scrllwl ll,K * to ii.ct.Hlln 

This was an absolutely now departure in tho art, is funda¬ 
mental in its character, and rein,tins to-daytho solo and only 
moans by which praotieul inoaudoscont oloctrio lighting can bo 
• dono. 

It is upon this fundamontnlpatont that tho Edison Com¬ 
pany lias latoly brought suit against all Eloctric Light Com¬ 
panies making and soiling tho incnndoscont lamp. 

Note.— You may add to tho valuo and intorcst of this wookly 
memorandum by Bonding to us promptly any information which 
may como to your hands of interest to your foUows in tho bnsi- 

Tmly yours, 



Bulletin for Agents. 

This information was compiled by the Star Tower Company 
through direct correspondence with the com] nics the s he 
as to what work they lmd done, so that there can bo no doubt 
but that the list is full and complete. The book should prove 
a valuable aid to our agents in their negotiations, and must 
carry with it a conviction that whatever the claims of the 

other companies may bo, tho discriminating public profor tlio 
Edison system. 

Tho Amoriean Elootricnl Directory lists tho various isolated 
oloetric light plants ns follows: 




Alison Electric Light Company hereby gtvua notice to the public, us 

t. That the patents of Air. Thomas A. Edison, now the properly of 
Company, fully cover the exclusive manufacture, sale ami use of any 
al) practical incandescent lamps. 

I. That the Edison Company having begun suits at law for the en- 
ement of its rights under these patents, will not relax in their vigorous 

1. That the Edison Company is prepared to fully guarantee and pro- 
ail its customers and to prosecute and punish to the full extent of the 
all makers, sellers or users of incandescent lamps not duly author, 
by It. 

late attempt to establish for the Sawyer-Man patent, just issued, a 


Immediately lifter tho granting of tlio recent patent to tlio 
Consolidated Company, tlio town of York, Pa., was solootcd by 
tliora for tho purpose of making an attompt to frighten off tho 
subrerihors to a local Edison company which had been formed 
in that town. Tho installation of tho plant hud been com¬ 
menced, when the ngonts of the Consolidated Company ap¬ 
peared on tho ground, and, by inserting inflammatory articles 
in tho local papers and making extravagant statements to the 
subscribers, a question was naturally raised by our local com¬ 
pany as to whothor there might bo any truth in tho reports 
circulated by tlicso men. Tlioy therefore sent their attorneys 
to Washington for tho purpose of making an investigation, and 
tho lottcr which wo givo below is tho result: 



In order to illnstmto tlio methods employed by some o£ our 
would-bo competitors, we publish, by permission, correspond¬ 
ence botween tho Chicago ngent of tho United States Company 
and tho representative of tho Board of Trade. Tho contract 
for lighting tho Board of Trade Building was awarded to tho 
Wostom Edison Company aftor competitive bids had boon 
rocoivcd (in which wo woro underbid), and aftor a thorough 
C\ t i tion of both systems tho contract was, as above stated, 
awarded to us. This correspondence took place after wo had 
actually commenced tho work on tho Board of Trado Buildm* 

r Ln Salic nml Jackson atruolx, used Tor IHimiinntliig purposes, wncreoi mo 
ioiiiisclmnn Jliilhllng l» tlm user. And having performed Mint Hcrvico, now, 
in this sixth liny of April, 188S, does further certify, tlinl tile snlil wires and 
.ttncliinents lire properly arranged and insulated, as contemplated in and hy 
lie ordinances of the City of Chicago, and that they are now In proper con- 
lilion to he used for purposes of tllundnation. 

Superintendent of City Telegraph. 

Einnl Result of tlio Lump Test nt Franklin Institute, 
Pliilll., I*n. 

Ill the In nip test now willed at Philadelphia, 20 lumps oneli, 
if the following styles, namely, the Edison, the United States 
Jo. (Weston), tlio Westinglionso (Stanley), and 11 of the 
tVoodhouso A Eawson Co.’s were placed in sepavato lioxos, 
mil resistances so arranged that each lamp could ho hunted at 
lorinal candle power. Tlio intention was to test the lamps 
intil one style showed “ decided superiority ” as over the 
ither, replaeing broken lamps hy others. The first four lamps 
>f the United States Co. (Weston), one lam]) of the Edison 
Company and two lamps of tlio Westinglionso Co. (Stanley) 
ivoro thus replaced, giving a trial for life upon more than 20 
lamps of each of these competitors. The Committee having 
tlio Test in charge finding that all lamps hut the Edison were 
giving out so rapidly concluded that it was not worth wliilo to 
substitute new lamps for those broken. This makes tlio final 
result aftor 1,0G5 hours continual testing ns follows : 

Edison lumps, broken. 1 oal of 21 

Weston lamps, broken. 17 “ 24 

Stanley lamps, broken. 12 “ 22 

Woodbouse Ibiwson lamps, broken.All 11 11 

At the ond of 500 hours testing tlio Committoo wore unani¬ 
mously of tlio opinion that tlio Edisoii Co. had won and that 
thoro was no need of carrying on tlio tost furtlior. Tlio Edison 
Company woro desirous that a record of at least 1,000 hours 

burning should ho obtained from tlio Edison lamps. Tlio com- 
mittoo assented on condition that tlio otlior lamps Bliould ho 
tostod. Thus with lamps which had burnod ovor 500 hours 
tlio EiUhoii Company woro willing to rnco with lamps fresh 
from the makers. The rosult of this second competition is as 

Edison Co., entering tlio Edisoii lamp, lost ono lamp out of 
21 in 1,005 hours. 

United States Co., entering Weston’s 70 volt papor lamp, 
lost 3 out of 10 in 521 hours. 

W. H. Preeco, F. E. S., outoring tlio Woodliouso & Eawson 
lamp, lost 0 out of 10 in 332 hours. 

Unknown parties outoring tlio “ Sun ” lamp, lost 3 out of 10 
in 308 hours. 



4 ' 

t n 

Tlio Philadelphia Ledger peoplo liavo arranged to supply 
current for lighting tlio olegant new hanking ltouso of Messrs. 
A. J. Droxol it Co., on Chestnut street. Tlio hanking house 
has been wired for about 200-1G C. P. lamps, and tlio current 
is conducted through 750 foot of Edison underground electric 
tubing, which is laid in Chestnut street. The Lodgor peoplo 
liavo changed their “ It ” dynamo, which has boon in uso for 
tlio past tlirco yours, for ono of our now “ Y ” dynamos, which 
will onablo thorn to run 30-1G C. P. lamps. 



Tho Midvalo Stool Company, at Nicotown, Pennsylvania, arc 
supplied with a 100-light Edison dynamo, wliioli has boon ii 

uso for tho past year for lighting tlioir officca anti counting- 
rooms. They linvo matlo some experiments in tho nrrnngo- 
mont of lights for lighting tlioir mnohino sho]); those oxpori- 
nionts have proved to he so ontiroly successful that tlioy liavo 
recently fitted up their inachine shops with a system of com¬ 
bination swing brackets and pondant lamps, wlioroliy tlioy can 
uso tho light with groat satisfaction around tho largo planers, 
lathes, drill processes and boring machines. Tho swing brack¬ 
ets are mndo of light but strong wood, and tho current is con¬ 
ducted to them through rubber-covered pliable cord. A coun¬ 
terbalancing weight enables tho light to bo hoisted up to tho 
coiling when not in uso. Tho lights aro in uso in tho mnehino 
shop whon tho capacity of tho dynamo is not required for 
oflico lighting. 

Tho Westom Edison Light Co. liavo installed a. plant in 
tho Plankinton Honso, Mihvaukoo, AVis., mid tho Proprietor 
of tho Hotol writes tho following letter of satisfaction to tho 
Western Edison Co.: 

Mii.waukkk, Win. 

Ollier of tile i'hlllkinton House. 
Wkutkiin Kmsos Limit Co., Chicago, Ills.: 

(.usTi.K.MKS—In reply to yours of llie alsl will slute Hint llie Edison 
Electric Light Plant lusliilleil by you in lids house has been in operation for 
over u year, and has in every way given me entire satisfaction. 

It is ull you have claimed for it in every respect, easily managed and 
operated by the servants uhotil the house. It is run from the engine which 
laid run the arc lights, and is perfectly steady. I am pleased with it beyond 
expression, and do not see how it could lie improved on. 

Yours truly, 


AVo have installed it plant in tlio building of tho Detroit 
“ Eroo Press,” at Dotroit, Mich. Mr. Mttrklo, our agent in 
Detroit, writes tho following, under date of May 23d, to Mr. 
Hutchinson, Manager, in regard to tho success of the plant: 


Started tho " Preo Press " pinnt up last ovoning and It : 
tho Sturt and gives unbounded satisfaction. 

Tho contract with United Slates Lights Is marked, nnd ti 
ger requests me to have our lights put in his private cilice 
States' removed. 


Our agonts aro ofton asked if we can furnish su 
wo answer, “ Yes, to a limited oxtont.” AVo liavo 
on tho Str. Mississippi, of tho United States Eng 
Mississippi River Commission. On this boat wo a 
a focusing lamp for a head light, and a hanging lai 
or dock lighting when landing. They liavo been 
opornting perfectly. 

AVo feol safo in placing aro lumps on our circuits 
descent dynamos, as follows : 

On dynamos types No. 3 and No. 4, two arc an 
lnciiudescont lamps respectively. 

On dynamos types No. G and No. 8, four are In 
and 130 incandescent lamps respectively. 

Otlior types of dynamos in same proportion. 

Extra cost is about ns follows: 

Poetising are lamp, reflector, olovating apparatus 
&o., exclusive of wiling, S225 oneh. 

Hanging are lamp, resistance, etc., exclusive of 


Wo submit tlio following ns an ofTootivo stylo of advertising 
1 ono wliioh will commoml itsolf to tlio gonoral public. 


Electric Light. 


Tim Urllisli Admiralty lmvtt made exhaustive tests relative to cost of ol 
1 Electric Lighting on hnnrd the lunn-nf-wnr “Colossus” 1 t 

l* coal and oil used in the trial were carefully measured and valued, ami a 
spared with the cost of lighting it was found that electric lighting is lit 
iaper by at least one-half. 

The Michigan School for the Wind, at Lansing, Mich., ibid the cost o 
crating an average of !I8 Sixteen Candle Power Ellison Lights, !ij hours pi 
f, to he 31 cents. 

Cost of riiniiing 118 Lumps, for one hour, exclusive of interest, Cost i 
tilling 1)8 Lamps, for one hour, including Interest, I8}u. 

The Ypsilanli Paper Co., Ypsilnnli, Mich., find tile cost of operating C 
llson lights, hy water power, all night each week day for one year, to he §4 
rerilgo life of lamps, 1,(IW) hours. 

The Electric Lump tests now going on in Franklin Institute. Pltllmlel! 
a, show the following results, after the (100 hour 

Of the twenty lamps submitted by the United SlntcsCo., twelve have got 
it. The Stanley Co. have lost sixteen out of their twenty. The Woodhoii 
llawsoil have lost nine out of their ten, and the Edison Co. one out of Hit 
runty. The committee that superintends the tests Is composed of I’rr 
arks, of llie University of Pennsylvania j Lieut. Murdock, U. 8. N.; II 
'aril, of tliu Philadelphia Gas Works, and Lieut. Duncan, U. S. N. 


No. 3. 

Bulletin for Agents. 

The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting, 


New York, Juno (ith, 1885. 


“ The Enquirer," Cincinnati, Ohio, in an editorial in its 
issue of May 30th, 1885, referring to a fire which had occurred 
in tlio printing establishment of Sullivan it Co., No. 19 Wost 
Sixth street, Cincinnati, Ohio, wherein 15 lives woro lost, gives 
the following practical ndvico: 


And How It Might Have Been Averted. 

If manufacturers will investigate tho Edl 
coining largely Into use throughout the co 
occurrence would not have happened if tin: 

ercnco to the tire in the same block scarcely 
lost their lives through a bunch of rags bell 
with a gas jet. If the core I, 

ability bo found that a large percentage of 
lislimcnts arc tho result of similar contact ol 
gaslight; hcnco the subject of using the El 
receive the prompt and serious considerntloi 

llieir business, mid especially wlieiui large a 
Introduction of the Edison Incandescent I 

who engugo In the use or manufacture of com 

with the Important facts that it Is u much be 
steadier, clounor and more comfortnblo on i 
with tho still more important fact Hint t<> 
of light it is far more economical than gai 
earnest consideration of all parties desiring a 
mlcnl light, with tho danger of lire by nccldo 

to obtain (ire from the system. 

llson Incandescent Eight, which 
oiintry, they will ibid that such 
lilt light hud been used. If the. 
on Incandescent Lamp there won 
ie snine holds good precisely in n 
y a year ago, in which nine perso 
ing set oil (ire by coming in contn 
id be obtulned it would in nil pro 
' the tires in manufacturing cstn 
if accidents in connection with tl 
■illson Incandescent Light shoul 
m of ail manufacturing nnd bus 
artificial light in connection wit 
amount of help is employed. Til 
Light into the commercial worlt 
•self felt, especially among tlins. 
nbiistible material, on the groundi 
dltloiis. Tlicsu reasons, togetlici 
letter llliiinlnniit than gas, mucli 
account of the absence of heat, 
iinnnfnctiirers or large consumers 
is, ought certainly secure it the 
ii safe, dean, brilliant and econo, 
ontnl contact with it reduced to 
safely snld that it is impossible 


The Philadelphia “ Evening Bnlletin "of May 28, 1885 cot, 
hurts the following editorial relative to the superiority of tho 
Edison Incandescent Lamp over that of all other make,*: 

The Edison Company seems to have h 
with its electric lamps. The Franklin Institute 
fair and thorough, and the Edison people prove their 0 ,0 0 , " ' 

question. They use pure bamboo carbon l, n ,>trl ° rily bcyon<1 

on, wnue others use bamboozle 


Rowing extracts are taken from the “ Detroit Free 
if May 24,1885 : 

, neorly one ycor ogo, "Tho Free Press" removed to its new and 
ommodious quarters, on tho corner of Larncd and ts 11 cl by streets, 
nil its gas fixtures nnd German student lamps nnd adopted electric 
itirely. Two dynamos were placed in the engine room, nnd the 
and live floors lighted thereby. In tho press rooms and other 
il departments were placed arc lights of 8.000 candle power; in the 
torial and composing rooms Incandescent lights of the nominal 
wenty caudles. 

Free Press " has not flnltcry to bestow upon any man’s patents, but 

lit for night workers. Being absolutely dovoitl of tint and never 
or changing In its volume, the oyo docs not tiro oven with long 
nlnterruptcd writing by its light. Not so the arc light, howover. 
icon found too intenso and unsteady, and lias rccontly boon sup. 
• tho Edison Incandescent. Even the gas jet in the elovator, the 
11 the building, lias given plncc to n pear-shaped bulb, supplied by 

men carefully nnlcil. Tim lotul la 1,1118 limirs for one lamp for each working 
lay. Tills multiplied liy 1)12, dm number of working days in u yenr, gives 
111,21(1 lmurs. A pnrlion are used on Sunday nlglds, (lie total for llfly-two 
iumlays being 211,1111(1 hours, a grand lolnl of 1118,lfi2 per year. There are 
lines when no maebinery Is running except the dynamos, and the emrlneer 
ms carefully noted the consumption of coal per hour at such periods. Upon 
bis basis be reports the fnii expense at $218.00, and this Is the only expense 
ixcepling the bulbs, or lamps as they lire commonly called. These cost $1 
•licit, and are warranted to burn (100 hours. Experience shows that they ex- 
:ccd this somewhat. During the year 700 of these have been purchased. Total 
ixpense, $018.00. 

If Instead of a bulb it be a gas jet that is burned .128,1.72 hours, burning 
four feet per hour (and four-foot burners generally burn live or six feet per 
lour) the consumption of gas would be 1,7.72,008 feet per year. This at $1.00, 
.lie lowest price per 1,000 feet charged here, would cost, rejecting cents 
$2,028. At $2 per 1,000 feet the cost would be over $2,000. 


It was claimed that tlm Edison System was so compre¬ 
hensive and so flexiblo that it was capable of a practically in¬ 
definite expansion without becoming unworkable. This claim 
was disputed by other workers who maintained that the incan¬ 
descent method was only capable ol a limited expansion. In 
01'dor to establish their claim the Edison people determined 
upon making a few largo exhibitions on their own account 
with the expectation that tlioso would bo followed by regular 
undertakings in the same lino for the purpose of lighting ex¬ 
positions as a mutter of commercial business. 

Mr, Stieringor’s facts and figures speak volumes in support 
of the legitimate character of this branch of the Edison work, 
and their importance is still further emphasized by the fact 
that no otlior electrio light company in the world 1 ms as yet ovou 
essayod tho work of installing such largo plants, and distrib¬ 

uting over such large areas, not to speak of tlio minor details 
of regulation, uniform candlo-powor, moan effective illumina¬ 
tion per cniullo, etc., etc. 

Tho following are Mr. Stioringer's figures: 

Purls Electrical Exposition, 1881. 

Crystal Pulnco Electrical Exposition, Loudon, 1882. 

Manufacturers’ & Mechanics’ Institute, Boston, 1882.... 

Cincinnati Exposition, Cincinnati, 0., 1883. 

Chicago Exposition, Chicago, 111., 1873. 

Manufacturers* & Mechanics’ Institute, Boston, 188J. 

Southern Exposition, Louisville, Ky., 1883. 

Southern Exposition, Louisville, ICy., 1884 . 

Philadelphia Electrical Exhibit loti, Philadelphia, 1884.... 

World Expos 

)r leans, 1884, 1885.... 

With tho exception of tho Electrical Exhibition, and ono or 
two of the minor expositions, this lighting was a matter of 
contract with tho exposition authorities, and the Edison Com¬ 
pany realized a profit from eaeli and all of such contracts. 

Some facts of interest are appended in relation to tho cost 
and the amount of effective illumination obtained from tho 
Incandescent lamp por eandlo as compared with gas and the 
Are light. 

In Paris tho Edison light attracted groat attention, and re¬ 
ceived oulogistic comment from every sourco, because of its 
steadiness, purity and softness, and tho Edison system in its 
ontiroty commanded tho unqualified praise and first premium 
for its completeness. In London tho Edison exhibit was the 
acknowledged contro of attraction, becaitso of tho “happy ef¬ 
fects and results obtained” by the judicious disposition of the 

In Boston the light aoliioved a triumph over its eleotrio 
rival, the Are, in completely eolipsing tho latter in the work of 

lighting tho picture galleries, thus causing the ontiro abandon¬ 
ment of tho Arc, and tho substitution of tho Edison Incniulos- 
cent, producing a ehnractor of picturo gallery lighting never 
boforo obtained by artificial light. 

In Louisvillo, Ky., 1883, tho assortion was freoly made by 
gas mou, competing electric concorns, and other interested 
partios, that wo would “ fail misorably ” in tho work. Somo 
assorted that it would take “a million lamps." Tho nrca 
lighted by us was about 700,000 squaro foot, and comprohoml- 
od all departments of tho grout exposition, Main Exhibit 
Hall Machinery, Art Gallery, Music Hall, etc., oto. Most of 
this space was lighted offeetivoly by one 10-onndlo lamp por 
175 square foot, and nono loss than 00 square foot por lamp. 
That it was effectively and satisfactorily done may bo inferred 
from tho fact that tho contract was again awarded to us in 1884. 

In this year tho gas company bid for tho work, but thoir bid 
of 805,000 was naturally rejected in favor of ours, which was 
but 830,000. Tho groat disparity of those bids presents a start¬ 
ling anomaly. Tho younger lllunmmnt distancing the eldor by 
tho multiplication table in tho reverse ratio, whoroas by tho 
law of economy of industrial development, and by virtue of 
its o superiority it should ratlior lmvu boon distanced itsolf 
Tho action of tho Board of Eire Underwriters in signifying 
thoir unwillingness to insure tho exposition if gas was used; 
and subsequently insuring, wlion thu Edison light was used,’ 
convoys its own story. 

In Now Orleans, 1884, 1885, the only satisfactory lighting 
dono was by tho Edison Incandoscont. It was solocted for 
tho Administration Buildings, Tho Art Gallery, Tho Music 
Hall, and those places which subsequently proved to bo tho 
rendezvous for tho nmusomont-sooking patrons of tho great 
fair. Tho “ Arc ” lighting in tho othor portions of tho build¬ 
ing was practically discontinued for tho roason that it was not 
needed, thus showing that tho administration had selected 
tho Edison Incandescent for such places, as they anticinated 

aotual illumination would bo required, and introduced tho Arc 
as a temporary provision. 

Tho New Orleans Exposition afforded several very excellent 
opportunities for comparison between the Incandescent and 
Arc methods of electric illumination : 

In tho Main Building=l,541,800 sq. foot, tliero wore em¬ 

1,78G Edison 10-0. P. Lnmps=28,57C caudles, covering an 
aren of 210,125 sq. feot=l candlo por 7 J sq. feet. 

800 Louisiana Arc Lamps=2,000 C. P.=1,000,000 candles, 
covering 1,331,075 sq. feot=l} candlo por 1 sq. ft. 

In tho Government Building, area 024,873 sq. feet. 

885 Edison Lamps, 1G-C.=each, 14,100 candles, area 124,848 
sq. feot=l candle por 8^ sq. foot. 

300 Brash Arc Lamps=2,000-C. cach=000,000 candles, area 
500,025 sq. feot=l| candle per sq. foot. 

Other spaces showed an equal disproportion of effective 

Tho general effect at tho same time was decidedly in favor 
of tho Incandescent as compared with tho Arc. 


In tho suits wo have brought against (infringing companies, 
tho defondants have until tho first of July in which to file 
their answers to our bills of complaint. No development 
which will bo of interest to agents need bo expected until after 
that time. In one of the minor suits, however, an answer has 
beon filed, rofereuco to which is mado in the following letter 
from our attorney: 

New Yoke, Juno 1st, 1885. 

Edward H. Joiinbon, Esq.: 

Dead Sir—As yet but ono nnswer lins been filed to the bills of 
complaint In tho suits recently instituted by us. Tho answer discloses 


The Edison Electric Light 


The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting, 


New Souk, July 25,1885. 


The popularity of u liotol is dopoudout, not only on tlio ele¬ 
gance of its nppointmonts, mid tlio porfeotion of its service and 
cuisine, but also ou tlio appearance of brilliancy it presents. 

It is,'therefore, essential that the system of illumination 
used shall bo as nearly perfect as possible. There aro no 
means by which a hotel can be so well lighted ns by tlio Edison 
system of incandescent lighting. 

Tho brilliancy and steadiness of the Edison lamp makes 
it especially suitnblo for lighting tho halls and offices. 

The appearance of handsomely decorated corridors is 
greatly added to by the effect produced by this light, which 
may be made to form quite an important part of tho decora¬ 
tions themselves. 

In tho dining-room, where a very large spnee lias usually 
to be lighted, and whore a perfect diffusion of light is very 
desirable, tho comfort of the guests may be greatly added to 
by the adoption of the Edison system. 

Tho use of gas in this apartment is usually accompanied 
by a very unpleasant state of tho atmosphere, owing to the 
•very large number of burners which are, ns a rule, required 

to light tho room, and tho dilliculties of properly ventilating 
the apartment, which aro ordinarily groat, are largely inoroaHod 
in consequence. 

Moreover, instead of tho dining tallies being thoroughly 
lighted where gas is used, it is. to a great extent, olleetivo 
only m illuminating thu ceiling, a condition which docs not 
exist in the cnso of tho uso of tho Edison light, owing to 
the fact that the latter may he so arranged as to distribute 
the light in any desired direction. 

In the romling-l'opin tho electric light can be so arranged 
as to enable guests to read or write with tho aid of a lamp 
brought in close proximity to them. 

If such an arrangement is made with gas, the heat which it 
causes makes it very disagreeable to those using tho light, and, 
moreover, a gas jet cannot bo inverted so as to focus tho light 
on a desk or table, and it is impossible to get so effective an 
illumination as in the case of tho uso of tho Edison system. 

A drawing-room illuminated by the Edison system pre¬ 
sents a most cheerful and attractive appearance. 

The effect of handsome furniture is greatly augmented by 
its use, and the comfort of the guests is increased, as tho 
atmosphere remains pure. 

ihe uso of tho Edison system in bed chambers lessens 
greatly the chances of lire. 

J«o matches nrc required, and thore is an entiro abscnco of 
an exposed flame, which, in the ease of gas, is a frequent 
cause of danger to life and property, owing to the carolossnoss 
of guests in bringing the burner in close contact with inflam¬ 
mable material, or by the thoughtless disposition of tho 
matches used to light the gas. 

Moreover, death lias been frequently caused from suffoca¬ 
tion, by guests foolishly blowing out tho gas, instead of turn¬ 
ing it off, and consequently allowing tho gas to osenpo, nud 
tho poisonous atmosphere producod thoroby is inlmlod, and 
often with fatal results boforo tho troublo is discovered. 

The Edison light cannot bo blown out, it gives oft no 
poisonous gasos to vitiate the atmosphoro, and it is, therefore, 
pre-eminently adapted to all the purposes of hotel lighting. 

Probably in no part of a liotol is the mattor of illumina¬ 
tion of such importance ns in the billiard-room. 

Tho flickering light of a gas jot, tho shadows it easts, and 
tho heat it produces, ronder it a very undesirable light for tho 
billiard player. 

From the fact that tho light lias to bo brought so near 
tho billiard table, and tho brilliant illumination required, tho 
gnmo in tho summer bocomos moro a tnsk than a pleasure, ns 
tho heat produced is, ns a rule, quite unbearable. 

Whore tho Edison system is adopted, a billiard tablo can 
be perfectly illuminated in tho most brilliant manner possible, 
with a light which does not fliokor, which produces no 
shadows, and which is practically devoid of heat. 

Thus tho comfort of tlio billiard player can bo greatly 
added to, nud tlio billiard-room, instead of being empty in 
summer, owing to the boat from gas, can be made as remuner¬ 
ative as at otlior seasons of tho year. 

Moreover, it should bo borno in mind that the Edison 
light does not givo off any destructive properties, such as 
those produced by gns, which ruins decorations nnd add 
greatly to tho running expenses of tho hotel, by requiring 
frequent renovation. 

Furthermore, tho wnstofulnoss of servants can be held in 
check, ns tho lights of the whole hotel, or any part of it, can 
bo readily arranged so as to bo controlled from the office. 


Almost evory modem hotel and apartment house is fur¬ 
nished with elevators, pumps, steam heating and refrigerating 

.Under tlioso conditions an engineer is of courso re 
ami, inasmuch ns the exhaust steam from the engines 11 
operato tlio dynamos can he usoil for heating and otlu 
poses, it 1ms boon found, in actual practieo, that tlio 
for producing the electric light costs practically nothin). 

It has, therefore, been demonstrated that what in th 
stago of our enterprise was regarded as a great luxu 
now bceomo, especially in lnrgo hotels, a matter of ec 
and necessity. 

Special attention is cnllod to the Murray Hill Hi 
this city, which is one of tlio newest and finest hotels 
United States. 

In this most completely appointed establishment on 
of boilers is made to heat tlio building, operato the iflj 
for producing light, make all their ice. maintain their n 
ating apparatus for preserving meats, game, Ac , nil 
elevators, do nil their pumping, and, in short, do ovei 
that can bo dono in a building of this ehnraeter where 
is required. 

Where these conditions exist, it has boon found tl 
cost of the light has boon limited to interest on tlio 
mont, repairs and renewal of lamps, which three item 
bined have, in somo instances, not oxceeded an cquiva 
gas at forty cents per thousand foot. 

These most gratifying economical results, together w 
luxury of the light itself, have ensured tlio introduction 
light in all first-class hotels in tlio country, the only qi 
lioing ono of time. 


350 Edison Lamps. 

This olegnnt and commodious house is situated 
heart of tlio Adirondacks. two tlionsnnd f,.el nlmn n, 

rst hotel in the world lighted by -incandescent lights. - 
iuso lms n frontngo of 225 foet, facing north, with u 
uling 150 foot to tho south, nml surrounded with u 
foot wide. It contnins 2G0 largo, airy aud pleasant 

oim Is illuminated throughout by the Edison fiicun- 
<jht, being the first hotel in the world to introduce it 


Isolated Lighting, 05 Fifth A 

1’. City. 

s’—I believe the Prospect House was the lirst hotel in the world 
d by incandescent lights, 
n System was put in operation in October, 1881. 

in stating that although installed In the early stage of the 
worked with perfect satisfaction up to the present time. 

perfectly safe, economical, reliable, und in every way a 
o any other method of illumination In existence, and can most 
mmcml it as a perfect light for use in hotels. 

Yours, Ac., 

(Signed) F. 0. DURANT. 


tel, situated on Groon 
Island, near Bolton 
Landing, Lako Geor¬ 
ge, N. Y., is a beauti¬ 
ful and comfortable 
summer hotel, owned 
by somo wealthy 
Philadelphia gcntlo- 

This hotel was built 
early in 1883, and 
thoroughly equipped 
with the Edison sys¬ 
tem during its erec¬ 
tion. All of tho bed¬ 
rooms uro lighted, ns 
well as the parlors, 
offices, dining-rooms, 
halls, Ac. There arc 
about 400 lamps dis¬ 
tributed throughout 
tho building. In ad¬ 
dition to tho lighting 
in tho hotel, tho cur¬ 

rent is supplied to 

sovornl private cottages, located near by in th 

Tho illustration of tho -.Sagamore Hotel" 
readers an idea of the pleasures to bo derived 
life in this delightful region, as woll as the c 
await tho guests within, and tho following tei 
Mr. M. O. Brown, manager, attests to tho satis] 
ter of the Edison light: 

is mo lighted, and in addi 
n. Grant’s cottago, and 

portent faet to lio kopt i 
Is tlio Edison light is tlio 01 
i prove// reliable, and that 

irray Hill Hotel is locatoc 
ortioth to Forty-first stree 
without doubt the most i 
ttod hotel in tlio United S 
iro iiifit floor, including tli 
11s, corridors; cafe, billion 
niinatod throughout with i 
n annexed building on 

son lamps are attached to i 
lily finished and oxponsivi 
Plioiirs under advnntagooi 
ndings are additionally la 

m-U/lt dp mo / in l, 
l cupaeitu eleven hundred l 


Tho Hotol Everett is loented nt No. 84 G'lmtlmm stroot, 
w York City. 

A plant of ono engine, two dynamos and about 135-1G C. 
lamps was installed and started in March. 1882. in this 

Tho lights are distributed throughout the two largo ros- 
irants, kitchen, ladies’ and gouts’ parlors and olliccs, and also 
tho lmsomont. 

Mr. Everett was at onco satisfied that ho had mnde a good 
estmont in purchasing the Edison light, and after using it 
Jut a yoar gave us a most satisfactory testimonial of its 
rits in the shape of an order to install a plant in tho largo 
erott Hotol in Yesey street and extending through to Bar- 
y street. 

This installation comprises a large engine and two dynn- 
s and over 325-1G C. P. lamps. Tho dining-rooms, bar, 
ices, parlors, corridors, kitchen, Ac., are thoroughly lllu- 


This is a now and elegant family hotel of moderate size, ro- 
ltly opened. 

This building is lighted throughout with over 300 Edison 

Tho plant consists of nil engine and a 200-liglit dynamo. 

A now addition to this hotel has rocontly boon finished, and 
s is also lighted. 


700 Edison Lights. 

A largo ami elegantly fitted up addition to tl is oil 11 o i 
lotol lias liooii equipped for tlio Edison light. 

Iho reception rooms, parlors, offices, corridors, and dining 
ooms in tlio older portion aro now being wired. Tlio plant 
rented in tlio collnr of tlio main buildimr 

A plant of moderate i 
1882. Tlio main dining- 
pnntries nro lighted in a 

size was installed in this hotel in April, 
-room, offices, bar-room, laundry and 
most satisfactory manner. 

limit twonty-sovon private residences, ml of which havd boon 
wired for tho Edison systoie, providing for tho distribution of 
iiliout 2,500 additional lights. Wo thoroforo lmvo in tho above 
houses and tho Dakota Building a total wiring for upwards of 
10,000 lamps. Tho street conductors for supplying tho twenty* 
seven houses with current nro not yet in, so that our light is 
not being used in tbo bouses themselves. Tho fixtures are all 
put up and provided with sockets, and it is expected within a 
short time that tho streot mains will bo Inid and tho twenty- 
seven houses connected with tho dynamo station. This sta¬ 
tion is located in tho roar of tho Dakota Building, and when 
tho installation is completed it will be practically a “ central 
station," supplying 200 families. Both tho private houses and 
tho Dakota rank among tho very first buildings in the city for 
elegance of finish and substantial construction. 


Tins elegantly appointed restaurant, located in Beaver 
streot opposito tho now Produce Exchange, was originally lit 
by a Weston dynamo with Maxim lamps. Owing to tho un¬ 
satisfactory operation of tho apparatus, tho plant was thrown 
nit, an Edison dynamo purchased and tho entire restaurant 
iglited with Edison lamps. Tho Edison light has continued 
o give abundant satisfaction, tho plant was promptly paid 
or, and thu purity of the atniosphoro and tho quality of tho 
iglit comprise tho chief attraction of the plnco, which is daily 


1,700 Edison Lights. 

Just as wo are going to press, wo have closed a eo 
lighting Tho Osborno, now being completed on tho 
Seventh avenue and Fifty-seventh stroot in this c 
is ono of the largest and best appointed apartment 
tho city, no oxponso having been spared to make 
thins exceed anything of tho kind in tho United 8 
tho adoption of the Edison system has been tho r 
thorough and intelligent examination of every knot 
of lighting. Tho entire building will bo lighted tl 
with about 1,700 Edison lamps, of which not the 
vantage will be the saving of decorations, which ai 
tho most elegant and costly character. 

Wo have given above sketches of tho principal i 
apartment houses now lighted by tho Edison sysl 
list of which will bo found on another page. 


Tlio full statistics have never been writtun on this subject, 
but nlmost every hotel proprietor bus lmtl bis own oxpori- 

Tbo following notes lmvo been gathered from time to tillin' 
during the past three years : 

Charles Neinmn, Baltimore, was found insensible in his 
room, which was Idled with escaping gas. 

Christine Korswurm was found unconscious in bed at 215 
Canal St., New York City, the room being Idled with gas es¬ 
caping from ah unlighlcd burner. 

Charles Kuhn was found 1 i ill his room at the 

Van Dyke /funse, iVew York Oily, the gas being turned on, but 
not lighted. 

A young woman named Hanson, was found unconscious in 
her room at a hotel in Waterbary, Conn., having blown out 
the gas when she retired the previous night. 

Carl Witte, Henry Gilsick and Herman Leinoster wore 
found unconscious in the room occupied by them at the C'ot- 
teye /Veen If del, Yew York City, having been asphyxiated by 
escaping gas. They were removed to the hospital. 

Two young girls were recently found dead ill their bed at 
5!)l) Third Ave., New York. There were two gas jets in the 
room, and probably both jots had been turned on in the dark¬ 
ness aud only ono had been lighted. The oscapo of gas from 
the other jet caused tlio deaths. 

Tlio Chicago “ Tribune " stated that Sir. Downing Yaux has 
buon seriously ill in consequence of gas-poisoning. Thu gas 
in his room was loft burning low at night and a pul! of wind 
extinguished it. For some time tlio injury was thought to bo 

Thomas 0. Hoagland, a traveling agent of a Nuw York 

wholesale warehouse, was found in his room at tlio 
Horno, Dover, A T . If, asphyxiated by oscaping gas. 

John Wolke, of Ui) West street, Now York City, i 
in his room in an unconscious condition. The gas w 

A man named Fernowsky was found in bed inson 
hotel, No. ill) Bowery, New York City, the room lie 
with gas escaping from a defective pipe. Hu was n 
a hospital, where lie subsequently died. 

W. S. Lawrence was found (load ill bed at til 
//ohm, !(th Are. anil .Itlth HI., New York City, having 
located by illuminating gas with which the room was 

Luther Titckor was found sutlocated to death by 
Klin/nill /finite, Dover, Mum. 

Mr. Josupli A. Stafford, of Queen Anne’s Co 
found in bed in an unconscious condition in lib 
Denvh’n Ifotel, So. If mat!way. Halt., 'iff, from the 
inhaling gas, which it is supposed lie blew out i 
turning oil'. 

William Tolanil was stopping at the W’ashhu 
Batavia, A'. .I". A chambermaid passing through tl 
noticed a strong smell of gas coming from Toland’s l 
was aroused and seemed to be very little olVocted. 
the day, however, the poison he had inhaled made 
ill, and the services of a physician were called into r 

Mr. E. O. Kuliev was found in bed in his roi 
Southern Central I fold, Baltimore, having boon soil 
illuminating gas which was escaping from an open 
the room. • 

■\v. P. Winfield was found dead in his room at tli 
/finite, fni/ianapo/ie, /nil., the room being filled with 
was oscaping from the lixturo. 

Albert Taft, of Burlington, Ky., was found dead 
having boon suffocated by gas which had oscapod fi 
perfect fixturo. 

Snndford Shoridon and Goorgo Smith woro found uncon¬ 
scious in bed at the Van Dyke House, Hew York City, tho room 
boing filled with illumimiting gas. 

William Monkin and bis wife arrived in this city by Cunard 
stonmor, “ Batavia,” registered at the Foyle Hotel, Morris St., 
and retired. About noon next day they wore called, but no 
answer being recoivud, the door was broken in and they were 
found m hud insensible. Aliu apartment was tilled with gas 
which was streaming from the burner. Both died within two 
days from the effects. 

A guest who arrived at French's Hotel registered as It. 1\ 
Covert, Providence, It. I., retired to bed late in the uvoning. 
About noon an employee of the liotul found him insensible. 
Medical aid was summoned, but tho man died at one o'clock 
P. M. Death was attributed to suffocation by gas. 

Tho Now York “ Times " contains an itum to tho olfoct that 
John Haiti, a Chinaman, blow out tho gas in a room he occu¬ 
pied in tho Van Dyke House, and 1m was found duud, from tho 
effects of escaping gas, in tho morning. 

Mrs. Annie Stadcnmycr, of Newark, N. .T., was found in her 
bed at Hut tmuiui's Hotel ,.}?' / toirery, Heir York City, Uncon¬ 
scious and apparently lifeless. Tho room was filled with gas, 
which was escaping from tlm two jets of tlm centre elmndalior. 
It was stated she could not rocovor. 

H. P. Keys, of Hillsboro, Pa., was found m a dying condi¬ 
tion in his room at tlm Valentine House, Washinyton, l\t. T'lm 
room was filled with gas. 

A mail giving his name as .Tack Stiles, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
was found doad in lied at tlm Unitetl States Hotel, jYcichu rjh, 
N. Y., suffocated by gas which was turned on in tho room^ 

Hiram Tucker, of Boston, was found dead in his room suf¬ 
focated by gns. 

Daniel .T. Loamy was found dead at No. 48 Chatham stropt, 
Now York City, having been suffocated by gus which had 
leaked from dofoctivo gus nino in his bedroom. 

Richard McGrann was found in his bedroom at tho City 
Hotel, Lancaster, Pa., unconscious, tho room boing filled with 
gns which was flowing from tho burner. 

Jamos McGrath and wifo woro found insensible in bod at a 
hotol in Scranton, Pa., tho room being filled with escaping gas. 
It was said by tho doctors that Mrs. McGrath could not livo. 

Stewart Vanderbilt was found unconscious in his room at 
tho Corner House, Fusion, Pa., having boon ovorcomo by 
oscaping gns. His roeovory was unoortain. 

Lowis McCann and wifo woro found doad in bod at tho 
Astor Place Hotel. Tlioy had ovidontly boon suffocated by tho 
gas, which wns turned on. 

Jacob Ostorhoudt, of Rosondalo, wns found snffoentod in 
his bod at tho Mansion House, having blown out tho gns upon 

0. D. Millor wns found in a dying stato on his bod in tho 
Cosniojiolitan. Hotel, Hew York City, sufloring from asphvxia. 
caused by inhaling gns, and tho gas was found turned on. 

Emma Strauss was found dead in hor room at No. 00 Cort- 
landt street, in this city, tho room being filled with illumi¬ 
nating gas. It is supposed she blow out the gas boforo retir¬ 

Thoodoro Hosky and William Husky woro found doad in 
bod in tlioir room at tho Annex Hotel, Jirooklyn, having boon 
suffocated from gas with which tho room was filled. Tho gns 
wns not turned off. 

Tho foregoing records show how it’s dono and nro facts 
which spook for thomsolvos. In addition to tho above wo ro- 
eord a few moro liamos without going into details : 

R. E. Stilwoll, North Rivor Hotol, N. Y. 

T. Colomnn, Putnam Houso, N. Y. 

J. Ralm, Control Hotol, N. Y. 

H. Knapp, Control Hotol, N. Y. 

J. McCarty, Grand Union Hotol, N. Y. 

Rev. A. Groon, Hnmilton Houso, N. Y. 

Tin 0 E " )1 ‘ l,0rg0r ’ Union Hotel, X. Y. 

Longi.ty, Pntiimn ,is " ,sim " simi ’” & 

H a Durum], Occidental Hotel, N. y 
H H. Stryker, Bridge Hotel, N. y 
3v."i,i,i, T| 10I11 II h, Van Dyke House, N. Y 
,' S ' Hotteniotli, Bowery Hotel N. Y 

N.Y," 10 ' ° V<Jn01 Hl ' JOiiU,,, * ilm Pnr «»‘. Sturtovant House, 

negation of Indians, Washington,]}. C . 

A. H. ] an Hfpor, Break, iuss, Passaic V T 7> • „ 

H. Maclear, 25!) Monltro„„„„ , , ' ' ’ ’’ 1 ,lf!HIU0 Hotel, 

Hotel, ° Htr0ut > ' Tu ««J City, No. Hirer 

A. E. Stowe, Saratoga, N. Y 


1V1KU01V COSHES SET ox miie m , 0AS raTS 

A Shout Bhcoiid or D.vji,y Occuiiiikncijs. 


A «ro was caused by u jj* " ‘ M ?'* . jut ' Hanmgo, $200. 

Yorfc City, oausing'l'tirowkL" Tl ^ C,r ° 0i ‘° St- ’ Now 
over $500. h dM tlam "g“ to tlio amount oi 

At 2388 Third Avo., N.Y . 

tho window of Garnett Cohen eo ; ° nH ’ i0 ‘ 1 ^ a S“« jot in 

Tlio window eurtuins in i i contne t with goods. 

bedroom in the residence of Mr. 

burry St., N. J., came in contact with a lighted gas jot. Tho 
result was a lire and loss of $100. 

At 45 Nassau St., Brooklyn, N. Y., a window curtain camo 
in contnet with a lighted gas jut, causing a tiro and daningo to 
tlio nmonnt of $200. 

Goods in the window of W. H. L. >Tonos & Co., 330 Eighth 
Am, N. Y., caught lire from a gas jot, doing damage to amount 
of $100. 

A window curtain coming in contact with a gas jot caused 
a tiro at 100 East 70th St., N. Y. 

A firo occurred March 8tli, at 30 Prospect Place, Brooklyn, 
by a window curtain coming in contact witli a gas jet. 

’Window curtains catching firo from a gas jut unused somo 
slight damage at 208 East 48th St., N. Y. 

A lighted gas jot sot firo to a curtain at 108 Fourth Avo., 
Brooklyn, N. Y., doing damago to tho oxtont of $100. 

Two fires woro caused at 81 Fourth St. and 48 Garden 
Place, Brooklyn, N. Y., by window curtains coming in contact 
with gas jots. 

A firo occurred at 135 Bedford Avo., Brooklyn, caused by a 
curtain coming in contnet with a lighted gas jot. 


A series of violent explosions oceuiTeil in tins oust lmsoinont 
f tliu J'ahtce //ulel, .S' 'uii Frum-hm, which were followed by a 
olumo of ilnmts pouring into the struct from tins plueo in tlio 
dowalk wheel! light was mlinittnil into tins vault through 
latus of tliiuk glass. The eause of those explosions was the 
l eaking in two of an eight inoli gas main while some phiin- 
urs were connecting a pipe with tliu l,. r >0l) light gas meter 
liieli had just boon plaeed in position. The escaping gas had 
initial and exploded with great force, shattering to atoms the 
lick glass plates over the vault. Part of tliu meter, which 
as of three-quarter inch iron, was also blown to fragments, 
ho volume of flame from the ignited gas was very great, and 
nt for the prompt action of the firemen, would prohnhly lmvo 
mo great damage to the hotel. Twenty-four persons woro 
jural, most of them lmilly, and three or four dangerously. 

While till! gas was being drawn oil from a tank at a hotel 

‘Wbodslmry, an explosion occurred, by which several por- 
ms were injured, and property worth $5,000 was destroyed. 

A leaky gas pipe in a restaurant in Buffalo caused an ox- 
osion, wliorohy four porsons woro badly injured, and the 
aiding and contents damaged. 

Gas escaping from a leaky motor in Moyor’s saloon, Chicago, 
light fire and exploded, blowing out the front windows of the 
loon, and severely burning tlio proprietor. 

An explosion of gas in Hollander's Bostaurant, Now York 
ty, injured two mon and caused dainago to tlio amount of 
100 . 

Escaping gas at the Union Club House, Chicago, caused an 
plosion and daningo to tlio amount of $500. 

Bulletin for Agents 



New Youk, August in, 188o. 


Since Juno 2d wo lmvo closed -13 contracts, for isolutec' 
plants, aggregating 11,7(13 lamps. The Western Edisoi 
Light Co. have installed 11 isolated plants of 3,(173 lamps 
capacity. In addition to this wo arc installing 7 contra 
stations with capacity for 8,300 lamps, making a gram' 
total of 23,730 lumps. The business for the month of July 
oxceoda that of any previous mouth in the company’s his¬ 
tory. In view „f the fact that summer is generally a dull 
season for our business, and the furtlior fact that wo have 
had to contond against unscrupulous competition and false 
assurances on the part of contending companies, this show¬ 
ing reflects great credit on our agents, and is poworful evi¬ 
dence of the merits of the Edison system, l’lio following is 
a list of the isolated plants contracted for: 



Eurly in July tliu Edison Electric Illiiiniimting Company 
of Now Voile declared n quarterly dividend of ono per cent'., 
wliioli was paid August 1st. Tlio company having pat in 
its increased plant and lining entirely fruo from floating 
debt, will continue to pay regular quarterly dividends 
nggreguting 0 or (i per cent, per annum on its present 
uxeessive capital stock. This announcoment is specially 
dgnilicant when it is remembered that the station could bo 
luplicated on one-half of its present capitalization, which 
"°uld make our present 1 m 1 Is f oi LO to 12 pur cent. 
>er annum, notwithstanding the iioor character of the 
listrict lighted, owing to the absence of night lighting. The 
aisincss of the company has never boon in moro prosperous 
lomlition, the entire capacity of tlio increased plant has 
loon taken up, and wo have been obliged to refuse a largo 
lumber of additional applicants for the light. 


During the early history of tlio Edison Electric Illunii- 
mting Company, of New York, wo were made the subject 
1 frequent criticisms and sarcastic remarks in the columns 
f the Now York “Sun.” that hmn.r Hi,. in.,,.,,..! 

business progressed, however, their comments gradu, 
changed in tone, until finally tho entire promises of the > 
York “ Sun” wore lighted from our central station. 

While this action in itself attests the progressive man 
of the “ Su i agomont, tlio foil D 1 to 1 1 
appeared in its columns on July 20th, entirely unsoliei 
by us, bears evidence of a very gratifying spirit of apprcc 
tion, nml will be interesting to our agents: 

“Tlio UdlKun Klcctrlc Iltuiiitnnttiig Ci.inpiuiy, which opcrulcs the c 

trie light station at 8.17 Pearl street, ..ounces a quarterly dividend , 

per com., payable August 1. This, we believe, Is the llrst .llvhleml 
10,1 ' 1 s llLl lr 1 111 gl h has been supplying light to euslom 

for marly three years. Considering the money, labor ami Ingenuity 
pended, and tbe risk of loss Incurred, the proliis of the enterprise In 
bus far been very meagre, but no doubt the worst has been passed, a 
hereafter greater prosperity may be expected. 

“ 1,1 wI " 1 °"‘ m ''-I'" «»■> its light, we have been enllrelv ct 

. .. . '»»' - | f'«ii"fs» »f this company's services, and t 

comfort our employees have experienced during hot weather in being i 
Heved of the hi,me of gas Is of Itself,, sulllclent compensation for the shg 
excess of the cost of the light over that of gas." 

Tlio allusion to “ the slight excess of the cost of the ligl 
over that of gas" is conclusive evidenco that there is vot 
little difference between out- price, which is supposed to l 
an equivalent of gas at $2.25, and tho present price charge 
by tho gas company to large consumers, viz.: $1.50 pt 
thousand feut. 1 


About a your ago tho Treasury Department in Washing 
ton invited proposals for lighting the United States Custo. 
House and Post Office in Chicago The contract wn 
awarded to the United States Electric Lighting Company a 
the lowest bidder. The U. S. Co. used every possible offer 
to make tho plant a model one to tho oxtout of their know! 

in the onttro City of Lawrence, replacing 5!)2 gas n „ (1 oiI 
"™ ™ Ut ° A 11,0 limits, besides erecting 25 

! ll!mto t ta 7" 1,1,1008 “ S th ° City «° V0I '""“ ! " t muy 

esignnto I he contract m nnulo for a period of five years, 

1 pl0 . Vld “ S t,mt tl,u cn,,, P«ny shall retain control of the 
wire and other property placed by them, and shall light and 
‘• the lam,*, and maintain the same without addi¬ 
tional charge to the city. The price to he paid to the Law¬ 
rence Company is $,,50 per month. The Lawrence Gas 
-onipany.instituted a vigorous opposition, their price being 
;e0 below that of the Edison Company, and tlieir tondot 
i" iiacing additional inducements to the city: 150 of the 
limps wore to be provided with 1-feet burners, and the bal- 
er ino'ntl'" ,lm,urK ' 1,10 g,,s com l>any , s bid was $500 

The Aide, men, without a dissenting vote, agreed to accept 
m proposition of the Edison Company, and the Common 

Although the Lawrence Company is selling the light to 

,:;v:rr r "^ ,it a pn ™ c<,,iai tn « ,,s ^ p«r ti.o..- 

< .they are earning and paying regular dividends at 
e into of six per cent, per annum, besides accumulating a 
rp us, notwithstanding the low price they are obtaining 
■ei. product. Their energy and good management are 
O-much to bo, o ,11 13 ,, Cling the t 

• lighting, they have connected with their station some 20 
•tors; they are supplying current for the regulation of 
cKs, and their exhaust steani is sold for heating and other 


NO. S. 

Bulletin for Agents 



Nkw Yoiik, Seitemiier 15,1S85. 


Ono hundred and fiflv Edison lumps were recently in¬ 
stalled in tho offices of the Great Northwestern Telegraph 
Company in Montreal. The General Manager of tho com¬ 
pany in Toronto, in writing to a friend in New York, under 
date of August 20th, encloses telegram received from Mon¬ 
treal as follows: 

"low lumps worked like a cliiirm all laal night. Will arrange to keep 
nmchlmiry going night ami day soon. 

Tim following is an extract from the letter enclosing tho 



not more goncrnlly adopted. Tlicro must bo some reason for tills which 
Is not apparent. Wo have now had the lights hero In operation over six 
months anil only throe lamps have given out from natural causes and lmd 
to he replaced In our operating room, where, ns you know, they are used 
such long hours. I conlldontly expect our Montreal experience will he 
equally satisfactory, My own confident anticipations have so far been 
more than realized. 


Ill October, 1881, umlcr authority from tho Board of 
Public Works of tiie City of Cincinnati, the Superintendent 
of the Water Works Department advertised for proposals to 
light tho Front Street Pumping Works with menndescont 
electric light. In response to tho advertisement four bids 
were received. Thu Brush Electric Light Co., being tho 
lowest bidder, their bid being 88,02!) for a 150-20 C. P. in¬ 
candescent electric light plant, was awarded tho contract. 

They installed the plant and turned on tho light about 
November 15th, subject to a trial of ninety days. 

The following article appeared in the “ Cincinnati En¬ 
quirer,” February Kith, 1885: 


A Muter tlmt Faithfully, the, whether tla. I. 
lined or Nut. 

The finish Electric Light Company sent In a bill for one lfiO-Hglit 

d c Pi l 11 1 tl 1 t,:g.|.ouso for 

Accompanying tills was a communication calling nttention to tho 

for tlio quarter omliii" .Tmio iiOtli, 1885, to lmvo boon 1,104 
hours t>y actual count. Tins maximum life of any one lump 
was found in a 10-uandlo lamp,'which lasted 4,885 hours of 
actual burning. During this quarter the plant was in op¬ 
eration eighty-two days, averaging twolvu hours and six 
minutes per day, and since September 18th, 1888, tho plant 
has been operated 8,81154 hours, or 84!) days 10J hours. Of 
tho lamps broken, eight wore broken through carolossnoss 
of tho crow. The rupnrt further states that no lamps wore 
broken by reason of tho jar during target prnoticu. This is' 
a contingency that has been found very difficult to provide 
against, but the best ovidonco of our success in this direc¬ 
tion is the report quoted above. 


Tho local Edison Illuminating Company, in West Chester, 
Pa,, are about completing their station, and have just suc¬ 
ceeded in making a contract with tho municipal authorities 
for lighting the streets of that town with 10-eandlo lamps. 
This contract was secured in spite of tho bittorost opposi¬ 
tion from tho Gas Company, during which tho latter re¬ 
duced their bid about fifty per eont. from' their former 
price, which former prioo they had always claimed to bo as 
low as it was possiblo for them to supply tho gns without 
incurring financial loss. Onu of the couucilmon of West 
Chestor wrote to tlio Chief Burgess of Bellofonto,Pa.,usking 
information in regard to tho success of lighting tho streets 
of Bellefouto by incandescent lamps, and received tho fol- 

null!, If liny. Till! contract limy call for twenty-eight 13's and eighteen 10's 
instead of Uvcnly-fonr 10's and twenty-two Ill's. 

Itis by practical cxpoi'ionco of this olmriiutor tlmt arc liglits 
tiro gradually being displaced ovon in stroots wliovo tlioy lmvo 
gcnovnlly boon supposed tooconpynnnmlisputoilliold. Intlio 
Hovoritl oitios whore tho stroots tiro now lighted by tho Edison 
incuudoscont lamp it lias boon proved beyond nil possibility of 
doubt that tho bettor distribution obtained by tho uso of tho 
Edison lamp insures far greater economy than with nro light¬ 
ing, anti owing to tho facility with which the lamps nro con¬ 
trolled, they are oven cheaper than gas. 


An erroneous intpressiun seems to prevail that it is impos¬ 
sible to place tho same dependence upon tho incandescent light 
from a central station ns isgonorally placed upon a supply of 
gas from an ordinary gas works. An intelligent examination of 
statistics of gas companies will satisfy any one that tho rovorso 
is the ease. In almostuvery small city or town it is a well-known 
fact that the supply of gas occasionally gives out'from one 
cause of another, and ovon in this city, before tho ndvont of 
electric lighting, largo nowspapor eoncoms ami others similarly 
circumstanced, have always kopt a supply of tallow candles to 
servo in ease of a failure of gas. Some years ngo tho supply of 
gas in Now York did fail ono night, and tho Now York 
“ Herald" appoarod ns usual tho following morning, having 
previously supplied itself with candles. 

An Edison station, on tho other hand, is ns nearly infal¬ 
lible hi respect of reliability ns human knowledge and fore¬ 

down by this company. A knowledge of this fact is grndi 
ally but surely inspiring confidoneo in tho mind of tl 
public where the Edison central station system exists, in 
consumers who formerly were afraid to give up their gi 
for want of confidence in the continual supply of electric! 
now rocoinmend its reliability, and their objections at 

Tho following itom from tho Troy “Times,” of Soptombi 
7tb, disproves the generally supposed infallibility of a gt 
plant, oven in so largo a city us Troy : 

Tito gits was maidenly extinguished In ninny stores In the city on S« 
nrtlay night. Somu storekeepers used very emplmtlc liingnnge. nml tl 
lilnu streaks servetl tor lllnnihmtlng purposes until the supply of hydrogi 
wus sufllclcnt to penult the transect ion of business. 

Not alone docs an Edison central station provu its relit 
bility in furnishing current for lighting, but for moti\ 
power and other uses it is equally satisfactory, as tho fo 
lowing oxtmet from the Lawrence “ Daily American" < 
July 8th, 1885, shows : 

Printing by Electricity. 

Ono year ngo the Edison Electric Light Conipnny placed In tl 
" American" cilice one of their motors, and connected it with the 
works on Common street. The big holt was lemoved from the drlvln 
wheel of our steam engine mid put upon the little electric motor, and tl 
entire power to drive all the newspaper, book and job presses, elcvnto 
etc., of the "Ainerlcnn has smeu been uninterruptedly furnished li 
electricity. The tires then permitted to go out under the steam boili 
have not since been relighted, nor has there licen the slightest loss or stl 
pension of the full power required from that day to this. 

The “ American " was the llrsl dally newspaper In the world to l 
printed by electricity, nml, after a year’s trial, wc consider It the inoi 
uuvarvhnr and satisfactory power wc liuvc ever used. 

O'J'F,. Tho oleutric light iibovo reforroil to by Mr. Minor 
Unit of tlio United States Electric Lighting Co. (ho called 
itou system). Sineo that time Mr. Minor has shown his 
ness sagacity by having his throe New York theatres 
ifactorily lighted by upwards of fifteen hundred Edi- 

Noth. The Third Avenue Theatre is another instance c 
the folly of dealing with experimenting oleetno lightiu 
companies. It is now lighted successfully by an Eisoi 

Thu Inst mnmigor seen was .Mr. Klrnlfy at the Star Theatre, during th 
lierforiaauce of Hielin." “ Tho electric light," he saltl, “ I have S00 not 
on the stage la the ImnsforinnLlon scene. There is no limit to the stiirtlln, 
ami duzr.lingcITuuls that may he produced hy such means. If every thcatr 
that we went to had It I would not he obliged to carry my electric llgli 
machine nhout the country with me. lint It is only u question of tint 
when they must all use it. It Is the llrst step that cobIs. After that titer 
Is no question but that it Is cheapertluin gas In every way." 1 

Noth. This rotors to mi Edison plant. 

Tho St. Louis Daily Giobo-Demoorat of Soptombor 8th 
1885, prints tho following regarding tho lighting of Popo’s 
Thoatro in St. Louis, Mo., by tho Edison system : 


uhemiiin National Theatre, Prague, is in true 
eo style. Its eost was 9,100,000 florins. It is a 
atro. The arrangements for tho prevention of fire 
s safety of tlio audience in ease of such an evont are 
The lting Theatre eutastropho in Vienna and tho 
t this theatre to the ground when lirst completed, 
aide tho necessity of such precaution very ovulont. 
i work, roof, and stage are entirely of iron. The 
■nine parts of the scenery nro of wood, hut these 
•ed as nearly fireproof as possible by saturation 
roof material. Tho stage is provided with an iron 
nsisting of two parts, the one half descending and 
rising, thus making its manipulation more rapid, 
tin is rolled up from various parts of tho liouso by 
'. Tho stngo machinery oceupies tlneo stories bo¬ 
ngo. Thu theatre is heated by steam. Its vonti- 
lerfeet. It is lighted by the Edison oloctric lamp, 
in all 2,500 lights largo mid small. One row of 
worth noting. There are apparently 160 large 
in filigree gold round tho ceiling. Tho half triuis- 
,ss has a porfoct pearl tint. In case of fire tho whole 
bo flooded from above. 


Tlio grout (lifloronoo botwoon tbo sun atitl artificial light is 
duo to tlio foot that, of tlio light omittod from tho former 
nbout lmlf tho quantity of mys nro luminous nnd calorific nt 
tlio Hinno time, but as regards our artificial light, for ordinary 
oil tlio amount of lion-luminous, yot caloric rays, is ninety 
1'cr cent.; for whito-hot platinum, ninoty-oight per cent. ; 
alcohol ilamo, niiioty-nino por cont.; olootric light, oighty 
por cent.; nnd gas light, ninety por cont.; while for petro¬ 
leum and parnfiino oil, tho amount is ninety-four per cont. 
It is this largo quantity of caloric rays in artificial light 
which causes fntiguo to tho oyes; but this inconvonionce is 
almost entirely obviated by intercepting tho tliormie rays 
through tlio glass enclosing tho incandescent filament of an 
Edison lamp. This renders tho light soft and agreeable to 



No. 9. 

Bulletin for Agents. 



New York, October 1C, 1885. 


In Bulletin No. 8 wo printed correspondence relative to 
tlie utter failure of the Brush-Swan system at the Cincinnati 
Water Works. We supplement this with a proposition made 
by the Ohio Edison Installation Company, showing the dif¬ 
ficulty of again opening up negotiations whore a bad bargain 
had been previously ofl'oeted. This communication has up 
to date received no reply. The following is a copy: 

To THE Board of Puiilio Works, Cincinnati, O.: 

lighting of the' Witter Works by the incandescent electric light lias been 
adjudged impracticable by the Superintendent, and that gas ia regarded as 

tion of gns arc correct, viz., about $1,000 per ycor, we would respectfully 
take issue with your honorable Board and the respected Superintendent 

Iiich is perfectly satisfactory. 

G. Chnfl’nngin, of Hoboken, N. J., manufacturer of silks, 
irehnsed about two years ago a United States Electrio 
iglit Co.’s plant, under full guarantees, for tlie purpose of 
jhtiug bis mill. Aftor two years’ trial it was found to 
01-k so unsatisfactorily that Mr. Cbaffangin stopped oxpor- 
lonting and purchased an Edison plant of 260 sixteen- 
mdlo lamps to displace this highly guaranteed installation. 


Messrs. Mitcholl A Sparling, civil and mechanical engin- 
irs, Seattle, IV. T., desiring to ascertain from the Des 

Tlio following ooi ltBi i loi to will explain itself 


Geo. II. Him, Km,., Gon'l Supt.: 

Dkah Silt—I started up the GOO Edison light ptunt for llio Pill 
nt ailnneupoIlH, Minn., on thu »d of Muroli, and every one 
pleased at the result. After slaying there two weeks I failed 
least dissatisfaction among the men who were working by the II 
A Mill In particular, where on live tlonrs I had 188 lamps, the, 
ablcd to and did eat out of circoll all the Brush arc lamps In u 
lloors (some thirty lamps), and the men were i <1 r] I « 

way, the lloors being much belter lighted in all parts than 

Mr. F. Fillfiljury was anxious to do away with the arc lain) 
but on one lloor where there was both arc and U. S. incandes 
the U. S. lamps were unsatisfactory for the men, and in consc 
Brush dynamo is still kept running. 

The man iu charge of the dynamos cannot say too much i 

our installation. lie says that in every particular our system 
to their U. S. installation; the cutouts, switches, lamps, sockets 
and adjustments being far ahead of anything he has seen yet. 
presses it, “ Everything about the United States plant is in a 1 
state,” which I must say is very true indeed. 

Yours truly, 




Man. 21, 1885. 

t report made by H. *V\ r . Leonard for Central 
motors, at Toledo, Ohio. 

ion lias always boon hold up by the United States 
i one of thoir best efforts. Pains liavo been taken 
s a thoroughly reliable report: 


from one engine to the other in case of accident to cither 5 60 arc lamps in 
circuit. One arc light dynamo operating 160 incandcscents in multiple 
series, six groups, 86 lamps in each group, no key sockets, no automatic 
shunts. Two dynamos for operating incnndcsccnt lamps In multiple arc, 
running two separate and entirely distinct circuits. No means of connect¬ 
ing up in ense of accident to cither machine. Ono circuit out for five 
days on one occasion through the burning out of armature. One circuit 
had 231 lamps connected, the other circuit 175. Mains ran direct from 
station without uny means of equalizing pressure through the circuit; 8 
No. 0 wires fed the circuit of 281 lamps, and 0 No. 0 wires fed the circuit 
of 176 lamps. Candle-power in machine room—about 80 candles—at tho 
end of circuit 1,000 feet away nbout, 8 candles. No cutouts, motors, in¬ 
dicators, feeders, feeder equalizers, ainp&rc meters, ground detectors, or 
any apparatus whatever giving information about the operation of the 

The so-called automatic dynamos hud rheostat in field circuit, which 
was varied from its full range during the course of the evening. Lamps 
almost entirely ill saloons, and never turned oil. Lights up with starting 
of machines at 0 P. M., and stops with engine at 12 M., September, 1885. 


Tho United States Electric Light Company contracted to 
install mi electric light plant in this building and have it 
running by April 1st, 1885. An inspection made on Sep¬ 
tember 25th, 1885, shows no lights running and but a small 
portion of tho wiring finished, with gas burning everywhere 
in tho building. This is an instnuco of the dispatch with 
which tho guarantees of the above company are fulfilled. 


Ill our last issue we published a clipping from the New 
York “ Tribune ” of September, 1884, giving a description of 
tho absolute failure of Brush storago batteries to light the 

Third Avenue Thontru, Now York City. Tiio following ox. 
tract from tlio Now York “Elootrioal Boview/’.Soptemboi 
20th, 1885, allows to wlmt extent the 12diaon system of light- 

reappears as light and heat rospoetivoly. In these experi¬ 
ments tlio heat evolved from tho lamps was ascertained 
by registering tho rise in temperature of a woiglit of water 
in which they were immersed for a stated time. The 
pliotometrical measurements wore made by the aid of Von 
Hofnor-Alteneck’s normal flame. Tho illuminating power 
of tho various lamps experimented upon was recorded while 
they were immersed in water ns well ns when hanging in 

air, the loss of light in the former case being from one 
twenty-fifth to one-eighth with different lamps. As tho re 
suit of Herr Ponkort’s examination, it nppoars that in one o 
Siemens ami Halsko’s 8-eamlle ineamleseont lamiis, 74 po , 
cent, of tho total work of tho ourront was lost as heat, while 
20 per cent, was represented hy the light omitted. ’ With 
Edison’s 10-oandle lamp, 00 per eeut. of tho current was re¬ 
turned as heat, and 34 per cent, as light. In .Swan’s 30- 
candle lamp, 72 per cent, of tho current was transformed in¬ 
to heat, and 28 per .(teat, into light. 




Messrs. 13. Verity it Sons, of Covent Garden, liavo oh- 
lamed the eontraet for the whole of the oleetrie lighting al 
tlio new Constitutional Club next to the Grand Hotol 
Northumberland avenue. Thera are to ho over 700 lamps in 
dl, and the nmehinerv being in eompleteduplieato, the total 
•npueity of the entire plant will he 1,500 lumps. High 
ipeed engines and the newest type of Edison dynamo nm- 
diines, made in New York, will ho used. Spoeial doublo- 
lole safety blocks in earthenware will he used for this in- 

As further evidence of tho liability to fnilm 
roferonoo to which was mndo in our last issm 
extracts will bo found interesting : 

have decided to Increase their capital stock from $00,000 to $100,000 and 
to change the mune to Edison Liglit Company of Jackson. The School 
for the Blind at Lansing has adopted this plan, and it will he used hi the 
new Insane Asylum at Traverse City. It has no explosive characteristics, 
its entire safety hi this respect being shown by the fact that It is already 
adopted in several extensive powder mills and magazines. It is the same, 
summer and winter, is the natural light for the eye, and as applicable to 
outside ns to Inside illumination. The one question, will it pay a fair i»- 
tcrest on the investment, seems to he satisfactorily answered wherever U 
has been tried, hut we shall defer that point for a further article. The 
name of the company organized hi tills city Is “ The Edison Electric Il¬ 
luminating Company of Saginaw,” and Ezra Bust, the Instigator, who 
makes no mistakes in business calculations, or ex-Governor Jerome,who is 
heartily in accord with Mr. Bust in advocating ami supporting the project, 
can either of them make intelligent answer hi regard to any ami every 
point raised by those who desire to give this matter the careful and thor¬ 
ough investigation to which It is entitled. 

Among the many varied uses of nu Edition dynamo, its 
application to telegraphy lias found successful plaeomoiit 
for two mucliinos of 100 amperes 125 volts at the Ainorieau 
District service, Now York City, ono at Philadelphia of 100 
amperes 100 volts, and throe nt Chicago of 200 volts 100 
amperes capacity for the Field stock tickers. Eugene 
Cowles, of Cleveland, Ohio, 1ms in uso two Edison dynamos 
of 110 volts and 300 amperes for smoltiug purposes in 
reducing the oxides of boron, silicon, aluminum, and other 


The following item wns taken from the Toronto “ Globe” 
of September 19tli, 1885: 

Judging by the contracts now being carried out by the Edison Com. 


pnnj-, this light appears to lie not only maintaining hut increasing Its hold 
on public favor. In the “Globe” office the light has been in uso slnco 
November last, and Its economy, perfect reliability and other advantages 
has since then been so well proved ns to justify the “ Globe " Company in 
depending wholly upon this method of Illumination in the future. To this 
end a new Edison machine to run the lights used in dlirk corners during 
the day has lately been purchased, and there may now he seen lu Toronto 
one establishment at least in which gns as nil illumination is a thing of the 
past. The samo light Is used In the Great Northwestern Telegraph Office, 
In this city, and gives great satisfaction. Among the Installations of 
Edison plant recently made, or now being made, by the Canadian Depart, 
ment of the Edison Company are the following: Tho Gazette Print¬ 
ing Company’s premises In .Montreal; tho Post Office, Montreal, 180 
lights i the Great Northwestern Telegraph Company’s building, Montreal, 
100 lights now running; the Parliament Building, Ottawa, 400 lights, and 
the Magog Textile and Print Co., Magog, 250 lights, all of which orders 
have been closed within the past two months, which speaks well for both 
the light anil the Canadian management of the Edison Co. 


Deit. Mii.itauy Soibkoe & Tactics, 
Iowa Aomni.TtntAL Colt.eoe. 

Ames, Iowa, Mny 28, 1885. 

Geo. II. Buss, Esq., Gcn'l Supt. Western Edison Light Co., Chicago, Ill.: 

Dbaii Sin—Your favor of tho 20th to hand, and noted. To glvo you a 
correct knowledge of our experience with your electric light and our old 
system of gas made from gasoline, will state our average monthly expenses 
under the two systems i 

With gns, it cost us monthly for labor 545.50; for coal, 587; for 
naphtha, 578, making a total of 5155.50 per month. 

With the electric light It costs us monthly for labor 584; for coal, 
555.50; for lubricating oil, 51.50, tanking a total of 5141. 

The incidental repairs have been about the same, of very small account 
in cither case. 

I have clturged against the electric light the snlnry of my engineer, 575 
per month, but ho docs nil our work in addition, repairing our steam 
heating apparatus and waterworks, and enrns from 585 to 540 per month 
In those departments, so it really reduces the monthly expense to near 

placed—It Is In nowise the fault of the plant. It seems to me those using 
the electric light should first have u perfectly solid foundation upon which 
to place their plant, and second, an engine suited for the work, and perfect 
satisfaction will be the certain result. 

Respectfully Yours, 


Steward of the Iowa Agricultural College. 


The Entire Structure Lighted With Over .‘*,000 
Edison Lights. 

This building is undoubtedly tho largest and most finely 
uquippod permanent building for inhibition and gonoral 
amusement purposes ill tins country. Tho struoturo is of 
brick, stnno and iron, of fine architectural proportions, and 
in harmony in every detail with tho purpose for which it was 
designed. It contains the largest mimic hull in this country, 
being 120x800x80 feet in hoight, and is provided with the 
most commodious stage in tho United States. The audito¬ 
rium has an unusually large seating capacity, tho lighting 
of which has proved successful boyond anything heretofore 
done in illuminations of tins description. There is also nil 
iimuboiiicnt hall, elaborately furnished, beautifully propor¬ 
tioned, and hnv g t „ c j t • of over 3,000. There 
are in addition four large art galloi s 1 1 it bo soon 
to be nnorocinted to tlioir full extent. Arlinininn tlm«n n..„ 

lnbition Building are designed especially for display of 
manufactured and general exhibits. These naves form an 
“ L ” of tho Grand Exposition Nave, which is 80 feet in 
hoiglit, of Gotliio style. In tlioir total longtli they have 
over one thousand foot, tho Grand Exposition Nave having 
the greatest width. Thu viowfrom tlieso galleries is magnifi¬ 
cent, taking in as it dues tlieso mammoth areas. 

During Exposition hours overy light is in use. Tho 
amount of floor space covered is ovor 400,000 square feet. 
Tho Edison Company has had larger temporary lighting, 
sneli ns Louisville, Nuw Orleans, and others, with ovor 
5,000 lights, but this is tho largest permanent plant in any 
ono building in tho world. 

Mechanical Department.. 

Machinery Hail... 

Agricultural Department. 

Main Floor. Grand Imposition Nave. 

Gallery Floor, Grand imposition Nave.. 
Mntu Entrances. 

Two fitwt Art Galleries. 

Two West Art Galleries.... 

Two Art Annexes. 

Sculptors' Hall... 

Foot Lights. 

First Floor Corridor.... 
Second Floor Corridor. 

No iO. 

Bulletin for Agents. 



New York, Novemijeh 4, 1885. 


Wo have closed contracts sinco August lOtli, for tlio 
installation of 47 plants, aggregating 8.1G4 lamps. The 
Western Edison Liglit Company aro installing 0 plants of 
s)91 lamps capacity, making a total of 8,855 lamps. Tlio 
following is a list of contracts closed. 

Bulletin for Agents. 



New Yoiik, Nove.mheh 4, 1885. 

• . lmV0 ° l0a ° a contracts si,leo August 19tli, for tlio 

installation of 47 plants, aggregating 8,104 lamps. Tlio 
Western Edison Light Company are installing 0 plants of 
j.)l lamps capacity, making a total of 8,855 lamps. Tlio 
lollowing is a list of contracts closed. 

Benton & Hughes... 
Benton & Hughes... 
Benton & Hughes.. 

Benton & Hughes... 
Benton & Hughes... 

Benton & Hughes..., 
Benton & Hughes..., 
Benton <& Hughes.... 

• Rccfgc West, U,illsto„ Spa, N. Y.. 

• Cnpt. William Turnbrldac, Apurlmcat 

House, fil-55 Clark Street, Brooklyn,, 
SiolalmrUt & Son, N. Y. City' 

Hack & Sanger, Power’s Hotel, Roches. 

U'donPrinUng&PuilflslilngCo- Lock* 

\\nrd & Cobb, Loekport ‘‘Journal * 

Locknort. N. Y... 

11 J 1 * WoltT & Co., 180 Penri* 8tree 
New York City. 

Carried forwurd. 

which ho lmtl received in any ono oIiish, nud tlio OongroHH 
therefore approvud tlio rooommondntioim of tlio jurios, mid 
itsolf nwnrdud n diiilomn of honor to Mr. Edison. Alto¬ 
gether tlioro woro only olovon of tlio higliost itossiblo nwnrds 
(tlio diploma of honor) grunted by tlio full Congress, and of 
these only two woro given to Americium, namely, ono to Mr. 
Edison, and the other on account of tlio telephone. Tlio 
only diploma of honor awardod for an inenndosoont olootric 
light was awarded to Sir. Edison. In addition to tlio fore¬ 
going awards, Mr. Edison rocoivod front the French Govern¬ 
ment the decoration of Ollico of tlio Legion of Honor. He 
laid boon previously made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 
but tlio higher rank of Officer was conferred on account of 
his exhibit at the Faris Exposition. 

Another writer says: 

" Mr. Ellison Is the only inventor la electric lighting, who has a coin- 

lamp, another a dynamo, another a regulator, and still another all three of 
these things, lint Mr. Edison has gone further, and has perfected not 
only a dynamo, a regulator and a lump, but also meters, motors, con¬ 
ductors, underground mains, junction hoses, sockets, chandeliers, brack¬ 
ets, and a large a.her of other devices, altogether constituting a com¬ 

plete and perfect System of electric lighting. This comprehensiveness 
imd perfection of detail is peculiar to .Mr. Edison, and it Is this which 
tenured such matchless praise for him from scientists at Paris during the 
last summer, when high European anthorilles. like Prccccnnd IhiMoncel, 
who lias previously entertained doubts regarding ids success, expressed 
themselves as being converts to “the perfection mill completion of the 
Edison System." . . 

Professor AV. H. Precco, F.R.S., Loudon, in a special ra- 
port 011 the progress of tlio electric light in England in 1882, 

“ Most, of the experiments that have been tried and tlio Installations 
that have'hitherto been made, have been In connection with Arc Lumps, 
but the results of the experiments and the lessons learned in Paris show 
unmistakably that the Arc Lamp Is only suitable for streets and large 
Rpaces: and that for internal purposes, for ollice work ntul household pur¬ 

poses, there can he no question whatever that the s> 
is that which will eventually supplant gas. 

. “ There are four systems of Incandescent Llgli 
Swan; the Lane-Pox; the Maxim ? and the Kdis 
them all with very great care, and I have come to 1 
far the host in all its details Is that of Mr. Edlson-h 
little to lie desired. 

“I have no doubt of its success, and my opinion 
completion of the Edison System Is fully given in t 
the .Society of Arts.” 

Tlio following is from the London “Nat 
* * * “Mr. Edison saw the merits of the incam 
niestlc lighting at a lime when other electricians wi 
tent ion to the are light; and therein showed his gcui 
it is evident now to electricians tliut while the arc 
adapted for the lighting of large areas it is tins 

Mr. Lai much ere, in an article in “Truth 
after commenting in very severe terms ujn 
able methods adopted by certain light c 
their stock upon the London market, nui 
with reference) to the antecedents of Miv 
he speaks as follows: 

“The most practical of electricians is, I think, 
Electrical lighting will, 1 have no doubt, eventually 
had to pin my faith upon a man in respect to a syst 
Mr. Edison. * * * 'Why I have alluded favorably 
cause lie seems to he the most practical man connect 
lug; I neither believe nor disbelieve iu his lamps an 
hut I think that, he is a practical mat)', and 
skilled knowledge in connection with electricity, he 1 
competitors to sueeed in giving us a perfect system 
based upon the essential requirement, that the Hgl 

Tlio report of tlio Sub-commission on Incn 
International Exhibition of Electricity, P 
lengthy document containing an oxlmusti 

with experimental results of tho efficiency of oneli lump. 
Tho lumps reported on uro those of Edison, Swim, M i\nn 
(United States E. L. Co.) and Luno-Eox j and tho supeiiontj 
of tho Edison lamp in ovory rospoot is ostablishod, and es¬ 
pecially in rospoot to (1) high resistance, (2) loss of current 
per minute, (3) comparative onorgy required, (4) numbor of 
lamps per horse-power, and (5) general efficiency. 

The full text of tho roport was published in tho London 
“ Electrician,” Juno 17tli, 1882. 

Tho followin'' is an extract from “ Journal des Debats.” 

“ Wlii’ii wo say Hint tho Edison system is on llio road to produce a eo 
plete revolution in our habits, we only draw a conclusion from a series 
observations, and this conclusion is more strongly continued when 
compare the light of gas to that of the incandescent light of thu Amerlc 

“Mr. Siemens, in a lecture lately delivered before some engineers up 
the gas in use at London, expressed the opinion that in couseipience 
the application of electric lighting that gas, yielding 1)0 per cent, of la 
ami only 10 per cent, of illuminating power, is destined to become t 
natural agent of heat. We absolutely share this opinion. Gas will folic 
the destiny of all terrestrial things which encounter another belter orgai 
/.ation. It will be vanquished. It is the destiny of the weak; it is t 
eternal law of the combat for exlstence-a law the development of wide 

“On one side the system of Edison with his lamp,on the other gas and 
to their nature. Hlch in heat, gas may bu carefully employed in the pro- 

At tho Interimttoiml Electric Exhibition (1882), held at 
Crystal Palace, Lon,Ion, England, Mr. Edison was awarded 
the only gold modal given for a complete system of oleetrie 

iilie jury appointed by tlm Commissioners of the Cincinnati 
Exposition (1883) to report iipontliosubjectofEleetrieLiglits, 
* consisted of Prof. T. C. Mendenhall, (Cl,airman), Professor of 
Physics of tho Ohio Stato University, Columbus, Ohio; 
Prof. H. T. Eddy, Professor of Mathematics and Engineer¬ 
ing, Cincinnati University; Prof. Thomas French, Professor 
of Physics, Cincinnati University ; and Mr. Robert Laidlaw, 


a mechanical oxport connected with tho establishment of 
Messrs. Lane, Bodley & Co., Cincinnati. Tho prize of five 
hundred dollars,'for tho host System of Incandoscont Elec¬ 
tric Lighting; also a gold medal, for tho host Incandoscont 
Elootric Light; nlso tho first prize for an Incandescent Lamp 
Dynamo, woro awarded to tho Edison Company, being ull 
the prise* they compete// for. 

Fiiiht Pm/is foii Tin Edison Light at the Louisville 

Four first prizes were awarded tho Edison Company by 
tho jury appointed by tho Commissioners of tlm Southern 
Exposition held at Louisville in 1883. These prizos wore 
for (1) tho bust Incandescent Light System; (2) tho best 
Dynamo for Incandescent Lights; (3) tho best Eluetrio Lamp 
for Incandescent Light; and (-1) tho best Incandescent 
Light. Tlm jury consisted of Mr. Benjamin Rankin, Chair¬ 
man, Superintendent of tho Louisvillo Gas Company; H. 
W. Eaton, Ph. D., Professor of Physics and Chemistry at 
tho Louisvillo 3Iale High School; Mr. IV. IV. IVeaver, Me¬ 
chanical Engineer, connected with tho Babcock it IVilcox 
Boiler Co., Chicago, Ill.; Mr. Charles Smith, Electrician and 
Superintendent of tho Western Union Tolegrnph Co., at 
Louisville ; and J. A. Tanner, M. D., Lecturer and Scientist, 
of Polytechnic: Society of Kentucky, Louisville. 

Tho following extract is from tho Report of tho Jury, 
dated November 9th, 1883 : 

“ The tesls of the Edison system lire most satisfactory as to the ef¬ 
ficiency of Hie various appliances, tho stemllnossnf tlie light produced and 
the general results. It is a matter worthy of aotico that during the 100 
days of the Exposition with over 4,000 Edison lights banting, lltero was 
not at nay time it saspeasialt of iigiit from failure of tho appliances of the 
Edison Electric Lighting Company.” 

Tho avorago lifo of 4800 lamps during tho whole poriod of 
tho Exposition was 1,800 hours. 

dining tlio Eloctrionl Exhibition by 
littoo. It lind boon recognized that 
lamps for tlio ilotorminatiou of the 
led no data for deciding upon their 

relative viiluo, tho lifotimo of tho lump being an important 
factor in tlio quoutioii of economy. A tost which ahouhl 
iuiaish information on tills point would ho very vain- 
able. Plans wore early made for such a tost, hut ns tho 
time required was such that it could not ho conducted by 
the Photometric Group of the Hoard of Examiners, it was 
pi—J t l.i.. B u of a Special comnnttco. and invitations 

..Oio extended to tho principal incandescent light com¬ 
panies to enter their lamps. Before the m iessary arrango- 
ments could ho completed several of tho memlmrs of the 
special committee were compelled by their engagements to 
leave Philadelphia. 

The Board of Managers of tho Franklin Institute there¬ 
upon placed tho conduct of tho tests in thu hands of its 
president, who tilled the vacancies existing in the commit¬ 
tee, and authorized preparations f lit g t| test on 
a larger scale than was possible during tho continuance of 
tho Electrical Exhibition. Three rooms in tho exhibition 
building were set apart for tho test. 

A code hml been prepared, specifying how the test should 
be conducted. This code was signed in December by Mr. 
AVeston and Mr. Upton, representing the interests of the 
United States and tho Edison companies. Tho Brush-Swan 
and the Bernstein companies declined to enter their lamps. 
Tho Franklin Institute entered a lot of AVoodhouso * 
llawson lamps, obtained from the A r un do Boole Company, 
and also two grades of the Stunley-Thompson lamp, made 
by tho Union Switch and Signal Company of Pittsburg. 
The president of tho Franklin Institute subsequently 011- 
tL1Ll 1 11 ) ts, and for such a tost of 

.l.uutioii us circumstances would permit, a lot of AA r cstou 
lumps (paper carbon), furnished by Mr. AVeston; a lot of 
A\ A Bawson lamps, rooeivod from tho Edison 
Damp Company, and a lot of AVhito lamps, from tho Elec¬ 
trical Supply Company. 

In order to secure satisfact 
less discussion, tho following 
conduct of tho test: 

The parties hereto subscribing do 
Examiners herein mimed, and to ah 
test, and by the results obtained whin 

Prof. Wm. D. Maukh. 

Knch company to enter twenty Ian 
lamps from a supply furnished by the 
dred lamps. Twenty of these will h 
of the circuit, and then replaced at t 
similar ones, until then unused, save 

A preliminary test of each lamp u: 
before the beginning of the contin 
credited to each lamp. 

This preliminary test will detcrmii 

The Franklin Institute shall have 
kinds for the test, such lamps to be I 
tered by a competing company. 

The difference of potent lid bet wee 
inerciai volts. Weston's ineandesceii 
and no other adjustment of the potei 
save in the case of wide variation. A 
the time. 

A resistance of German-silver wire 
lamp, ami a preliminary adjustment i 
ference of potential. 

Exhibitors will give the potential i 
lamps are separately marked, all lamp 
nB exactly similar. 

An Edison “T" dynamo, driven by a Porter-Alien engine, will be used. 
The circuit will be opened occasionally and the lamps allowed to cool. 

Tho AVeston lamp entered by tlio Unitod States Eh 
Lighting Co. has whnt lias boon eallod a » tamadino ” 
bon. Tho committee was not fnrnishod with any ol 
information as to tho nianufaotnro of tho lump, lm 
main features woro shown by. Mr. Weston in his privat 
hibit at tho exhibition, afterwards presented by him tr 
Franklin Institute. Gun-cotton in the form of flub si 
was treated chemically to separate tho nitryl from the i 
lose. The resulting eelhdosu product is a tough 
translucent substance from which tho strips are cut 
sinuous form and carbonized. Tho carbon is roctnngnl 
cross section, but is placed in the lamp so that a 
shanks the longer side of the rectangle is in the lino 01 
shanks, instead of at right angles as in most other la 
The connections are made at the terminals with mi 
steel screw bolts and nuts setting up with platinum was 
Tho bunding of the carbon turns the long side of the 
angle so that it lies in dill'erent directions at dill'i 

The lamp is mounted on a wooden base surrounded 
brass ring. The wires are led down through holes ii 
wood to the bottom of the base, whore one is soldered 
ring and tho other is held in place by a small screw, « 
is concentric with tl.e ring and projecting below its’ p 
The socket contains two spring clamps against which 
terminal ring and screw of the lamp press, the lamp 1 
liold in plnco by a lug on tho brass ring fitting into a gr 
ill tho socket. The lamps and sockets in tho tost 
readily interchangeable and tho connections woro 

Tho Edison lamps were similar m appearance to t 
generally used. Tho carbon was made from bamboo f 

Tho lamps woro mounted in tho ordinary screw so- 
which gave good contact with groat facility of handling 
Tho Woodhouso & Bawson lamps displayed good u 

innnship and woro quite sunplo m construction, me cariion, 
which is rectangular in cross section, is cemented by a very 
neat joint to two platinum wires, which are kept apart by a 
glass bridge, and thou passing through the base of tho lamp 
have small loops formed in their oiuls, tho loop being liiudo 
rigid by imbedding the ends in tho glass. Two spring hooks 
in the sockut hook into those loops, making contact. Tho 
lamps in the test were used with Swan sockets. Tho loops 
at tho base of tho lamp scorn liable to injury Two lamp i 
woro disabled by the breaking of these loops before tho be¬ 
ginning of the test for duration, No information as to na¬ 
ture of tho carbon was in possession of the committee, Each 
lump had tho firm name marked on the glass. 

The Stanley-Thompson lamps had carbons apparently 
made from tliroad. No information was given other than 
that tho lamps were made under tho Stanley -Thompson 

The small, or •14-volt lamp, was woll made so far as tin 
glass work was concerned, tho cnrbou being cemented ii 
platinum wires, which were kept apart by a glass bridge 
and then passed through the base of the lamp. The gins: 
bulb of the lamp was set in a hollow in a woodon base, am 
most insufficiently secured by a commit apparently of [das 
ter of Paris. Tho wires went through the wood to two sum! 
screws. Much difficulty was caused by thu cement giviiij 
way, so that the wires formed the only attachment of tin 
lamp to its base. Tho lamp was secured in its socket b 
two brass bars projecting from tho sides of tho woodon base 
fitting into slots in a brass cylinder socket. Connection 
woro made by two springs at tho bottom of the socket press 
iug ngainst tho screws in tho huso of tho lamp. Tho socket 
woro ”>'t satisfactory, not being interchangeable readily 
and difficulty was constantly mot with in shifting tho lamp! 
Several cases occurred of partial carbonization of tho woodo 
base between tho wires, causing bad leaks, and in ono ens 

4 ,1 .... KO fnv as to attract attention by tho wood’s 

, I, 11 O lei l S were blackened, and the leak 
may have begun over this blackened surface. The difficul¬ 
ties met with in tho ‘14-volt lamp were also encountered m tho 
98 volt. In addition, there seemed to be a point of weakness 
in the base of the glass bulb, several of the globes breaking 
at that point after tho cement gave way. These accidents 
occurred in fitting the lamps to their sockets for tl.e test of 

All of tho above lamps, oxeopt tho Edison, boro evidences 
of tho carbons having boon “treated" by a deposit from a 
hydrocarbon gas. Tho deposit on tho Weston carbons was 

bU Ate the tost for duration lmd continued about five hun¬ 
dred hours, the Franklin Institute entered three now lots of 
lamps, as already stated. Those woro: 

10 Woman lumps (paper carbon). V "J' 8- 

10 WoocUioam-Hawson lamps.™ „ 

Tho ‘Weston lamps were the same in general appearance 
as tho 1104-volt lamps. Tho carbon, it is understood, is made 
from paper and subsequently treated to very heavy deposits 
from a hydrocarbon gas. 

The Woodhouso-Bnwson lamps woro looonod indncotly 
from tho manufaeturors, and woro similar in appearance to 

those already tested, but were more uniform. 

Tho White lamps were somewhat similar to the Eood- 
house-Bawson in external appearance, but tho bulb was 
somewhat longer and narrower. Tho carbons wore cemented 
to platinum wires, which woro separated by a glass bridge, 
and had loops in their ends for hook connections m a 
spring socket. No details of tho manufacture of these lamps 

woro furnished. , . 

Tho currents woro furnished by an Edison “ T dynani , 

by tho Southwark Foundry. Steam was obtained from a 
locomotivo boiler, tho property of the Franklin Institute. 
Tlie potential was controlled by a Weston automatic regu¬ 
lator, which kept it within about a volt on cither side of the 
normal. Three Edison bridge indicators were in use in dif¬ 
ferent parts of the circuit. They agreed in their indications, 
and proved to bo vory sensitive. A registering mil >i lctor 
recorded all variations of steam pressure with great 

Although thu code called for proliminar i e t 

for tho obtaining of tho reduction factor only, it was thought 
best to make electrical measurements as well, that the 
efficiencies of thu lamps might bo obtained m watts per 
sporical camllo, and comparison instituted between tho dif¬ 
ferent lamps under tost. 

The Mcthven standard two-candle slit was used in all tho 
photometric measurements.- 

Standard English candles, a candlo balance and stop 
watoli woro used in tho comparison. 

Ton series of fivo-minuto observations showed an orror of 
one por cent, us tho result of 100 observations. 

Tho galvanomotor was lonncd to tho committee by Prof. 
H. D. Todd, of tho U. S. Naval Academy, u 1 tl 1 ; 

tolescopo by Messrs. James W. Queen & Co., of Philadel¬ 
phia, who (through Mr. Walton, tho head of tho Philosopi- 
cul Department), extended to tho committee throughout tho 
test ovory convouicuco that their largo stock of physical 

The weighings woro miulo on a balance made by Troom- 
noi', of Philadelphia, to tontlis of milligrammes. Tho weights 
used woro vorifiod by comparison with n sot of standards in 
possession of Mr. Troomnor. 

Tho orror of tho galvanomotor in roforoueo to tho law of 
tangents was alsc It. 1 to 1 1 ^ tho fornmla given in Kohl- 
mnsoh’s Physical Moasnromonts, and idso by Maxwell’s 

A Kow magnotomotor was kindly loaned by Prof. C. F. 
Brackett, of Princeton. 


Tho ohm was by thu cotlo to bo tho Paris or logid ohm 
In reproducing it tho committoo'lmd access to the standards 
and apparatus of the Johns Hopkins University, used by 
Prof. Howland in his roeunt determination. Tho standard 
losistaiiiics of tho tost and tho Whoatstono bridge used had 
their valuos carefully determined in Baltimore. 

In tho reductions the legal ohm was taken ns 1.0112 B. A. 

Elkctiio-.motivk Force. 

Tho volt was dotorminod by tho fall of potential in a 
given resistance duo to a known current. 

Tho resistance of the reel was dotorminod, on January 5th, 
at the Johns Hopkins Univorsity, as 21.08!) legal ohms at 
15.2° 0. The reel was then placed in turpentine in tho ex¬ 
hibition building, and remained for throo weoks before tho 
efficiency measurements began. 

Measurements op Efficiency. 

The committee is iudobted 

Mr. 0. H. Small, of tho 

January. 1 II n measurements were made on tho 5th, 
0th and 7th of February. On tho 18th of February, Mr. 
Weston visited the exhibition building, was shown tho re¬ 
sults of tho efficiency measurements on his lamps, examined 
into tho installation, and tho working methods of tho test, 
and thinking tho cnndlo-power of somo of thorn low, ad¬ 
dressed the following to the committco: 

I’liii.ADKM'iiiA, February 18, 1885. 

1 am mtislleil that the melhoiU lined are such an will produce u o,.v^t 

Tho lamps designated woro re-testotl and tho accuracy of 
thu former measurements voriiiud. On the 7tli of March tho 
preliminary run for working methods began. Owing to irreg¬ 
ular working of the engine, causing flickering in tho lamps, 
it was prolonged a week, that better working might bo se¬ 
cured. On March 17th tho committeo had arranged to bogiu 
tho duration test at 2 P. M. Very shortly before that time, 
ll,n vem-osentative of tho United States Company, who had 

Til is letter was'written with the knowledge of only n por¬ 
tion of the committeo, who assumed that the Edison Com¬ 
pany would not compote with lamps'pronounced worthless 
by their maker. 

On April lltli nnothor conference was hold at which the 
representative of the Edison Company objected to Mr. 
West....,.,v,„g his lamps, and addressed tho follow- 
ing lot tor to tlio committeo: 

M> D* Makkh, Clmirnmn: 

‘'“I' ''"'lor the CnduwIthoiU further delay.'’ ' tSl IUn,|> ’ Pr °‘ 


This request that tho test should be continued under tho 
Code, the failure of Mr. Weston to provide now lamps 
together with the impossibility of further delaj ,f the test 
was to take place at nil, gavo tho committee no option 
but to proceed under tho Code with the lamps on hand 
In order to prevent any misunderstanding on tho part of 
Mr. Weston, ] 10 was notified by letter and telegram that 
the test would begin on the lltli. A few hours after the 
beginning of tho test tho following telegram was received • 

In reply to your telegram of to.iluy the coniiiillioti 
question you raise. It was understood by them tlial II 
of Thursday evening at which you were present mu 
formal demand of one of the competitors that the te 
left the members of the connnlttee then present no oj 
M»l rendered the letter of the Sill nugatory. Under tl 
Code any question between the contestants tl--- 
settled by a unanimous vote of the committee, and th 
their decision that under the Code no withdrawal is 
letter of the 8th becomes Invalid when questioned by « 



Subsequently anothor letter was roeoi 

Weston and another conference hold at 1 
tho. committeo regarded their action n 8 (in 
was done. 

Tho committoo present tho above as a m 
to Mr. Weston and also 11s an oxplanatioi 
course of notion. 

Koforonco has already boon made to tho 
of tho Weston carbon. Tim 1 i.r 1, f .... 

Mr. Weston having expressed it desire to have measure- 
ents made on n lot of 70-volt paper enrbon lamps, they 
>ro entered by the president of the Franklin Institute 
1 tost. Tbe distnbution of light is almost oxaetly the 
!“" as m tbe other lot. Ten lamps were seleeted from 
lot of thirty-three roeeivod from Mr. Weston, tested for 
icieney and afterwards snhjeeted to a duration test of 
> hours. 

:n addition to Mr. Weston’s approval of the methods 
-pte.l in the test, as stated in his letter of February 
h, the eoinmitteo received the following. 

1’lIll.AUKl.I’lllA, March (HI., 1885 

rSZT,° f " W<l obtained 

lied that limawUaZJdirJl’al^ 'm ' ““ 

USUI arc- suc-li as w ill produce correct rc-sulls. 




Wo print the following editorial from tbe Now York 
“ Electrical Eoviow ” of October 24tli, 1885. As the title of 
the above paper would indicate to tlio average reader the 
publication of true statements boaring on the subject of elec¬ 
tric lighting, it is ovidont that the interests of the proprie¬ 
tors lie in the direction of such a perversion of faetB as to 
show a decided malicious intent which should not bo tolerated 
in honest journalism. 



Of all tic 1 r „r a l l loin the electrical ilc-lil in recent years, the work 
in incandescent lighting. Halt of the Weston, of tlic Brush-Swnn and the 
Snwyer-Mnnn companies Is at once the most pronounced and gratifying. 
Beginning, ns they all did, under most unfavorable conditions, with a 
public uninformed as to the advantages of Incandescent lighting, and a 
greedy and alow-going rival to light, they struggled on, step by step, until 
now they have beaten away the obstacles that stood in their path, and by 
sheer superiority of apparatus end straightforward business methods forced 
their wuy to the front. 

They begun their work modestly, inuking no rash promises Unit could 
not lie realized, and leaving prediction and prophecy for tile prophets. 
"When tl-'-y f.1 tl-y e n, tld g'-t » certain number of incandescent 

and no more, and lints, keeping within the hounds of practical feasibility, 
they performed wliut they promised, and got n reputation for consistency 
and thoroughness which has remained to them to tills day. 

It is curious to look back upon the struggles of these companies, and 
watch them as they improved their processes, while, nt Hie same time, 
heating buck what was then a powerful rival, hut 1ms grown weaker and 
weaker us they have advanced. The United States and tile Swan Com¬ 
panies hud many u tiiBsle with tills rival concern. Tito latter company 
bested it so thoroughly In England that its growl lias sunk to a plaintive 

own ground here in America. Tills company, that would like to have 
posed ns a monopoly, lias been compelled to limit Its claims In tlio Incan- 
descent field. 

stnlliitioim nro lmtnl i 

'v*o U « V a£ l 1 ;2 ,,m " kc<i «- Ti liswn80ff0Cf0[1 

“"""y found host n U g ' ,S01 '"' nt01 ' It 

»^.w,,« W 0 tnUi ^;r- ton.o « loEtli :;: 

C °'' S . t,t,,to 11 ■jutan, a 10 aI)() f s Hl,s “lonn does llot 

!' U lU ° t,mt th °y *HU Jack 2tir UCCWSM pkl ‘ ta 
besides putney. nn J “‘borossontiid factors 



Bulletin for Agents. 



New Tonic, November 24, 1885. 


Mr. Clmrlos Lover, in n communication to the English 
“Electrical Beview” of October 31st, 1885, lias the following 
to say on the abovo subject: 

* * * Bat, It In tills eternal desire to get ns ninny lamps in series from 
one machine as is possible, which no doubt prevents such il course from 
being adopted In regard to Increment of current. Whatever may be the ad¬ 
vantages Of this high tension supply system, they are completely annulled 
by the element of danger introduced thereby. Despite nil that may be 
argued to the contrary, men will continue to be killed In the fntnrc as In 
tho past by such systems. Daring the past two or three years the electro¬ 
motive force of certain dynamos has risen, ill America, from 2,000 volts to 
3,000 volts. In other words, 40 lighters hnvc given way to 00 lighters. 
The danger already exists and would not lie grentcr even if 100 lighters 
nro built In the future. * * • Before leaving the subject of are lighting, 
some reference ought certainly to bo made In regard to its latest develop¬ 
ment In the United States, f. <•., the tower system. A very few words will 
BUfllcc on this point. If nny onu wishes to light so many acres of prairie 
land in Nobraskn, or so many square miles of sage brush plnln In Nevada, 

XHK p ,kst installation of the electric 


"Wo tnko the following extract from tlie London “ Court 
Journal,” Ootobor 18th, 1885: 

the Incandescent Lighting Companies," wo print tlio foil 
ing oditorinl nnrl nows itom, togotlior with letters from 
Pittsburgh Electric Company, all of which appeared in 
Now York “ Eloctrical World ’’ November 7th. 188fi. 


In Bulletin No. 10, attention was called to the admissions 
iiulo by Du Moil col, Prooae anti others regarding a plac¬ 
ed incandescent light system. We now publish tlinlU ngi s 
•oni W. E. Sawyer to Mr. Edison, published in the Now 
'ork, “ Sun," December 22d, 187!), and .Tanunry 5th, 1880, 
•hich will prove of interest in view of subsequent events. 

row diiya ago 

• Electric Light Company had 

no system. 

Thu Western Edison Light Company lias sold plants to .MuVIeker'o 
Theatre and the Chicago Opera I louse this year, and to tin) Columbia Then- 
tru(fornterly the llnvcrly) three years ago. We sold a plant totliuAcadciny 
of .Music, which lights only n part of the theatre, they having power only ’ 
snfllcient to rim the number of lights they are using. 

Your article will give the public the impression that the lbtr- s 
lighted by the Edison light are using the Mather l|ght, when in fact this 
Mather light was taken out of the Grand Opera House early Inst spring, 
and has never been replaeed. 

We know of no theatres in Chicago lighted by the Mather light or any 
incandescent system oxcupt the Edison; and the Muther Electric Light 
Company have not a plant in operation in the city to our knowledge. 

Very truly yours, 


(Signed) P. S. GORTON, 


(Noth.)—S ince the above was written wc have been informed that the 
Mather plant was tukun out of the Grand Opera llouso the SOtli of Au. 
gust, ami not “ early Inst spring." 


It Presents tlio following Unequalled Advantages. 

It is the most economical artificial light. 

It is brighter than gas, 

It is steady ns sunlight—novor flickers. 

It is reliable. 

It omits no bent. 

It cannot vitiate tlio air. 

It gives no disagreeable odor. 

It is beneficial to tlio eyesight—not injurious, us gas. 

It is the most beautiful light known. 

It is perfectly safe. 

It cannot produce fire in tlio most inflamnmblo substance. 

It cannot oxplodo. 

It cannot produce death by poison, as gas often docs. 

It cannot enuso a hurtful shock to the human systorn, ns 
the arc lights do. 

It gives colors their natural tints. 

It can be placed in any desired position, thus utilizing 
all the rays of light. 

It secures (by the uso of small sixtoon-eandlo power 
lamps) uniform and economical distribution of tlio light— 
impossible with are lights of larger power. 

It can bo used nnywhoro, nailer any conditions. 

It cannot flare or be blown out by the wind. 

It dispenses ontiroly with matches or special lighting ap¬ 

It is perfectly under control. Each lamp is independent 
of tlio others, yet all or any desired number can bo lighted 
or extinguished instantaneously, so that 

It is n porfeot burglar-alarm. 

It does not consuino the Oxygon, and thereby exhaust 
the atmosphere of an apartment. 

It producos no poisonous product of combustion, such 
as carbonic ncid, or carbonic oxide, which are both largely 
produced by gas and oil lights. 

It produces no water of combustion. A gas or oil light 
producos a large quantity of water in an ovoning, sufficient, 
if coiulonsod, to partly fill a tumbler. 

Tlio olootrio conductors contain no poisonous, bad- 
smelling snbstanco to escape in tlio house, through dofoctive 
joints, and to cost tlio consumer an outlay for medical at¬ 
tendance, and a steady running expenditure, more or less, 
for leakage. 

It does not omit smoko to blacken the coilings or walls, 
or destroy pictures by covering them with a layer of oily 
soot, which cannot be elonned oil - . 

mince ,uiu using msu mu i reustircr oi mo Manufacturers' Ons Co. 
o Interested to make n good showing for gnu—those things being con. 
.'red, und the electric light of the Flint Mill costing but n trifle over 150 

son system, which should inure to the honclit of the Edison Co. 

Yours very truly, 



Office of Tim 


Second Avo., cor. Olltli Si., 


Sec'y & Trees. 

New York, Oct. 20th, 1886. 

0TOIIIX8ON, Esq., Manager Edison Co. for Isolated Lighting: 
lEAtt Sin—One night last week we used the gns throughout our build, 
md I kept account of the meters, which showed the next morning that 
"d burned?,800 ft. of gns, at a cost of SI.76 per M. ft., would ho $111.77 
he night. Wo have about 100 gas jets. Now wo have 820 of your 
s In use every night. If we hail ns many gns jets ns your lights the 
of gas that night would have been just twice as much, or *27.64 
120.20 per mouth of 80 days. To run the 820 electric lamps it cost' 
) per night, or $120 per month, showing it saving of $0.47 per night 
00 gus Jets, with more tlinn twice ns much light. 

Yours truly, 



Tho following iiitovestmg lottor comas unsolicited 
Mr. D. Mcliinoss, tlio Managing Director of the well-ki 
Canada Cotton Manufacturing Company of Corn 
Ontario, which wo lighted about throe yours ugo b; 
Edison System: 

Coiinwam,, Oct. 20th, 18 

Tiie Edison Ei-eotiiio Limit Company ■ 

■e lighted Is giving tin 

cent Electric Light with which our Mills in 
entire satisfaction. 

first introduced Into our weaving mill, which Is 680 feet lo 
, In the autumn of 1888, und ufterwurds Into our spl 
40,000 spindles. 

ler the hiciindvsccnt electric light Ihc best yet Invent 
It Is n safe llglitt his fr 

100 feet will 
mill of tibot 
We consl 
smoke anil 
and for thu 
tho electric 

; these are greut advantages hi a cotton mill. Otu 
ly lighted with gus, and taking the cost of the plant f 
electric light nl tho sumo price, the cost for lighting mill 
light we make out to be about half the cost of the gus. 
for our part we would prefer to pay for your light than have the gn 
piled free of cost. 

Wo remain, dear sirs, 

Yours very faithfully, 


Bulletin for Agents. 



New Youk, January 18, 1885. U 


Since November 4tb, 1885, wo linvo closed contracts for 
the installation of 33 plants, aggregating 7,300 lamps. Tlio 
Western Edison Light Co. have installed 14 isolated plants 
of 3,595 lamps capacity, making a total of 10,965 lamps. 
The contracts closed are ns follows : 




Han Dept.. 

Enmes Vactium lirake*‘ Co.’,’‘’Wati-rtowili 

Dakota Finu'/'N/Y*: city" {Iuc^y”ZZ'. 

I HliltiiiK »fc Cainnljcll, N. Y. City ... 

(3lvm,,,,u '‘ ' Vcst Hoboken, N.'jV.T! 
pi„m Uy . 

Ciimuhi Cotton Co., Coruwull, Out. (lucmtst.0 

A. OHtson Murwlllo, N. J). (iucratse). 

trio City Iron Work#, Erie, I’n...' 

A. II. Bolo & Co., GnlvoHton “Sows,” 

i “Globe Democrat," St. Louis. Mo. 

St. Louis Exposition. St. Louis Mo.;; 

II. llulnmu, Terre Haute, Iud. 

Kiihimiizon El. Co., ICulunuotoo, Mich.... 
Otioro?'") 10 U " ivtT “ U J'’ 80111,1 Bund, IniL 

^Inoreasol 1 ' 11 ^ 8 ' "No'w iledfortV,'Mass! 
Boston Sugar nVr\"'BostoVi',''Mass.'.."i.'!.""*" 

•• II ii ?. 18S ' IIos J? lt111 I'd" Ins. Co., Boston, .Mass.. 

’ V A. JInaassns I'liaiirnma Co., Washington, I), c. 

“• 11 ' A . JNorlli Dakota Hospital for the Insane. 



o Opera House, Chicago, III. (Increase). L '°" m 

feent p°anl)' r ‘ n " Ol ‘ lc “ so ’ IIL Criplaeed Van Depoelo Incan! 

■nth, B. D. ,fc W. N„ Chicago III .!-.!,! ’. ??!} 

I, John V. & Co., Chicago. Ill . . „, n 

man Bros., Wausau, Wh.. " ‘ *?° 

Bros., Chicago, III. (Increase). . , mn 

Id & Son, 0., Milwaukee, WIs. . 

k Block, Chicago, III .I . " 

estern Mutual Life Ins. Co., Mllv attkee WIs 80 0 

fc Vogel Leather Co., Milwaukee, WIs. » 

Bros. & Co., Quincy, III. .. *“ 

lluvator Co., East 8t. Louis, III. . 

dung stock co.... . ,0 ° 

[London “ Engineering ,” jVim., 1885.] 


Tito Edison oloctric system is used on n lnvgo senle for 
street illumiimtion m six Ainorienn cities, and on a limited 
numbor of street lumps in innny other places. A locnl Edi¬ 
son Ooinpnny lins recently been awarded tlio contract for 
street lighting in tlio City of Lawrence, Mnssacbussetts, U. 
S. (population 40,000), under circmnstauees of interest both 
in regard to tho price, * nt which gas competition was mot, 
and the electrical arrangonieuts adopted for lightning SO 
miles of streots. 

The Edison Company aro to light 473 incandescence 
lamps of 10 cnndlo-powor, except those on tlio common and 
principal business streots, whoro they aro to bo of 10 onndlo- 
powor ; and 100 lamps to “ bunt ” all night, for 050 dols. por 
month for a tivo years’ contract, and extra lamps pro rata. 
The Edison Company to lmvo froo use of all street lamp¬ 
posts now owned by tlio city, and to tnko outiro olmrgo of 
the lighting plant, malting all repairs for tlio sum mentioned. 
At the termination of tlio contract, they are to rotain owner¬ 
ship of all poles, wires and fixtures furnished by them. 

The cost for lighting tlio city for 1884 with 280 gas streot 
lights 4 ft. burners, giving about eight candle-power, and 108 
coal oil lamps with a brilliancy of six cnndlo-powor, wob 
700 dols. per month, for all charges, with gas nt 1.80 dols. 
per thousand cubic feet. In tlio face of this competition the 
gas company offorod to renew their presout contract for 500 
dols. per month, but tlio oftbr was not accoptod even nt the 
reduced pneo. because tlio electric illumination " con¬ 
sidered more desirable and on the bnsis of tlio total amount 
of light furnished evidently cheaper, ns the aggregate candle- 
power contained in tlio proposition of the gas company 
fn 3200 at a nrico of 500 dols., while the electric 

company contracted to furnish illumination by incandescence 
wluoh amounts to 5000 candle-power for 650 dols. a reduo 
tion of 18 per cent. 

] U time of firo °°«wing night after any portion of tlm 
l.glits are switched out, the electric company are to turn the 
light on the district indicated by the first city firo alarm. 

In rts electrical arrangements the plant will contain 
numerous modifications which adapt the Edison system to 
the work of sustaining incandescent lights distributed over 
a largo territory by aerial wires. 

At each lamp an electro-magnet in shunt will switch out 
the lamp in case of its failure, and thus prevent the lights 
lamp 801108 fl0, “ g0ing0ut in onso ° f mishap to any 

The arrangement of this plant is in many respects radically 
drileren from the method of using three underground leads 
o supply lamps in multiple arc as is usually carried out in 
the Edrson system. 

The central station of this company at Lawrence has for 
several years boon engaged in the distribution of electricity lamps in stores, dwellings and some of the 
cotton mills, and also to electro-motors, one of which is used 
to op 0ra t 0 the presses employed in the publication of a 
daily paper, and another drives the elevator in a storehouse 
belonging to one of the cotton mills. 


[Frnnthe Cleveland “Under and Herald!'Dec. SB, 1886.} 
The Lighting Problem, 

the fund provided for that purpose? The city oillcinls who tried to ansi 
this question ono year ago gave It up In disgust. In consequence c 
tracts were niado which involved the payment of only so much money 
wns In the fund, and the lighting for tho remainder of tho year was p 
vldcd for by borrowing from other funds during the summer. Tho lip 
Ing fund for 1880, derived from a levy of l,’ t mills on a duplicate valuat 
of $88,000,000, amounts fo $101,200. Tho lowest estimate for the light 
during next year is $00,800.80, which provides for 4,020 gas lamps uml 
cure of the some, 1,470 vapor lights, 32 electric lights on masts and 17 el 
trlclightson poles, thesctohnru2,800hoursperyear. The estimated cos 
repairs, $2,000, added to this, would make the total $101,30.7.80, or $100 
in excess of the fund. Under the law tho Auditor has no right to eerl 
tlint there is money to tho credit of a fund to moot a contract obligati 
unless a sufficient amount shall linvo been placed in the fund to moot si 
obligation. Tho highest bid providing for tho burning of all tho lig 
above mentioned 8,700 hours is only $117,110.00, Including repairs, am 
contracts aro to bo mode for Iosb Ilian a year tills bid might just as well 
accepted os tho lower one. Cleveland lias outgrown her country villi 
uira, and it Is time that her streets wore well lighted, not only u part of 
night, but all nigbt. In other cities of tho same size tho street lights 
burned all nigbt, or 8,700 hours per year, and this plan was adopted b 
ono year ago. 


The following newspaper items will servo to show In 
the United. States oloctrio light is regarded in Chicago. T 
United States Electric Lighting Company laid great stn 
on having seoured tho lighting of tho County Buildings 
Chicago, tlioir claims being that this is the largest light! 
by incandescenco in the country, while tho fact is tlint yei 
ago tho Edison Compnuy had several installations of o’ 
5,000 lights. The lighting of tho largest of those buildir 
by the United States Co., viz., the Cook County Coi 
House, with 1,300 lamps, is eclipsed by an Edison instal 
tion of 1,700 lamps in the Chicngo Municipal Building a 
two tunnels under tho Chicago Biver. 

3. C. WARREN. 

3n March 25th, 1885, Mr. Clins. Counselnmn, member of 
mmittoo to purchase Electric Lighting Apparatus for tho 
ard of Trade Building in Chicago, addressed the follow- 
; letter to the abovo 0. C. Warren, which we reprint from 
llotin No. 2, and rofer to the same numbor for additional 
rospondonce between the abovo parties. 

“ C. 0. Wakiikx :—I saw your light—after Mint I got tho Edison Light, 
then, after comparing llglitB, I concluded I would not ltnvc yours. 

lainly do not expect an apology from a man cnpablo of besmirching the 

»nco spoke disparagingly of your company. I am a special advocate 
tys of fair play. Jealousy Is nlways tlic distinguishing mark of on 

The Mail and Express,” N. Y. City, in it 
iber 4th, 1884. published tho following: 

of No- 

Edison Electric Light Complin) 1ms mucin rcnuirkulili 
c past year. Our mcrclmnts begin to rcnlizo the ubsol 
Is light. It Is steady; it is brilliant and beautiful, ill 
important, it lias proved a great saving to our merclil 
in stores, and draws customers like a ningnct. Our c 
appreciate its worth, anil it is already proving a gre 
Hail and in the tunnels, and besides saving the tnxpu; 
unit of money. TlieEdisou Electric Light is regarded b; 
perfect in use, anil predict Hint before many years the 
glitcd with tills clean, steady and very beautiful light, 
mpany is in the Adams Express Building, on Dcurboi 

[Chicago “ Liter-Ocean;' January 8, 1SSG? 


Iu n lottor published in the Now York “ Herald . 
gust 10th, 1880, Mr. W. E. Sawyer expressed his opin 
garcling Mr. Edison’s invention of incandeseont i 
lighting ns follows: 

Professor Edison claims Unit iio can supply Ills electric lumps i 
Pve cents nplece. Perlmps tins Is soi undoubtedly Professor! 
ublo to give them uwuy. lint, nevertlieless, Ids lumps to-dny cosi 
times lliut nmimut, mid when It ivus announced (without until 

than nr $11 for eucli mill every working lump. It Is stilted 
livers go power of the Edison lump is fifteen nml n bnlf cnndles, no 
professional gentlemen lnivo uncorded ten separate lumps per liori 
each of a power of twelve caudles, or an average in divided ligli 
candles per borso-power. Tills is a serious error, on account of ■ 
aforesaid professional gentlemen are entitled to ourprofoundests; 
If one of them were to tell a steamboaler that it Is as cheap to r 
ten miles an hour ns five lie would he laughed at j but these gr 
lects experience no misgivings whatever in Informing the puli 
takes us little power to overcome an electrical resistance of 150 
In Professor Edison’s lamp) as It does-to overcome a resistance 

and generator of o'n'e electrician more powerful (and therefore 
since tile expenditure of steam power is the Biunc in hotli cases) 
lamp and generator of another? It is the low resistance of his 

generator. Why is a Maxim or a Uochliausen or a Siemens arc l 
erful with the same expenditure of steam power than Hint of ot 
cause their arcs are, so to speak, “short and thick," of great qu 
low tension, while the failures are found iu lamps of high resist 
high tension is necessary to overcome high resistance. . 
operates very peculiarly. If fifteon-sixteenths of a given currom 
ten candle power the whole current (sixtcen-slxtccnths) proill 
than twenty candles. To make nil economical light It is access 
fore, that the carbon shall be able to stand the final fraction c 
The first fractions produce but little light. To operate 40 of t 
lumps on the steamer “Columbia" required thirty horso-powi 
nverngo light per lnmp was less than six caudles. 

Note.— On tho steamer “Columbia” tlio same 
...» t n use that Sawyer claimod was furnie 

lamp to the liomo-powor. How well tlio Edison plant 
worked on the steamor at that time will bo seen from 
report of Chief Enginoor Van Dussor, of the Oregon E. 
nd Navigation Co., February 24, 1882, to Mr. Edison, 
xtrnct from which wo give below: 

run four hundred and fifteen hours and forly-flvo minutes without 
[imp gluing out. 

The engines being connected to the main condenser when under way, 
dual expense felt consists only in the extra pint of oil used In lulirl* 
5 engines, dynamos, etc. The expense from coal at $0 per ton is 
118 cents per hour for the one hundred and fifteen lights.” 

to following extract is from a recent paper by Mr. C. J. 
tnor. Principal Examiner Division of Electricity, U. S. 
!iit Office, being one of a series of valuable articles on 
irical subjects published by tbat gentleman. Wo regret 
our space does not permit us to roprint the entire 

* * Sawyer and Man filled the globe with nitrogen and other non* 
usttide gases. To Edison, perhaps more than to any other modern In- 
r, belongs the credit of having developed the incandescent lump to 
esent point of efficiency, for the reason that he saw the necessity of 
inpletc exhaustion of the globe as possible, and of furnishing each 
with as high resistance ns possible, so tlint many lamps cun lie con* 
il in what is known as multiple arc, Hint is to say, connected sldo 
le between two main conductors, so tlint cncli lamp takes its propor* 
>r quantity of the current from the two main wires connected to the 
no. In arc light systems the lamps arc connected in series or tan- 
so tlint when all the lamps are in operation the resistance offered to 
nssnge of the current through the circuit will ho equal to tlint of tile 
ictors joining the lamps plus the sum of the air spaces made by the 

Jiglity lights whose carbons are separated each about an olirlitli of nn 


Dotails lmvo lioen furnished us l>y Mr. Paul D. Dyer 
octrieul Eimiiieer at the Ai'iioux Electric Light Co. Stn 


[From the Bulletin International dcs Telephones, Paris, Ne 

motive force of tlio circuit, nro placed. This Ingenious apparatus Contains 
two lumps, one red the oilier green. 

■When the electro-molive force Increases the red lamp lights up, und, 
in the reverse case, the green. The apparatus Is adjusted to a fixed 
electro-motive force, so lndicutcd as long as neither lump Is binning. 
Immediately a variation occure, one of the lumps lightB up, and, at the 
same time, a hell rings loudly, attracting the attention c t the attendant in 


Tho current passing through the principal conductors is conveyed 
over tho feeders, and distributed through the mains to all points of the 

It would tako too long, in this first article, to describe all tho details 
of this network, hut, for tho present, wo can state that tho system ol 
distribution gives the best results In the entire district, . j 

an uniform brilliancy nnd perfect steadiness. 

Tho number of lamps lighted at tho start was about S,000, but tlu 
boiler nnd engine capacity Is sufficient for more than 5,000, which nrnnbei 
wo can predict will be connected during the approaching season. 

The work of Installation was begun lust July, and t Itl t 1 g 

To sum up, for tho first large central station installed In Prance, wt 
nro happy in recording a complcto success, which, wo hope, will stimulatt 

similar enterprises. 

Tho promoters of this undertaking, the capitalists who arc pcrsonallj 
Interested, tho Municipal Council who have favored its establishment, tin 
Edison Company, and Messrs. BlCtrix & Co. who liavo made tho Instill 
lution, and tho engineer, M. O. Patln, of tho Edison Company, who lull 
supervised the work, deserve to be congratulated for their co-opcratloi 
in a work which markB on epoch in tho Infancy of electric light. 


[From La Zumicre Fleclrique.] 


[Extract from London “ Engineering ” Lee. A. 1886.'] 


New Yoke, June 7,1880. 


The .Edison Eluctrie Light Company brought su it some 
months sinoo against the infringers of its muons p,tints 
wliicli are now pending in tho courts. Wo have heretofore 
carefully refrained from a discussion, by way of circular or 
advertisement, of any of tho questions involved, believing 
they should bo loft for decision of tho only forum which can 
effectively pass upon tho rights of tho parties in interest, and 
wo would not now depart from this policy but for tho fact that 
tiio Consolidated Electric Light Company, tho owners of what 
are called tho Sawyer-Man patents, have recently published 
and sent broadcast a circular relating to their patents and 
their controversy with Mr. Edison in tho Patent Office, 
which is not only fnlso in fact, but admits of no otlior oriti- 
eism than that it was prepared and is distributed with the 
dolibornto intention of deceiving tho public and of creating 
a belief which the draftsman of the circular must have known 

This company has always claimed, and it is generally con- 
coded, that tho fundamental and controlling patent on the 
incandescent lamp is that used and owned by it for tho in- 

vontion of Mr. Edison of the filnmont of carbon. 'X'lioro wns 
n controversy in the Patent Oflieo botweon nil application 
for a pntont filed by Mr. Edison on December lltli, 1879. 
and ono filed by Sawyer-Man on January Oth, 1880, tho 
issue of the interference and' tlio controversy botweon them 
being confinud to “ the incandescent. conductor for an electric 
lamji formed of cahho.nikeu Tho “fllamont of 

carbon ” was neither directly nor indiroetly involved. 

Tho dishonesty of the circular to which wo have roforrod 
consists in a grouping of statoinonts which, while true in 
themselves, are so arranged as to croato and justify an in¬ 
ference absolutely falso. 

It is true, ns there stated, that this company 1ms adver¬ 
tised that its contost with Sawyer and Man “ did not involve 
tho invention of tho filament of carbon,” that Mr. Edison 
testified in 1888, “My mind wns full of tho fact that they 
were endeavoring to doprivo mo of the use of a filament of 
carbon,” but tho testimony quoted was not given bv Mr. 
Edison in tho Sawyer-Man interference, but in inter¬ 
ference now ponding botweon Edison, Maxim and Swan, 
and some two yours after tho testimony in the Sawyor-Man- 
Edison controversy was closed. 

On cross-examination by counsel for Maxim, Edison was 

carbon, ami was aol the question Involved therein ono of priority between 
yourself mill Sawyer and Mun as to the alleged invention of the paper 

“A. Yea, sir; but at the time the preliminary statement was made I 
hail given the subject very little atlealloa, and my mind was full of tho 
fact that they wore endeavoring to deprive mo of the nso of a lllnmcnt of 
carbon, anil paper la iny mind then was a secondary consideration." 

Tho fact is that nftor Mr. Edison gave tho lunttor attention 
aud understood that tho invention in .controversy was only 
tho use of carbonized paper, ho considered tho controversy 
of little importnneo. 

1 also true that tho decision in tho Sawyer-Man inter- 
o was, as stntod, that Sawyer and Man had tho invon- 
t a mile form os early as March, 1878, and completed 
tomber or Octobor of the samo year, and that Edison 
etod tho invention and reduced it to practice on or 
October. 22(1, 1879, but the invent ion of the decision 
it the filamuut of carbon, but the incandescent conductor 
electric lamp/brW of uarlionhcdpaper. 
his studiud attempt to mako it appear that a litigation 
mg the filament of carbon had arisen between Mr. 
i and Sawyer * Man aial been decided in their favor, 
10 1,0 fm thor criticism to make, and leave it to the 
ss public to form its own opinion, from tho facts, of 
mgrity of a corporation which thus Hooks to enlarge its 
ss by deceiving that public whoso confidence it asks, 
eply to the statement of tho same circular, that tho 
1 Co. has novor succeeded in obtaining a decision for 
riiigomcnt of any of their patents against any porsou 
locution, we have only to say that after a protracted 
on in Germany the Edison pntouts wore sustained, 
eisioh entered in their favor against infringers, and 
mpany confidently looks for tho samo results here in 

r writing tho above a cable dispatch was rccoived nn- 
ng a favorable decision in England on tho principal 
i lamp patent aud tho publication of tho present 
n was therefore postponed for a time in order that wo 
furnish our agents with a report of the decision, 
was made in favor of the Edison-Swan United Elcc- 
ght Co. against IVoodhouso & ltawson. Tho suit was 
it for tho infringement of the English patent which 
londs with our United Status Patent No. 223,898, 

, the pntont for a flexible carbon filament, on which 
is boon bromdit in this country mmiimt tho various 

Iii the trial lioforo the English Court, tho ilofoi 
‘lueod nil the prior patents nud publications whiol 
used in tliis country to dofont tho pntont, hut tho pn 
hold to ho valid in spito of all those. Tho nearest 
approach to tho Edison construction and what wai 
pally roliod upon by tho defendants was ii lamp 
England by Swan, which, howovor, cannot bo legi 
against tho pntont in this country, bocanso no doser 
it was published boforo Mr. Edison’s invention. E- 
howovor, was hold bv tho Court not to aiitiiiiniitn t 

followed by the spoeific agrcomont: 
lEFOIii:, It Is hereby agreed li.v nml between William Edward 
irty of the llrst perl, anil Allion Man, party of tliu second 
dlfication of lliclr previous agreement, ns follows i 
nntend of Hie letters patent being taken out In the name of the 
»llrst part solely, that they shall bo taken out in the names of 

tfuiuont of tho promises is frequently it Action 
' lit the covenants tlmt follow; the fmr assumption 
an considered liis interest made moro cortniu by this 
-‘thud of procedure. Of uourso joint inventorship 
irise from participation in tho invention, and patents 
i alleged joint inventors, who are such only by 
t, are legally worthless. 

MwimontH of Sawyer and Man have been produe- 
tro nowspapor controversy than of olectric lighting, 
occupation by training anil fitness was that of a 
and although unsuccessful as an electric light 

„ „ M ° 411 1,110 “tioowon m winch Jig Imd t 

signally failed. Journalism having made him familiar wil 
spor ing methods, his favorite attack w«, tl / U 
% this means he attacked Edison, and by the s urn mo u 
he gave to posterity a just measure .of his judgment na ve 
as of his knowledge of the subject of oleoric lighting. 

Bdism. having produced his carbon filament lamp ail 
lanced some modest statements with respect to it, wide! 
ju d now be recognised generally assafely within the limit 

lit n -TT t,lat tiW °- by M 

feW published m the “Sun” of December 2d, 1879 t, 
deny their truth. Ho states that Edison 

“lft s °;:r tho si,m ° *«»* 

Komi, St«rr-King myself (Saicuer) mid ... . V ,on 

A,Kn W i ao „ ll , 13 tne'.; I „ 1 „rx 0 ,:::! r “ vc ' rae, ‘ * * ■ 

It can be easily seen that this opinion was based on the 
results of his own labors. 

And then Sawyer becomes specific, anil challenges Edison 
among other tilings " 

f ‘ W,Jer ' 8 lam » Wilh U * ««* not tight enough to hold 
nitrogen gas at atmosphericpressure) ; and 

to run Ills carbonized paper hunt) tlirvo hours r.. _ , 

viicuum It will lust twenty minutes.” ‘ “ C ° 1 "" I ’° rte 

(A statement sounded from tho depths of his own sombre 

Sawyer followed this up by another attack in tho form of 
i.n interview, published in the "Tribune," January 2,1880. 
Ho first qualifies himself as an expert competent to inform 

cariion was much longer than that ho (Sawyer) had proposed 
to use, ho states that 

" ivlum n length of incandescent conductor of onc-hnlf Inch Is reached, the 
current can no longer he economically used." 

Another objection to Edison’s long carbon in his opinion 

which to an electrician is a startling proposition. Ho made 
this mistake moro dofinito in n lottor to tho “ Tribune," pub¬ 
lished March 2(1, 1880. 

] “ Mr. Edison has not yet learned that the greater the resistance of a 

Eoturuing to tho interview of January 2, 1880, Sawyer 
thought that 

The fact will bo rooognizod Hint tlio fontnros of Edison’s 
lump nnd systom nttnokod by Sawyer in tliis interview are 
now used by nil manufacturers including his (Sawyer’s) 
assignoo, tlio Consolidated Company. 

His pride in tlio opinion that ho had himself oxplorod all 
possiblo fields of rosonroh with that perfect intelligence 
which fow men fail to attribute to thomsolves, led to a 
second challenge, published in the “ Sun " of January fi, 1880. 
In this ho says : 

“ Notwithstanding th'o usscrlion that 0110 of Mr. Edison’s electrical 
lamps 1ms bean running for 240 hours, I still assart, and am prepared to 

Ilia light of n single gas jot (to he more dcllnlte let ns call it twelvc-candle 
power) for more than three hours. * * * I adhere In every particular 
to my original challenge to Mr. Edison." 

With respect to Sawyer’s lump or that of Sawyer and Man 
the verdict of failure had already boon givon. 

The activity produced by Edison’s success aroused Saw¬ 
yer, nnd he resumed the experiments abandoned by himself 
and Man ; but he ltopod only for a qualified success. Ho 
believed that the ele t 1 0 1 t at capable of limited appli¬ 
cation only, and that it could not be mndo suitable for 
domestic illumination. His position was correctly stated in 
an article in “ Tlio Electrician ” of April 17, 1880. 

“Mr. Sawyer has now given up the idea of attempting to perfect mi 
“Incandescent light pure and simple. lie has abandoned all ../Tort in 
“ ll "“ <llrcollou ’ "« er t" 0 years of constant experiment. His only hope 
“ I ’ rcsl!,lt is 10 bo tWo to manufacture a style of lamp suitable for fnc- 
“ torics - 1Ie Inis modified Ids recent lamp in such a manner ns to make 
“ It substantially a Wcrdcrmann light, differing therefrom only in the 
“ “heumstnneo that the whole apparatus Is enclosed in a sealed glass 
“ chimney containing nitrogen gas.” 

It is needless to add that this lamp was also a failure. 

Mr. Sawyer could not remain forovor wholly blind to 
Edison’s success; ho lived long enough to show the bettor 
side of his nature by. writing a fairly unbiased account of 

tlio history of incandescent electric lighting in his book pub¬ 
lished in 1881, and ontitleil “Eleetrio Lighting bylnonudes- 
conoo, and Its Application to Litorior Illumination." Ho 
indulged in this work his higher literary taste, gratifying 
tlio ambition common to all hack-workers of the press, and 
undoubtedly intouded it ns ti monument to his sincerest 

Ho says in this book (p. 71): 

“ The Sawyer-Man lamps,aa exhibited In New York, weronll furnished 
with carbons of this character (deposited carbons of peculiar shape) 
and to the perfection of thesu boat-shaped, electrically formed carbons 
was due their comparative success. To the necessity of frequeut re¬ 
newal and the time and skill required to produce the carbons wus duo the 
emmrctal failure of theee lamp*." On page 81 
To replace a Sawyer-Man carbon required a i 
to three hours, and the recharging of the 
nitrogen cost about seventy cents, without tu 

workman’s time from two 
with absolutely pure 
uto consideration the 
le lamp." 

Tlio position of Sawyer and Man as invontors in the art 
of olectric lighting, and that of their assignee, the Consoli¬ 
dated Company, in the commercial arena, seems to be ac¬ 
curately stated in an article lately published in “The 
Electrical World.” 

“ In 1878, W. 13. Sawyer, of New York, went over the ground well 
worn by prior electricians, and produced the improvements in details 
that lmvu been patented in the joint numes of Sawyer nnd Mun. lie 
displayed great ingenuity, but was bound by the dogmas of the art, nnd 
sought for t)ie sotulion of the problem of lighting by incandescencc in 
low resistance carbons, separable globes and inert gases. He produced 
no new type of lump, but conilncd himself to improvements in detail 
useful only upon the type of lamp then well known. Some notoriety 
was given Sawyer’s experiments by the press, but no more so than the 
Inventions of Starr, Stake nnd Lodyguino received in tlioir times and In 
the localities where their lamps were exhibited. Sawyer’s lamp was 
never capable of being put Into practical use. THE FAOTS THAT 



« z :Sv A r tor 


After the failure of Suwyor 
anti Man, Sawyer alone pro- 
chieetl what he called hi» 
“feeder" lamp, shown by 
this cat. 

This lamp has the burner 
of tile old lVordornmun Lamp 
plaood in a Sawyer and Man 
structure. Like tho Sawyer 
and Man, Lamp it was a 

Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston Records [Not fUmed] 

These records cover the years 1885-1889. They consist primarily of the 
correspondence files of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston during 
the earliest years of its existence. Included is material relating to the 
establishment and operation of the company and the construction of the first 
Boston central station. At the core of the collection are the letters exchanged 
between company treasurer F.S. Hastings in New York and superintendent A.T. 
Moore, Jr. in Boston, along with the letters between Hastings and Moore's 
successor, William J. Hammer. Other major correspondents include officers and 
directors Hubbard Breed, Charles H. Coster, William W. Gooch, Edward H. Johnson, 
and Sidney B. Paine; and W. J. Paine of the New England Wiring Company. 

A microfilm copy of these records was recently prepared by the Edison 
National Historic Site. For this reason, they are not included in Thomas A. Edison 
Papers Microfilm Edition, Part II . An archival finding aid to the records appears on 
the following three frames. 

United States Department of the Interior 


Edison National Historic Site 
Main Street and Lakeside Avenue 
West Orange, New Jersey 07052 

Papers, 1885 - (1886) - 1889, 1986. 

2 boxes (.75 In. ft., ca. 1000 items) 

Gift of Boston Edison, 1986 
[Microfilm copy in process, 8/1986] 

Accession 511 
Stored: Vault 12-2 

Scope and Content: Incoming correspondence and copies of outgoing 
correspondence of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston during the 
earliest years of its existence. The correspondence records some of the events 
leading up to incorporation; matters having to do with the establishment of the 
first central station in Boston, including financing, real estate and construction; 
the subscription and connection of new customers to the system; and the full range 
of administrative, personnel and financial aspects of the creation of the new 
company. At the core of the collection are the letters between company treasurer 
F.S. Hastings in New York and Superintendent A. T. Moore, Jr., in Boston, and later 
Manager William 3. Hammer, Moore's successor. These letters provide a detailed 
chronicle of daily operations and provide such specific information as data on the 
costs of individual customer installations and use of service. Among the other 
major correspondents are Hubbard Breed, Charles H. Coster, William W. Gooch, 
Edward H. Johnson, Sidney B. Paine and W. 3. Paine of the New England Wiring 

Material relating to the company's centennial, specifically a corporate history, 
brochures and a calendar, were presented along with the collection. A number of 
photographs owned by Boston Edison are reproduced in the centennial brochure and 

History. The Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Boston was officially 
formed in 3anuary, 1886, organized with capital from the Edison Electric Light 
Company, the Edison Company for Isolated Lighting, and 3. Plerp °"^? S p"/ 
Starting with the Bijou Theatre, the company began serving customers in February 
1886. During the company's first year of operation, its president, Edward H. 
3ohnson, and other key directors and officers of the firm, su = hasp -f- Hastings 
Charles H. Coster and Charles Batchelor, were headquartered m New York Some 

of the other directors and managers, such as Hubbard Breed, A. 3 and 

William 3. Hammer, were located in Boston. Management of the company 
increasingly shifted to Boston in the years following 1886. In 1890 ^ be 
took over the territory of the Back Bay Incandescent Company, and in 1901 merged 
with the Boston Electric Light Company. The corporate name was changed to 
Boston Edison Company in 1937. 

The company is known for its innovations, including the use, in the early 1890s, 
of the first direct-connected vertical engines at a central statwn. Also in the 
1890s, the company founded the first practical electric storage b f«.f V 
By the early 1900s, Boston was the best lit city per capita in the United States, and 
the first large American city to be served by a single utility. 

For a complete history of the company, see David B. Sicilia's corporate 
history, contained in Box 2. 

Finding Aid: Container and folder list. 

Added Entries 

Back Bay Incandescent Company 
Boston Edison Company 
Boston Electric Light Company 
Edison Electric Light Company 
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting 
New England Wiring Company 
Winthrop Group, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) 

Electric light and power 

Breed, Hubbard 
Coster, Charles H. 

Edgar, Charles Leavitt 
Gooch, William W. 

Hammer, William 3. 

Hastings, F.S. 

3ohnson, Edward H. 

Moore, A.T., 3r. 

Paine, Sidney B. 

Sicilia, David B. 

Papers, 1885-1889, 1986 
Container and Folder List 

Incoming Correspondence, 1885-1889. Contains one disbound ietterbook mainly of 
letters to F.S. Hastings, with numbered and unnumbered pages, in chronological 
order (page numbering is erratic). Also contains one file relating to the 
replacement of William 3. Hammer as manager by Charles Leavitt Edgar. 

Box 1 Folder: 

Letterbook, December 1885 - June 1886 
Letterbook, duly 1886 - August 1886 
Letterbook, September 1886 - December 1886 

Correspondence relating to the replacement of William 3. Hammer as 
manager by Charles Leavitt Edgar, August 1887 to duly 1889. 
Includes typed transcription. 

Outgoing Correspondence, 1886. Contains one disbound letterbook primarily of 
letters from F.S. Hastings, with numbered and unnumbered pages, in numerical 
order (close to exact chronological order). 

Letterbook, Pages 1-115 (February - May 1886) 

Letterbook, Pages 116-261 (dune-duly 1886) 

Letterbook, Pages 262-490 and unnumbered (September - December 1886) 
Letterbook - Binding 

Related Material. 1986. 

Box 2 Folder: 

Centennial history and brochure prepared by David B. Sicilia of the 
Winthrop Group, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) 1986; Boston Edison Centennial 
Calendar, 1886. 

Thomas A. Edison Construction Department Records 

These records, which cover the period 1882-1884, were generated or used by 
the Thomas A. Edison Construction Department. Edison founded this company in 
1883 for the purpose of constructing direct-current electric power stations in 
towns and cities throughout the United States. This was the only electric light 
company that Edison managed directly. It operated from May 1883 until August 
1884, building thirteen central stations in Massachusetts, New York, Ohio and 
Pennsylvania. In September 1884 the Construction Department merged with the 
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting, which assumed responsibility for the 
construction of all central stations in the United States. 

The following items have been filmed: 

1. Questions for Central Station Engineers (1883) 

2. Central Station Engineering Plans (ca. 1883-1884) 

3. Canvass Book (ca. 1882-1883) 

4. Record Book (1883-1884) 

The following items have not been filmed: 

1. Mapping Department Books (1883-1884) 

2. Gas Statistics Book (ca. 1881-1882) 

3. Meter Book (ca. 1883-1884) 

4. Samuel Insull Pocket Notebook [PN-84-01-04] (1884) 

Questions for Central Station Engineers 

This 45-page typescript contains copies of a series of questions, prepared by 
Edison in 1883, relating to central station system technology. Separate sets of 
questions were devised for meters, for dynamos, and for engines and boilers. H. 
Ward Leonard, who helped establish meter departments at severed central stations, 
supplied answers to "Questions Relating to Meter Department." William S. Andrews, 
chief electrical engineer for the central stations, supplied answers to questions 
about the running of dynamos. W. D. Rich, superintendent of construction for the 
central stations, supplied answers to questions about the running of engines and 

Two question books containing answers by H. M. Doubleday and corrections by 
Edison have not been filmed. The books are labeled "Meters" and "Running of 
Dynamos." The date November 21, 1883 also appears on the front cover of each 
book. Manuscript copies of some of the questions and answers can be found in D-83- 
043 (Document File Series). 

Instructions at the and of this book 
were Witten by Hr. Edison. 

All questions In this book ware form¬ 
ulated by Kr. Edison. 

Answers to motor questions were 
Witten by H. Ward Leonard. 

Answers to questions on dynamos woro 
glvon by V.'. 3. Andrews. 

Questions on Btenm engines and boil¬ 
ers were answered by ?’ 


Ry H. Ward Leonard. 

Q. 1 - Why is German silver used for a shunt in meters, In preference to 
other metals? 

A. 1 - Because its eleotrioal resiBtanoe changes nrnoh less than other 
metallic resistances through great ranges of temperature. 

Q. 2 - By what per contage does the resiotance of German silver lnoroase 
with every degroe or 100 degrees of rise of temperature? 

A. 2 - Its resiBtanoe increases .00019, or about .02 of one per cent, for 
each degree of rise in temperature. 

0. 3 - What is the resistance of the shunts of 6 light, 12, 25, 50 and 100 

llg$it meters? 

A. 3 - 6 Light Shunt, .04 ohm 

12 " .02 » 

25 » .01 « 

50 " .005 » 

100 « .0025 * 

Q. 4 - Hon is the resistance of the shunts obtained? 

A. 4 - The strip of German silver is placed in aeries with a standard re¬ 
sistance in the circuit of a good battery of constant E. 1!. F. 

The strip is held fast by clamps, whioh carry the circuit wires and 
also wires leading to a galvammeter. Take a doflootlon around the 
standard and then around the strip, adjusting itB length by varying 
the distance of the clamps, until the deflection is the same as the 
standard strip* Its resistance will then be the same. 

Q. 5 - Supposing that on the 1st of January, in a certain place, the temper¬ 
ature waB 2 degrees below zero, Fahr., and in the sane place, on the 
let of July, the temperature of the air was 100, what would the re¬ 
sistance of the shunt be at 2 degrees below zero, and also at 100 

A. 5 - The resistance of 25 light shunt at 2 Fahr. 0.0098486 at 100 dogreee 
Fahr. 0.0100996. 

Clarice, in ansnor to the 5th question on meters, states 
that parsons would bo apt to obtain slightly different results 
according to thoir authority on the change of Goman silver in 
resistance by temperature. 

In round nunbers the change is 0.025 per oent. per degree 
Fahr. The most exact method of determining tho resistance will 
be by a formula given by Dr. VatthleBsen, in "Reports of Eleo¬ 
trioal Standards,” pago 227. The formula iss- 
R - r (1 + 0.0004433 t 4 0.000000152 t2) 

Where R is the resistance at temp, t oent. when r is tho resistance 
at zero. 

Your quostion oalls for tho resistance at - 2° F. and + 100° F. 
or at - 18.89 oont. and + 37.78 bant. A 25 light ehunt correctly 
adjusted should measure 0.01 ohm. at 60° F., or 15.56 cent. Assim- 
ing the resistance at zero cent, to be unity, tho formula gives 
the following results:- 


Actual Resistance 

- 2° P. or - 18.89® 0. 
60 P. or 15.56° 0. 
100 P. or 37.78° 0. 

Ratio of 
Boslstanoea of Shunt 

0.99168 0.0098486 ohm. 

1.00693 0.0100000 " 

1.01696 0.0100996 " 

Q. 6 - If 100 lamp hours ware reoordod during a month when tho temperature of 
the air was constantly 62 Pohr. t what would he tho percentage of error 
from this record If the same lump hours ware recorded at 2 degrees be¬ 
low aero and also at 100 Fahr.? 

A. 6 - The meter would freoze at 2 degrees below aero; at 40 Fahr. It would be 

1.707 par cent, low; at 100 degrees Fahr. .033 per cent low. The stand¬ 
ard solution freezes at 2.5 to 3 degrees centigrade. 

Olaike, In answer to question 6, experiments on August 15, 
1882. on the tonparaturo at whloh the standard solution freezes, 
determined It between - 2.50 and - 3° cent., and a rise In tem¬ 
perature at the moment of solidification of about 1.5° to 2° oent. 
This raakea the freezing bnt a few degroea below that of water, con¬ 
sequently the answer to your question of the error at - 2° Fahr. 

Is that the solution would bo frozon and tho action of meter would 

Another answer is the followings- Assuming the thermostatic 
regulator to be In adjustment. It should maintain the temperature 
of the solution at 46° 7. (4.44° o.) At this tamporature tho re¬ 
sistance of tho meter bottle olrcult Is 9.82 ohms. Tho resistance 
of the shunt will be (4.44° o.) (Katthlessen's formula) 0.0099508 

Obms. Of tho total current _ 99508 B 99508 th 

98200000 + 99508 98299508 

part will flow through the meter bottle. 

At 100° F. (37.7B 0 o.) the roslstonoo of motor bottle circuit 
will be 9.8 Obms.. and resistance of shunt 0.01009960bms., of the 

total current _ 100996 a 100996 part will flow through 

98000000 + 100996 98100996 

the meter bottle. 

At 62° F. (16.67° o.) the resistance of motor bottle olroult 
will be 9.705 Ohms., and resistance of shunt 0.010005 ohms., of the 
total current 10005 hv, par t _ 10005 passes through 

970500 + 10005 9715005 

the mater bottle. 

To recapitulate:- 

Temperature Fahr. 

Ratio of Curront through 
Pater Bottle 

40° F., 
62° F., 
100° P., 



b 62° F. as the unit of oanparlson, or 100 

0. 7 ■ 
A. 7 ■ 

Talcing the currant a 
per cent., we have:— 

40°F. t 96.392 

62° F., 100.000 

100° F., 99.967 

lnn o ® h9 . r0fo ” fcha rooord at 400 F * Is 1*707 per cent, lower, and at 
100 I. la .033 per oont. lower than at 62° F. 

arrnr^n? "* “4 ° n 25 1J « hk “ 9tar » ** «» P°r cent. Of 

arror will • bo the sane for all sleas* 

Wiloh Increases lta realetance the moat by a rise of temperature. 
Caiman silver or tho solution of sulphate of nine? 

Ooiman silver. 

" th ,° a " aot of a rl89 or fal1 or temperature on tho realatance 

of tho aulphato of zinc solution? 

- A rlae of temperature oauaoa a dlnlnuitlon of realatance. 

Q. 9 
A. 9 

a 25 light meter, also In 

- ''hat la tho avorago roaiatanco of i 
6, 12, 50 and 100 light? 

6 light bottlo ■ 6.92 ohms. 

12 " a 3.46 » 

25 « B 1.73 » 

50 " a 0.865 « 

W0 " « 8.4375 * 

(Oonont’a anawor^} 

80jr " 9co8tlon is an unsatisfactory one. The re- 

slstcmoa for a 25 ll£it meter bottle at 400 . 28 Fahr. is 2.214 ohms., 
perlment^ ,S2 l0hr * 0,941 ° tos * 111800 “ ro tho lta lts of the ex- 

„„ ' “7 0ra «f resistance for the ordinary ranges of temperature 

to Which the motor will be exposed (40P ?. to 80® F.) will be given 
by tho resistance at 60° F„ equal to 1.71 ohma. E 

For all motor bottles, therefore, we have - 

Hosls. at 60° p. 


6.84 ohms. 

3.42 » 

1.71 » 



Q. 10 • 
A. 10 • 

’ *£\£ bottle ? 906 ° f th ° ° 0U ° f OOPP ° r WlrS rlacad *“ ttlB Bama olr °w“ 

’ 78 ! h9 r arla “ ono 10 tha resistance of the sulphate of zinc 

solution, due to a rise or fall of tonporaturo In the room, and thus 
^ ?f tlB bat " oon tha resistance of tho bottle and the shunt, 
L ‘matures. The copper increasing resistance 

as the sulphate solution decreases. 

Vihat is the per centage of lnorease of resistance of copper by heat? 

... Clarke says; For ordinary meter temperature, 40° Fahr. and 

haVQ » at 400 >’ahr*. a resistance one mil-foot copper, 
9,92728 ohmsi at 800 Fahr., 10.74274 ohms; hence, per cent, ofln- 
oraase for 40° Fahr. Is 8.3144, or 0.205 of one per cent, per degree. 

Q. 12 - V.hat la the object of always employing a solution of tho same speolflo 

A. 12 - To be able always to obtain results under the some conditions, that Is 
to say, havo tha B«ne constant for oxidation, the same resistance, 
the same ratio between loss and deposit. 

C. 13 - that Is tha effect of impurities In the sulphate of zino solutions 
Iron, for Instance? 

A. 13 -* Tho most troublesome effects are tha reduction of the Iron salts by 
the zino of tha plate, causing uncertainty In the monthly reading. 

If present in large quantity, the resulting mud may cause a cross 
between the plates, making variations in tha reBlntnnoo of the 
bottle. (Conant.) It causes local electrical action and consequent 
error, vary groat In sane oases. 

Qm 14 - that Is tha moat frequent Impurity In Bulphate of zino? 

A. 14 - Iron salts. 

Q. 15 - Is it essential to havo vary pure sulphate of zinc, or will tho or¬ 
dinary sulphate of zinc answer. 

A. 15 - The sulphate of zino should be free from metallic and organic Impur¬ 

(J. 16 - that is tho object of the mercury' on the oleotrodes or plates? 

A. 16 - It prevents local electrical notion between the particles of metal 
and the zino, both In the zino, it being Impracticable to get pure 
zino. It also roduoes the surface of both zincs to exactly the 
some condition, hones prevents polarization. 

Q. 17 - V,hat produces the white deposit one sees at tho bottom of a meter ■ 
bottle, and vhat 1s this deposit? 

A,. 17 - Conant says oxldo of zinc; Brower says insoluble sulphate of zinc. 

It Is probably oxldo of zino formed by local eleotrloal aotlon 
between the zino and moroury or metallic particles. 

Q. 18 - What is tha offset of putting more lights through a motor than It is 
Intended for? 

A. 18 - The primary effoot would he to oause too hoayy a deposit, and make 
ths solution vary muddy. P-apld dopositlon cuusob crystals of zino 
to shoot out and thus a cross between the plates might ooour. If 
tha number of lights is greatly In excess of the rating of the 
mater, the shunt might got so hot as to mefco a permanent ohange, and 
at any rate oause an error of aoveral per cent, in the reading. If 
large quantity fell off to tho bottan, it would short circuit ths 

What Is the effoot of using very many less lights than the motor Is 
Intended for? 

Oxidation of the plates aauaas the losing plats to show too small a 
loss, the xoldo adhering, the oxygen is added to tho plate. Besides 
it lnoreases tha resistance of tha bottle, the oxide hld,lng a por¬ 
tion of the surface. Ths mater will road low in a certain propor¬ 
tion as tho lights are leas than the rated power of the motor. In 

<3. 19 - 
A. 19 - 

Q. 20 - bhen you put in a motor, how do you know what alee to put in, and how 
on d0 y° u aaoortain the lamp hours? 

2 " L i^ “l!|; a ~° an y as 4 . and a ? c9rtaln «ia numhar of limits tharo wara burn¬ 
ingevery 30 mlnutaa. In addition, it would be wall to paaa in float 
of the praniaaa and oount the lighta, if possible. If a private 
ST?? 1 *° nar °i average will give you the right number of lights, then 
T* S0 ° I t? ln tha lanp h0Tjrs and I ’ lacD tha mater according to the 
2Tth2 S tS" 1007,8 MEh8r ° r l0 ^ «“ atandard^lanp, 

<3. 21 - Suppose there was a store wired for 50 lights, and an unknown nmber 
was to be used, and you had to put in a mater, what else would you 
U89 » and how would you determine tha size? y 

~ *■*""* 0f plaoa » 3,13 Qtranfc the actual number burning, 

also look at the oanvas to ascertain what mznbar of gaa data there * 

Q. 22 - 3ujpo8o ono bcttl0 of a mater gave a loss of 1000 millegrama, and the 
n!o» r *«° JJ 10 firat “onth you put it in. liow would you proceed to 
“«■ propor bil1 t0 P»sont to the consumer; also, what 
would you do to ascertain the cause of this difference; and If you 
could not ascertain, what w D uld you do, and if you changed It for 
ZTZIV' “ d br ° UBht tha f irat ° na ta the would 

A. 22 - knowing hia iamp hours, it.would be possible to Judge in which bottle 
the error lay, and tha bill might ba dootored up by keeping an eye 
Se testS°w r n ° tlnS hl8 avara 6° J*»P hours, gin^o all meters 
^ight raLrf^ ° U ?I tha flrat polnt T,twld to look over the 

this aQ ? lf any orror otmld bQ dotooted. Palling in 

Mon* I™ “°t ar shovel bo inspected at once ., and any loose oonneo- 
tlon, break in tho strands of the flexible wire, bends in the shunt 
If no n ° r V: * ha oorrn gations to touch, to., corrected. 

Jected it wilf 8 I l8ibl w’ S? f. thQr ° ln B ® n <*thing not easily lor- 
hnnir ill P^rhups ba boat to change tho meter* On bringing it 

nek to tho station it should ba taken apart, and after maRIne 
neoeesary corrections, run it with the „Lt lot to bo tested® 

Q. 23 - ^ese you had charge of a station where they run only in the day time 
“ d „?® afcara bad "° temperature regulators to prevent freezing; you 
fw to start this station in August; you ware also to run it 

whit ^ ’ Tln f r . £U1Cl ba hald rQS Ponslble for tha matar department, 

« „ -T bat " ould y™ da *0 otzna out with honor? ’ 

• " ^Ta tQ L a ZT l 0 d P d laCBd 7n that Part of tha b ^WlhB where It would 

always b B warm and dry und never fall below 35 degrees Fahr. These 
conditions should bo notod ayary month when taking the mater whether 
there was any probability tha would continuo. Ifthe ml?e£ Tele 
dlftill "f***, bharci08t “ tl ° ragulators they would bo valueless in tho 
hlltteg lalp. 810 ' 70laW b ° ° Urr0nfc on the mains ho wo** hhe 

! * ^ " ^inc 1 platas? aU8 ° ° f 019 Utt1- h^ 193 that att aoh themselves to the 
. 24 - ^a tubblaa ara duo to the gas resulting from the olootrolysis of the 
solution and appoar when tha bottle Is worked too hard, i.o., when 
tha currant is hoo strong and tha solution bocomes too acid. Tha 
aold probably Inoraasas looal action on plates. The bubbles are 

c? 4 


Q. 25 - Which plata do they attach themselves to? 

A. 25 - Grower says both platoa. Oonant says to tho negative plate where the 

reduction of sine takes place. 

Q. 26 - V.hat ham-do these bubbles do* and how do they do the ham? 

A. 26 - They diminish the area of tho plate In contaot with tho liquid* and 

thus Increase tho resistance of the battle and oause the bill to 
be too low. Grower says they Increase polarization* making low 
reading* but this* ha says. Is slight. 

Q. 27 - What do you do to aorrsot the bubbles? 

A. 27 - Use pure sulphate zinc, properly standardize, carefully wash plates 
free of all omalganatlng acid, and do not overload the meter so as 
to produce free acid and thus causa the bubbles. 

Q. 28 - Yihat change. If any* tokos place In the solution after being used a 

A. 28 - It becomes slightly acid. 

Q. 29 - What result does this aoidulation produoe? 

A* 29 - Formation of bubbles, low reading of motor* it Increases resistance 
of liquid by diminishing area of plate contact* on the other hand 
the add causes the solution ltsolf to diminish In resistance. The 
• acid also.acts on the plates. 

Q* 30 - How do you proooed to amalgasate a new zinc plate? 

A. 30 - The plate must first bo cleaned with caustic potash. If very greasy, 
or, under ordinary circumstances, with emory cloth. It Is not 
necessary that the entire surface be made bright, but the top of 
the plate and also tho copper wire should be bright , so that the 
marine glue will stick, and also so that there will be a good 
connection betwoon the wlro and shunt-post. Then give the top of 
the plate, and tho wire for an inch, several coats of marine glue. 
When this has set, which it does in a short time, dip the plate 
into morcury ooverad with add water, and them upon removing rub well 
with a stiff brush. 

31 - How do you amalgamate a zino plate that has boon used? 

31 - It Is always well to clean the top of the plate and the copper wire, 
giving than a fresh ooat of marine glue* then dip Into merouiy. 

<2. 32 - Is it essential that the mercury should be pure? 

A. 32 - Yes* Metallic Impurities other than zinc will pass on to the plate 
and oause vary great local action. Organic matter Is easily token 
up by mercury. 

Q. 33 - How do you test tho mercury for purity? 

A. 33,- Tho mercury should run In globules across clean glasB and leave no 
mark or trail violble by reflected light. A drop evaporated by 
heat should leave not tho si latest trace of residue. 

Q. 34 - Is It essential that tho sulphuric aold used In amalgamating the 
zlnos should be pure; also tho water? 

A. 34 - Clear, transparent sulphuric aold and oloar spring water will 

answer; distilled water and chemically pure sulphuric aold are best 
where they oan be procured easily and cheaply. 

Q. 35 - How do you test the sulphuric aoid, and what are tho impurities you 
test it for? 

A. 35 - By diluting with puro water and testing for iron By aranonla, organic 
matter by permanganate of potash, and general metallic impurities by 
ammoninn sulphide, 

Q. 36 - What kind of water do you use to amalgamate the zincs with? 

A, 36 - Clear spring or well water. 

Q. 37 - How do you obtain distilled water? 

A, 37 - Condense Bteam, but this is apt to contain iron; boil and filter rain 
water; distill the water in regular still and worn; buy the water in 
carboys; boiled snow water; loo melted. 

Q. 39 - How do you test tho water to see if it is pure, and what do you test 

A. 39 - The water should bo tested for metals by anmonlun sulphide. If un¬ 
changed in oolor, tho water may be considered practically pure; 
but to bo sure of iron salts, acidulate the water slightly with 
hydrochloric aoid and uso sulphooyanide of potass lira, which gives 
a rad coloration. 

Q. 40 - Bo you tost water for organic Impurities, and how? 

A. 40 - Yes. 

Q* 41 - Boes distilled water become Impure by standing? 

A. 41 - Hot if tightly oorked and sealed and out of oontaot with the air, 
otherwise it beoomos filled with-onlmal life. 

Q. 42 - How do you propose to keep your distilled water? 

A. 42 - It may be kept In glass-stopper bottles or well cleaned oarboys, 
which may bo bought for $1.50 to 02.00 eaoh. 

Q. 43 - How do you test the purity of your sulphate of zinc, and what do you 
test for? 

A. 43 - Sulphide of amraoniun gives a perfectly white peroepitate; any colora¬ 
tion denotes metallic impurities. 

Q. 44 - V.hat is the objeot of coating tho copper rod holding the zinc plate, 
so the surfaoe of the copper does not come in contact with the 

A. 44 - One objeot is to prevent the formation of a battery of which the zinc 
and copper are the two elements, thus making local action within the 
liquid; also, to prevent tho mercury from oatlng the copper away 
where It is secured to the zinc, probably causing bad oontaot and 
hsnoo higher resistance# 

Q. 45 - T.hat would be the effect If the copper was poorly coated, so that some 
of It oame In contaot with the solution? 

A. 45 - Theoretically the effect would he to reduce the resistance, and also 

cause the setting up of a local action between the plate and tho copper 
wire; practically It Is enough If tho wire is covered to guard against 
contact with tho mercury during amalgamation and the Joint well pro- 

Q. 46 - Vihen you take tho plates out of the bottle after being brought In, what 
do you do first? 

A. 46 - Take hold of tho copper wire of tho walked plato, unscrew the nuts, 
take off the negative plate, rap tho bolts thrpugh, shake off the 
washer and block, rinse the weighed plate with clean water and put It 
away to dry on a piece of paper upon which Is written tho number of 
the meter bottlo. 

Q. 47 - Do you weigh the plate of tho A bottlo, then the B? 

A. 47 - It may bo a better plan to weigh all of the "A." plates and then all of 
the "B rt plates. The Idea of this being that an error made In weighing 
one plate may be repeated on the next, and If confined to one meter 
would not show so readily as If It occurred In two. Thus, suppose a 
man had called a 20-gromme weight a 10 and reposted tho error on both 
the A and B plates. Tho error would not show because, both weights 
being low by the same amount, tho apparent loss would be the sane In 
both. 9uppose, on the other hand, that two "A" plates were weighed 
successively and tho error repeated in than, the ohanoes are that be¬ 
fore the B plates ware weighed the error would be either detected or 
else, without noticing that an error had been cocmitted, the weigher 
might get on tho right track and find by a comparison of loss on the • 
two plates Just where the error oame In. This Is all vory well when 
plates oome in, as a man to a a oheok on hls woric by comparing the loss 
on the two plates, tvhen, however, he 1s wolfing plates for Ibbuo, 
he must use the greatest oare In avoiding such errors by examining the 
weights from time to time and duplicating all wolghlngs. In ™nv<T. e 
80 °h duplicate weighings all of the plates should be first weighed and 
the weights recorded on a slip of paper. Then the mah should begin 
with tho first plate weighed and go through the list, rqplaolng on the 
pan the weights rooordod on the papers. 

Q. 48 - V.hat would be the per centogo of error in a bill for 510 In one month 
on a meter, if the customer stopped using tho light for the last 15 
days of the month? 

0. 49 - If you reoolvod, at a station that you were about starting, a large lot 
Of meters with parts, what things would you examine particularly in 
making up oach motor before setting It for a consumer? 

A. 49 - All of the connections, the Joints of binding-posts on flexible wire, 
the shunts, to see that tho corrugations did not touch; and also ex¬ 
amine the plates to see that the wires were fixed firmly. The shunt 
would also be tested for aocuraoy and the thermo-atrip adjusted (see ). 

Q. 50 - Does oxidation of tho Plates interfera with tho accurate recording of 
tn© metar7 

A. 50 - Tha affects of oxidation and source of error and amount of sane Is 
shown olsenhere. 

A* Ki ~ J n ^ bat Instances doos It most seriously lntorfara? 

" “ J- ““ °f mmbar «T “Blits on a vary large meter, or a 

plB *‘ t f0r Blntar consumption la affected seriously 
by oxidation In stmmar, owing to mall consumption. 

Q. 53 - SnPPose you wore starting a station where tmporature regulators were 
to be used to prevent freezing of the sulphate of zinc solution and 
", 0t adJust9d for tmparaturo, how would you 
rlmSrt ^ th0 1007,8 at about 40 Poto- in the absence of a 

A * 52 ' ° n ° °°? ld J )e adjusted by placing it In a box containing ice. 

oat by using a thin piece of motal to gauge 
the distance between, the set screws. 

i % : Plat8S ba WOlBh0d: i- 9 ** accurately? 

a^Stv uset t0 th ° ™ fc of “BUt used; where 

party uses but little llgit close weighing Is best. 

Q * 64 " 1 ^° U ?°^ ld ™ lgh a plata 1,1 1,170 minutes to ono-flfth of a milligram 
A. 54 - »Kf n °C“.r “ Wth “ S ^ 

Q. 55 - Chat wears a delicate balajoe out? 

A * 55 " ° f W9l ? htB 0,1 tha 80al0 -P°" a long time; weigh- 

lng too heavy loads; oaroless handling, that Is, forgetting to run Sp 
supports before changing weights, allowing it to swing too 
rawldlv 1 ^ J ' 3ra a balan0B b P running up the sldo-armf too 

rapidly and causing tha beam tD jump on its agate bearings. 

^ l0nB 0ught a sat of mal1 '"oiJ^ts to be used? 

“ 0b0 '' ld ** toatad f 1 ™ tlma ta tiBia b y comparison with a standard 

and any error noted, but tho life-time of a sot of small weights de- 

00 “ l9 aa F 8 ““W racolTQ tho » anything else; under any con¬ 
ditions they should last a yoar and ought to last two or throe years. 

a* « " ®“L d ® ytra plooa on 01111 ta *e off those weights? 
o* - with brass tv/oasars* 

Q. 58 - Does this not wear them out In time? 

Y ?ho welg5a! B ° r8 0USht *° b0 tlPP9d ” Uh * ld t0 piovant of 

Q * 69 " \ labUlty of arrara bal «B " odo *» using a great 

a cq number of little weights In oountlng up the totals? 

A. 59 - If you oount from the box and then from the weights, and writs tha 

££ «uS JSfiSu""“ “ *■ -=• « 

“■"' m - *« - - *» •. 

- 10 - 

Q. 61 - Boas It moke any difference if the mater-plates are not In the middle 
of tho bottla? 

A; 61 - It la bast to have thorn In the middle. 

Q. 62 - Suppose one of tho platoa mere bank against tho aldo of tho bottla and 
touched on both odgoa; what dlfferonoo would this produce, and how? 

A. 62 - It would diminish the conductivity between the plates; the resistance 
would Increase, as the liquid distance which tho llnoo of force must 
travel will bo inoroasod In length and diminished In bulk. 

Q. 63 - V.hat is polarization of electrodes? 

A. 63 - The metal reduced during the action of electrolysis shows a tendency 
to return to its previous condition. This reduction sets up an 
opposing 3. I*. F. which tends to produce a current contrary to the 
direction of the electrolyzing ourront. 

Q. 64 - How do you ascertain the core tant, so'that-with a given motor and given 
lamp you can give the constant? 

A. 64 - Knowing the current per lnnp, the relative resistances of ohunt and 

bottla circuit, and tho loss in weight due to one ampere. We multiply 
this lose by the fraction of on ampere passing through the bottle for 
oaoh lamp. This gives us tho lanp hour constant. Dividing the price 
per lamp hour by this, wo obtain tho aonstont factor, by which the 
loss In grammes Is to bo multiplied in calculating a man’s bill. 

Q. 65 

A. 65 

B. of bottle - 973 times H. of elmnt. Henoes- 
s .00762 amperes through bottla per lamp. 


1 ampere removes per hour 1.224 gns. of zlno. Hences- 
1.224 x .00762 a .000933 gns. zlno per lamp hour. Then: 

« lamp hours. ftOW. -fa .fF.Bit x .0125 b bill in dollars, or 
.00093 *■ ,00093 

loss In gns. xjpjjig - s 1,111 10 dollars, and henoo we have for the 
constant .0125 vv00093 m 13.4 4 and loss In gns. x 13.4 • bill In dollars. 
Brower says ,000058345 per lamp hour. 

Conant says .0009335. 

Clarke eaye theaa ore both substantially.oorreot. Assuning that the 
average portion of tho total ourrent flowing, which passes through the 
mater bottla. Is oIbo tho value of the amp or o seoond ae 0.00034 

gms., as experimentally detennlned. V/e have for the value of a candle 


Volts Seconds 0ms. Gms. 

104 x 1 X JL_ X 3600 x 0.00034 n to 0.000058345 
140 974 16 

Ohms. Candles. 

loss per oandle hour, or 0.0009335 gms. per lamp hour. 

- Supposing with a 12 light meter and a lamp of 140 ohnB., 104 volts, 

what would be the oonstunt? 

- 3. K. F. - 104 volts. R. » 140 ohms. Henoas- 

= S-o.« c. 

- 11 - 

Q. 66 - Alao with tha sane Qatar, a 220 ohm. lamp, 110 volte, what ia tha 00D8tant? 
A. 66 - These ara 10 C.T*. lamps, 


Volta Seconds Qms. 0ms. 

110 x _1_ x _1 x 3600 x 0.0034, equal to 0.00006283 
220 974 10 

Ohma. Candles 

loss par oandla hour, or 0.0006283 per lamp hour. 

<?. 67 - Oan you put a 12 light hottla in a 6 light motor? that is tho effect and 
tha amount of error produaad by It? 

A. 67 - Yea. Assuming that a 12 light bottle can ba put in a 6 light meter, and 
that with a 6 light bottle the average amount of current passing through 
the bottle circuit will be -g^th part of the total, wo have the following 

Vith 12 light bottle. 

Tilth tho 12 light bottlo -. JL- ths of the total current passes through 
the bottlo. SBB0 

Kith the 6 light bottle gggg-ths of the total current passes through 
the bottlo. Taking the amount passing through with the 6 llgit bottle 
aa correct, tho amount with the 12 light bottlo will be 9.747 par cent 
too groat. 

0. 68 - How would you provont this? 

A. 68 - fly arranging the connections to tho bottle, bo that they would not fit 
any bottle but tho right one, or use a piece of wood, so only the right 
bottlo would fit tha cose. 

0. 69 - Suppose a customer, the How York Stock Exchange, for Instance, had 400 
limits, and they only lighted them on dork doyB, soy 4 times a month, 

20 minutes each time. That else mater would you use, explain why you 
would uso it, and why tha othar sizes would not answer? 

A. 69 - In the first plaae, let us calculate tho lamp hours par month, 20 

minutes x 4 » 80 minutes > 1.33 per month, 20 minutes x 4 = 80 minutes » 
1.33 hours. 1.33 hours x 400 a 532 lamp hours. In the second place, 
let us sae what tha "wasta grammes" per month would bo. For the first 
distrlat, the lamp hour constant is about 0.00092 (pis. Hence in this 
cuss, we have 0.00092 x 532 a 499.44 millogrtaanes. Horo we have a 
small loss, and on the othar hand a vary heavy current acting for a 
few minutes at a time. Hence tha motor must, in order to indicate 
correctly, bo tho smallest size that will oarry the hoavy ourront with 
safety. In all probability, a 200 li£0it meter would bo the smallest 
size that could with oafety bo used. In this meter there would be 2 
100 light shunts in multiple arc, and as ths resistance of tho bottle 
remains constant. It would bo nooossary, since the ratio between 
shunt and bottlo roolotanoo is unfibled, to alBO double tho constant. 

- 12 - 

Alao, since the loss is snail oompared with tha capacity of that 
size plate, tha consumer should be made to pay for the oxidation, 
tha value of whioh Is about 320 mgs., as otherwise the bill will 
be low by that amount. The way to introduce tha factor of oxida-- 
tion into tha bill, is to regard it as Iosb and add it to the in¬ 
dicated loss. 

C. 70 - How would you heap track of the changes in the customer’s ligitB, so 
that tha meter, no matter what changes took place, would be the 
right size? 

A. 70 - Inspeot the district every now and then, keeping an eye on the lanp 
hours of the various consumers, and also note by the variations of 
mater readings, any changes in his lanp hours. Kora than that, the 
wireman must bo required to notify the motor department at onoe of 
any change in the lights of any consumer. 

Q. 71 - Suppose both meter bottles came in with tho doposit all grandular, 
and a lot of it fallen to tho bottom of the jar, and it was the 
first month’s rjoord. How would you ascertain the v.oi^its and be 
able to make out the hill within a reasonable oertainty. 

A. 71 - This shows that the meter has bean run too hard, but as you do not 
weigh tho deposit, but always weigh the lose, there would probably 
bo no trouble in making out tho bill. 

(?. 72 - Suppose when you went for tlie bottles, you found both oraokod and 

the solution run out, what would you do, technically speaking, and 
how would you do about the consumer’s bill, supposing lie was using 
it the first month, and you had no previous bill to judge fran? 

A., 72 - Clean up the meter, examine tho thexmo strip (if in winter), to see 
if its adjustment was oorraot, and if the aooldont took place in 
wann weather, see if anyone had been tampering with tha meter. This 
would be a matter of observation, as it would not be well to ques¬ 
tion people and give tho thing away, unless it wore evident that 
some one had fooled with tho moter, in whioh oaso tho consumer should 
be made to pay for the damage, and pass his bill by average of past 
bills. In oase it appoarsd to be a fault of tho meter, the best 
plan would be to say nothing about it, and fix up tho bill by what ■ 
you had noticed of his burning during the month, and oIbo- by examining 
his previous bills. By waiting tho plats, some olue might bo ob¬ 
tained as to tho time of tho accident. And if perhaps the consumer 
had already told you that the meter leaked on a certain day', the 
weight would be some help in making out the hill; a periodical taking 
of lamp hours would ba tho hast remedy to ascertain proximately tha 

0. 73 - Suppose the constant was figured on a 220 ohm. lamp, 104 volts to give 
10 candles, and there wus 106 volts on tho mains at the feeders, 3 
per cent drop on the mains, and two and a half per cent on the service 
and wiring Inside the house, what would be tho volts at the lamp, and 
what would ba your constant? 

A. 73 - 108 x .97 • 104.76 volts at mains on sorvioe. 104.76 x .975 a 102.2 

volts at lamp. Tho general furmula 1b C x .0012566 a 102.2 x .0012566 
H 220 

.0058 + gna. per lamp hour. 

Q. 74 - Do you test your meters before you sand them out, and how do you test 
than. Explain fully, and if you find one out, what do you do? 


l. 74 - Taa. A number of tliam ora placed In Boriea, and a.strong onrront, oon- 
trollod by a number of standard lampB, passed through them for 10 or 
12 hours- The roBulrB ara .than noted-, and any matar chewing an error 
of more than 2 par oent,, thrown out. The theoretical loss of weight 
may be calculated beforehand, as you knew the number of proposed lamp 
hours. The aotual teat is to sea how closely the meters agree with 
this, and also how wall they agree between themselves. It is always 
bostto have a standard matar to oomparo the others with, as, owing 
to tho fact that the prossura varies at the station uni oh more in pro¬ 
portion than at the lamps in the dlBtrlot, the aotual loss may differ 
by 3 or 4 per cent, from the theoretical, and the meters still be all 
right. If In any case a bottle roads too high, its resistance is too 
low, and to remedy this, wo file the copper wlro leading from the shunt 
to the flexible wire^ on the side, to increase the resistance of the 
circuit. The meter is then tasted again with the nart lot. If the 
bottle reads too low, its resistance is too hi#i» and so we shorten the 
oonneotion with the shunt, than rotest, to. Should this fail to correct 
the trouble, and tho error appear still vary largo, the trouble is in 
the shunt, and may bo corrootad by filing the shunt, if too low, or 
putting on a little solder to increase tho oross-seotion, if too high. 

It is not well to fool with tho shunts, and if they seem badly out, 
the meter should be returned to the maker. 

«J. 75 - What is tho object of reversing tho ourrent in a house-changing switch? 

A. 75 - To keep the current through the meter always in the some dirootion. 

Q. 76 - What is a house-changing switch for? 

A, 76 - To enable one to threw a customer ovor from tho A to the B side, or vioe 
versa, to maintain a balance between the two sldoB, and thus prevent 
too great a drop of 3. E. F. in the mains. 

q. 77 - suppose the A and B side oiroultB were run into a house and lights were 
put on both, how would you place tho meter? take diagram. 

Q. 78 - V.hat 1 b. tho temperature-regulating strip made of, how made, and how does 
the temperature produce a movement? 

A. 78 - It la made of brasB and stool strips riveted together; when the temper¬ 
ature falls tho brass contracts to a greater extent than the steel, 
oauslng tho strips to bend and touoh tho platinum points. 

Q. 79 - fthat kind of a lamp is used in the mater for heating, and what 1b the 
difference between it, if any, and a regular lamp? 

A. 79 - The lamp used la on inforior lamp, not aultablo for illuninatlon; a 

certain percentage of poor lamps are made at tho factory, and are oalled 
real stance lamps; thay are sold at a reduced rate, and are UBed in 

Q. 80 - Does it moke any difference what oandlo power lnnp is used? 


A. 80 - Yes. Tho volta of tha resistance loops In the meter should be flva or 
eight voltB hltfior thon tha consumer's loops, so tho water lamps will 
only coma up to throa or four oandle power, ond thus prevent breakage, 
they balng unable to stand full lnoandaaoanaa for any length of time. 

Q. 81 - How muc}i zlno Is removed and deposited in one minute by an ampere of 

A. 81 - In one minuto on ampere will remove .0204 gnB. of zlno. Tho deposit Is 
slightly loss than this. 

Q. 82 - Supposing there wore 10 amperoa of current flowing with a pressure at 
the meter of 104 volts,, how much more current would flow If the voltB 
wore raised to 107 volts? 

A. 82 - With the .16 o.p, Imps, having a 6j*' fibre, the ourront Inoroases almost 
exactly in proportion to tho electromotive force. Assuae It to be ex¬ 
actly proportional, the amount of loss on the oonduotor between the 
lamps and the meter will not affsot tha result required. The per cent, 
inoroase In ourrent will be 107 - 104 = 2.885 per cent. 


C. 83 - If In one month tho bill was 10 dollars, at tho rate of 1 oent per lamp 
hour, and a constant pressure of 104 volts maintained, what would be 
- the Increase in tho bill the next month, if a constant pressure of 106 
volta was maintained? 

A. 83 - On the basis of tho assumption In answer to question 82, that the ourrent 
Increases In diroot proportion to tho electro-motive foroo, the gain 
will be 1000 x lO^-AO* . = 19.23, or nearly 19j cents. 

Q* 84 - ho eleotrlo lumps lnoroaso or diminish their conductivity by rise of 

A. 84 - They diminish their resistance by rise of temperature. 

Q. 85 - \5hat Is the effect on tho meter of a short circuit for 1 aeoondoof a 
100 volt ourrent aoross terminals of main at meters, but beyond the 

A. 85 - The plug In tho vertical main cut out would be burned out and probably 
no harm done to tho meter, except that the shunt might for on Instant 
be heated. The effect of the extra ourront In tho meter for the time 
of 1 second would make no difference in tho reading, for 1 ampere a 
.34 mgs. por sec.j roughly, we may say that 1 of tho total currant 

goes through tho bottle, so that for each ampere Bsoond we have .00034 
mgs. A ourrent of 1000 amperes would theroforo oauBe only .34 mgs. to 
be dissolved in 1 sooond, and tha plug would go long before the current 
reached this figure. 

Q. 86 - On oleanlng old mater plates, what Is the best to use, sand paper or 
emery paper? 

A. 86 - Sand paper, vary finest. 

0. 87 - Boos not emery paper contain Iron, and would not some of it be liable 
to got attaohed to tho zlno? 

A. 87 - Yes; It contains Iron, which might attach itself to plate and make 
local notion. 


Q. 88 - V.hat salt of Iron Is gensrally oontained in anaiy? 

Xm 88 — Dcrublo salt of Iron and alumina* 

Q. 89 - Kama the difforont kinds of arrora that may . thka place, ao aa to moke a 
wong bill for the customer? 

A. 89— Shunt not oorraot. Wistoke in neighing. Solution out of oxdar. Bottle 
wrongly placed. Bottle broken. Conneotions in meter broken. Too low 
or high lamp hours. Variations of pressure, loose wire on plate. 

Poor oontaots in meter wires. 

Q. 90 - V.hat is the ourrant-carrying capacity of the ahunt in eaoh size meter; 

I do not mean what currant will it carry without hoating, but v.hat 
current will tha Bhunta carry without injury for say from one-half of 
an hour to three houra run? 

A. 90 - Vihen tho meter shunts ware first made thoir carrying capacity was es¬ 
timated on tha basis of tha 16 aandlo powor lamp, requiring 3/4 
ampere par lamp. On that basis tho shunt will oarry 40 of these 
lamps and become slightly warn, or 50 lanps and become very warm. The 
latter was taken as the safe naxlmra limit (25 light meter), hence a 
meter ahunt was auld to be good for double the nominal capacity. Tak¬ 
ing tho smno fundamental assumption, but change tho lamps to those re¬ 
quiring 1/2 ampere (Village Plant 10 o.p. lamps), tho maxlmun safe 
number of auoh lamps for a 25 light meter will bo 75. Fran this is 
given a table below of oapuoity of meters: 

Name of Water 

Nominal capacity Wax. safe capacity 

10 o.p. lsnpn. to o.p. lamp. 

6 lights 
12 » 

25 '• 

50 » 

100 « 

9 3/8 
18 3/4 
37 1/3 

18 3/4 
37 1/2 

. 91 - Suppose a plate gained 10 mgs. in a month, and yet was rightly.placod. 
how oould a bill bo oaloulatod? 

> 91 - The action in the bottle was not strong enough to entirely overoome tho 
oxidation. Thus suppose ttfo oxidation of the plate would have been, if 
left to irself, 40 mgs., then we see at once that the loss must be con¬ 
sidered as equal to 30 mgs. or 40 - 10, 

C. 92 - V/hat is tho limit of monthly deposit? 
A.-92 - Conant soys:- 

6 light, 0.750 me. 

12 '• 1.5 '< 

25 » S.OO " 

50 •' 6.00 !! 

100 » 12.00 0 


Claitee says, this Is corroot on ths assumption that the max. 
safe loss of slno from a 26 light meter Is the amount taken off toy 
25 lights (roqulrlng .92 ampere oaoh) for 30 days, for 3J- hours per 
day. I prefer to reduce It to the following anounta: 

6 light 

25 " 

50 » 

100 » 

• 625 gas. 
1.250 •• 
2.500 » 

5.000 " 
10.000 » 

With regard to question 20, which relates to the oholce of meter, 
there Is often used a rule to thB effeot that the proper alee may be 
determined toy ascertaining the lamp hours and dividing toy 3; thus a 
25 light meter Is rated at 75 lamp hours per day. This Is all vary 
wall as far as the bottle la concerned, but Buppoao that there were 
75 lamps burning one hour, oould a 25 light shunt oarry the current? 

I think not, tout that Is a point we lack Information upon. (Conant.) 

Clarice says, ny answer to Conant's first question answers this 
as far us the shunt Is concerned. If the lamp hours per day divided 
by 3 gives a result which Is less than the total lamps on at one time, 
then a larger meter must be taken. Suppose, for example, 75 lamp 
hours dally; dividing this toy three gives 25 lights as the proper 
size of meter, tout If 50 or more lights are on at one time, then the 
larger meter must too token. 


Ey H. 3. Andrews. 

(j. 1 - What Is the neutral point on a dynamo ? 

A. 1 - The non-spartcing point on commutator. 

Q. 2 - Why are the brushes set at the neutral point? 

A. 2 - To avoid sparking at brushes. 

Q. 3 - Does the neutral point ohango with the load? Explain how it changes, 
the direction, So.? 

A. 3 - The neutral, or non-trrhrkine point, travels forward in the direction 
of rotation with Increase of load. The current, passing around wire 
of armature, polarizes it in this direction, when the brushes are in 
the position roprooontod: 

At the same tine tho fiold magnet polarizes it by induction in a line 
at right angles to the above, thus: 

And the result of the opposing or partially opposing polarities is a 
compromise between tho two, the actual polarity of armature assuming 
a mean position between tho two, thus: 

The exact position of polarity duponding on the amount of ourrent pass¬ 
ing around armature, the strength of tho field magnet, velocity of po¬ 
tation, position of bruOhea on commutator. So., So. When the dynamo 
is parrying a light load, there is comparatively a weak currant passing 
around the armature. Ho. 1 polarity is, therefore, weaker than Ho. 2, 
and tho preponderance in otrength of Ho. 2 bringB the neutral point 
away down, in the direction opposite to rotation. A heavy load on tho 
dynamo implies a strong current around armature, in which case Ho. 1 
polarity becomes stronger than Ho. 2, and brings tho neutral point 
away round, in direction of rotation, to nearly the top and bottom of 

Q. 4 - Suppose you tried to sot the brunhoo to the neutral point to etop sparking 
yet there was a groat deal of aparklng even at the best position, explato 
TO«t 111(18 that would cause It. and how you would pre- 

vent it, by stopping, and also what you would do if you could not ston 
tne dynamo* 

A. 4 - The sparking at commutator n 

b you would do if you could not stop 
7 result from sovoral onuses>- 

(I) Dirty or rough oonmutator. 

(XU Burnt or ragged brushes. 

(in) ^Ig* 1 Dor or bars In camnutator. 

(IV) A loose connection in armature. 

(V) Too heavy a load of lompB on armature, or a partial short 
oirouit e(nowhere on the conductors. 

(I) °* a V ha ooraimtator ““'rfully with sand-paper, without shutting 
off tno currant. , ° 

1111 i ow bruahes * onB at a 

v ™., 18 badly trarnt * P" 4 a «« one in Its place 
fTm 2" tiX ccm b6 fUsd *nte> proper fonn* 

Ullj 309 answers to questions 22 and 23. 

(IV) The apart: Would be a very bright blue, snappy one, and would 
IV! OOBButo *«* Inking to loose connection 
PMsod the brush, though on account of the rapid rotation of 
armature, the sparking might appoar as if all round the 

t0 “ ordinary observer. By looking closely and 
steadily nit revolving armature, It will appear as If station- 
ary, or not revolving, for the reason that the Bwark happens 
ttoo f avolut l° n at exactly the same plaoe^Wy 

time, and whilst the annature is to exactly the same relative 
position with rejprd to other parts, the eye only really sees 
the atmaturo throughout the duration of spark, which occupies 
only a vsry small fraction of a seoondt bnt owing to the 
illusion, commonly expressed as "persistence of vision," the 
successive glimpses are carried over and blended one Into the 
other, and the effect of a continuous picture of the annature 
In one position is presented to tho eye. To remedy this spark, 
for tho time being, set one of the two brushes on eaoh side of 
comnutator, a bar and a half (or thereabouts) ahead of Its 
companion brueh, so that when the broken or loose connection 
comos round, tho main circuit will always be complete through 
two of tho four brushes. 

run. cover next the commutator end of armature 
must bo token off and all the soldered connections carefully 
axamtood, and the loose one re-soldered. In the oase of the 
H dynamo, as now made, it may simply be that one of the gilt- 
!!V' B , ha !,r° rk f loose, causing imperfect connection. 

, ° V* 311 tha 80ld8Md should be care¬ 

fully examined, and the screws triad all round. The dynamo 

wryrffsa zv&sz 

” = sr—. 

■dno.tow, should “‘f" 14 of ‘°“- 

Jns jtoTMrs 

brushes well forward on oo4,uta?or ^ f. rUnnlnB * wlth 
and send out lmnedlately t 0 direction of rotation, 

tho trouble. A dead short alnLTf ^ d . ran8dy tha oause of 

^lzed^anCr 8 ^o 0 tofdSeter“ro^utator 1 wd°t Safc th Palr 0f la ^ 9 ~ 

polnts will then, of course, touch w’ thm 0VBr * 1110 

by counting the bars, thus: SupSs^hl™ v Bay als0 ' ba faani 

and eaoh brush covers tho width of H-n t, ara _f 4 bars in commutator, 
together, four bars covewd bfthl v ° ? ars * ® la ™ *m then be al- 
olear. Half of those fifty iLuld br^rae^da I , 0aw 50 bars 
Therefore, count tho number S bars „V1Z J d ond on th9 other, 
the brushes, and If thora are lust 25 S L" 1 !” ° f OOIa:luta tor between 
oach other. The rosult of their being set “J? fe ba 0pr08lt8 to 

Impossibility of setting the bn, J i w? \ opposite would be the 
neutral point of oomu^tor; fZU "* °f‘° tly “ tho 

on one side, tha other pair must ba off itTon hI ®^ 0 noutral point 
by tha^ornjp^ bruslies will be sure to spark to an extent only°ltolted 

oanmutator sldawls^ov^^^ ^ 9 a ^ 8itlon of tha brushes on the 

sonst 9 In 9 ffrlct?“ a £sheTa5w5f ta^ne^pScer 3 “* ”*"• by th9 

sidorably. m ° aartain that the bearings are worn down cm- 

■ ! LuJ rSfrJSf i&Zr2!Z2'ti£ , J£2rs m "» - •» 

a portion of tha brass binding wire S 7 °° aen and a «twlst 

armature before engine couldbo stoiW 7 0ry fla . Bily ^ tha 

ears should watch very carefully. . 1b a polnt that ongln- 

of armature In the field bl^ks^ it^ay^^o^T B ^ P08ltlon 

^■sTOtsauBtS swsj; .•as-" 

*"• *"* if ** m ^■»■». «4 »s r^SiSsr 1 " 

'■ ’ ' ” f ‘ """“W »« »» m . 1 * not .too, 

• • is stss.'jESfsr&z a ,—...»... * 

toa bearing with cold oil. fcaa^.^ h0ats » “»<> liberally 
the continue the operation B ? oond Oil-can cooling In 

unless the first method absent 1% t UBl " B 0013 wa ter or Ice. 

and ice are very apt to ££gSlt^ thB h9at * 

In the bearing and Increase Its Whloh wU1 remain 

water or Ice Is stopped. tandonoy to haat - **» supply of oold 

10 - Suppose you had two dynamos lr, ™,n. ■. 

“ - * js^i sssHTbS? r ^ wsr 
?z‘; i 5T-K 2»: srs £r~ lV -C 

a belt temporarily. 8 found tho quickest way to mend 

11 - Suppose you hod two dynamos rm . ... 

11 TiK4 d h0W T/ ° uld you stop It? ^ De 0VQr fche ot her machine- 

11 - This would Intimate that tho 3. V. v nr w-i. 

of oool armature- and that v*-* # hot anaatvra is higher than that- 

?»»» >*™ „\2 “.“to .'.2° S.-2 “»-«4 taSSta** 

Will probably be that tho brushes n * ' ? motor. Tho cause of this 
forward, to dlrootlon of rotation ° f °°°L aa,iaturo are net too far 
machine further back In direct Ion’oimn'T^T** 884 bruahBS of oool 
taring up the P. jj. p. of cool ta V 0 rotation, which will 

dynamo fonward. In direction 8llje put br «shee of hot 

If both d ynamos are running in the W111 lwor lfcs 3J!J. 

each should rest on commutator In JT, dlraotlon * the brushes of 
running in opposite dlrootlons, the^vn^n 1 ’!! 1 ? 10 " 8 ’ but lf they are 
right to left (facing switch-board? h0t 18 rnnnlnB fr ® 

forward. In direction of rotatl^’t^ 0 ^^ 8 bruBh8B ***» 

you wantad h to°load °emall^°or " Q ° ln ?? ltIpl0 arc across the B side and 
- Answer to previous question cova^^M 1 * dlvld0d * how would you do It? 
brushes of both dy^smL “□“sTto r^fr^r ,Mally * provided he 
a ; *• p * of dther machine may bfv^ P° Bl tl°ne relatively; the 
si stance l n its field olroultf Tn?f dd by producing extra re- 
the field circuits of teodvn^,„„„ 8Ur f °5uality of resistance in 

_ aSKS 

wh° ^h* 086 r ' ni Produce *in^1 ts^oorrospondi* ° neIna rav clvlng 

tz sirs'&ssz* 

^ “‘Jw. the addition of l£ad So toT ” 0t V01y BanBl “vo and 
react, and slow down the faster ° lnoroa8a of 3. lr. p. will 

then Increase In speed and produce tho’s^f * h ° , obhor en Cine will 
again slowed down by its aseunntinn!! ? ! rastllt * until it is 
as seo-sawlng will be produced^ and ^II^m^ s ? the eff0ct known 
Qnginoa and dynamos aro 



Q« 14 - Supposing you had a dynamo on the B side run by ono angina, and you de¬ 
sired to put a second one aoroee in multiple.arc with it, please state 
how you would proceed, and what particular things you would ascertain 
before connecting? 

A. 14 - First put in the plug of the proper resistanoo-booc, and note when spare 
dynano too changed its own field. Then close double main switch in the 
right direction, and the spare dynamo will at once asstme itB share of 
the load, if conditions stated in former answers are fulfilled. 

Q. IS - Suppose one dynamo was on the B side, and you attanpted to place another 
dynamo aoross multiple arc with it, and the field magnet was either 
not charged at all or not fully charged, what would be the consequence? 

A. 15 - The armature of dynamo, whoso fields is imperfectly charged, will make 
a dead short circuit across line, lamps will go out, and If the circuit 
Is not iiunedlataly opened, one or both armatures may be burned. 

Q. 16 - Suppoao you had two dynamos run by separate engines, the dynamos being 
in multiple arc, and the engine of one got punohed in the bearing sud¬ 
denly, what would be the first thing you should do? 

A. 16 - Immediately open the awitoh on head-board of dynamo that Is belted to 
Injured engine, then shut down engine and throw in spare dynamo in 
place of the one out out, if posslblo. 

Q. 17 - Supposo there were two dynanos working in multiple arc from one engine, 
and tho belt slipped on ono and not on tho other, what would be the 

A. 17 - The 3.E. F. of dynamo whose belt slips will fall, and the other will 
Imnediataly assuao more than its proportionate share of load, and will 
therefore heat up. 

0. 18 - Hake diagran of the manner of connecting up the field magneta of an H 

Outside wires are connacted together batwoen polos. Inside wires are 
multiple arc’d and brought to respective binding poatB. Outside 
wlrae are single. Inside wires are treble. 

Q. 19 - V.hat is tho object of breaking a oirouit In two plaoea simultaneously? 

A. 19 - To lossen tho spade —■—* 

Q.-20 - V.hat is the effeot of water on the field magnet and aimature of a 

A. 20 - Cat canvas or paper forms a partial conductor. Tho result would, there¬ 
fore, be most probably a serious leakage of current, and in the case 
of tho armature it night generate sufficient heat to carbonize the 
material and aause tho armaturo to burn out. 

Q. 21 - Chat Is the onuao of the ring of fire around tho edge of tho commutator 
one aomotimBB sees, and how do you stop'it? 


A. 21 - Tills defect la generally oaused by small plecos of copper between the 
bars of commit at or, making a local short circuit from bar to bar 
across the mica insulation. To remedy It, dean the commutator with 
00 sand paper, and look carefully over the mica Insulation, and If 
any small particles of copper are to be seen in the mica connecting, 
or nearly connecting, two bars, remove the some with the point of a 
sharp pen-kn Ifo, using great bare not to cut into the mloa. 

<?• 22 - Suppose you had groat sparking on one machine after starting for the 
night run, and could not stop, and the next morning on stopping you 
found one bar badly burned, explain what oould have oaused it, and 
what you would do to stop It for the next night’s run? 

A, 22 - This might be the effeot Of 

(I) A loose or high commutator bar. 

(XI) A loose connection between wire of ooramitator bar and 
wire of armature. 

To remedy:- 

(I) Apply a hoavlor tension to the spring of brushes, for the 
time being until the bar can be fixed, 'hen the run Is over, turn 
the armature round slowly, and find out ths high bar. This may 
easily bo felt by passing the hand round commutator, or by observing 
which bar Is most burnt by the sparic. Carefully file down the high 
bar or bars so as to leave no flat place anywhere. A single high 
bar In a comautator will knook and vibrato the brush, making a spark, 
and owing to high speed of revolution, tho sparking will appear as 
If all round. 

(II) See Sootion (IT) of nnswer TTo. 4. 

C. 23 - Suppose you had bad sparking and could not atop, how would you ascer¬ 
tain that tho sparking was only at one place, although It looked as 
if it was all round the commutator. 

A. 23 - Sea Section (IT) of answer Ho. 4. 

Q. 24 - Hew would you arrange things to wear the commutator down evenly and 
get the greatest life out of it? 

A. 24 - Bvery two or thrao days shift tho brushes sideways on brass stud that 
oarrlos them. By doing this noarly the whole surface of commutator 
can be subjected to an equal amount of wear. 

n. 25 - Suppose an armature suddenly commenced to smoke badly, and you had to 
step, and found a turn of wire around the armature blackened, what is 
the cause and how would you fix it so you oould run next nl^it, and 
would you.oontlnua to run it.os fixed?: 

A. 25 - The cauao la a local short circuit in that particular turn. To remedy 
It for: the tlmp being, take'off cover of armature next commutator, and 
sever tho connection between burnt wire and commutator bar. Bend the 
severed end of wires back on themBolves, and heavily tape than. Then 
arrange brushes as shown on page 5. This Is only a temporary make¬ 
shift. A new armatura muat be Immediately telegraphed for, and the 
old one must be Bent back to bo repaired; os noon os the new one has 
been put In and found to bo all right, tho oonmutator block thus dis¬ 
connected flhsnilfi; bo connected to Its neighbor or one brash set ahead 
of the other to bridge over the break. 

Q. 26 - Suppose one of the wires oonneoted to one of the logs of the field of a 
dynamo beoomo detached, and you were working two machines in multiple 
are, what would be the consequence? 

A. 26 - The field being no longer magnetised, tho current generated by the other 
dynamo would be short-circuited through armature. 


o. 27 - How often would sou bo over the connections nf the various apparatus at 
the station to see that everything was right and in good contact? 

A. 27 - At laast twice a wads. 

0. 20 - Sxplaln the principle of the lightning protector; how yonlwould wortc i« 
A. 28 - entire electrical circuit forced by annatura.andoutaido lines with 
lamps attached, should bo free fran any connection 
ordinary oirouastances. During a thunderstorm the outside lines are 
liaWe^o gather atmospheric electricity, and when this 
a euffioient tension, it will Jump to any near conductor that is con 
neotod to ground, and it is lihblo to ohar or aaton firo hny«*»- 
bus tibia substanoe that happens to lie in the path of thesparic. To 
avoid all accidents a lightning protector has bam < d0V ^’-^. 
of Which all three of the omnibus wires may bo either ^ jrownded 
or partially Grounded through any requisite amount of resistance. 

The above sketch will show that when all plugs are out there is no 
piucb being put into three right hand holos make a ground 
rSS £ M —d into the three left hand 

holes they msko a dead ground direct, '.hen the dynamos aro not 

ase the omnibus wires must bo kept dead grounded, so that should a 
stonn arise any charge of atmospheric electricity that ^ B^ther 
on the outside wires may immediately pass away to Ground without 
onoountarlng any obstruction. Should a stmt »ri«>Whilst to 
dynamos are running, to put a dead ground on the omnibus wires wouis 
short-olrouit both dynamos, therefore they must be Grounded through 
reeistanoa. Thus'there will be only a small waste of the dyn ° 
current, but an exit will be provided for any atmosphericalootrioity 
of high tonsion that may be collected on outside wires, ^llst 
running dynamos in fair woathar all the plug switches of lightning 
protector must be open. 

I rv^Mlhl unit of eleotrioal pressure, and 

of pressure at whloh 1 ampere of ourront will pass through 1 obm. of 

- 'toe'amrore leTthe unit of electrical quantity, and signifies that 

quantity whioh at a pressure of * volts will pass through * ohms. 

- Explain the principle and use of the ampere meter? 

- When a current of alootrioity is passed through a wire running 

parallel with a magnetic needle, it tends to turn the noodle to 

at rirtit angles to the direction of current, the north sock 
Lg polo of^noodla always diverging to the left hahd of the direo- 
tifn of currant in parallel conductor. ® ll8 A di I oreen ° 0 t i® dSeotivo 
by the amount of current passing through conductor ondthe directive 
force of magnetic needle. .In the ampere meter in question, a needle 
of soft Iron is pivoted on a dolioate Bteel axle working In Jewelled 
holes. Undornoath the needle Is a flat bar of copper, heavy enough 

to oarry, without heating, tha greatest amount of currant that the anpere 
mator is intended to show. The soft iron needle is kept constantly mag¬ 
netized, and also parallel to the copper bar, by a ponnanent horse shoe 
magnet eat in tha proper position. Tills ponnanent magnet has adjustable 
pole pieoos, whereby tha strength of its inductive influence on the 
noodle of soft iron may bo modified. The permanent magnet tends to keep 
the needle parallel with copper bar, whilst any current passing through 
the bar tends to diverge the noodle to point at rlgit anglos to it. 
Therefore a pointer attached to needle will show on a scale the amount 
of currant passing through coppor bar. The ampere motor 1 b interposed 
in tha omnibus compensating wiro of the throe wire system to show if thore 
la a proper balance existing on the red and blue sides. Mien the systan 
is exactly balanoad the pointer of ampere meter will stand at zero, which 
will show that there is no current passing through the compensating wire. 
Y.hon either side gets out of balanae, the pointer, hy diverging to the 
right or left will show whioh side is carrying the heavier load, and the 
amount and dirootlon of current traversing the omnibus compensating 

Q. 32 - Explain the principle of the pressure indicator and its use? 

A. 32 - The pressure indicator, or volt measurer, works on precisely the sane 

principle as the ampere moter. The single heavy conductor of the ampere 
motor is exchanged for a coil of wire, which surroundB tho soft iron 
needle in thu dirootlon of its length. This coil of wire is connected 
across tha line like a lamp, and a certain amount of current will pass 
through coil from positive to negative. This quantity will be limited 
by the pressure, or 1'. F., existing at point of connection. Tho 
higher the £• 1!. V. the greater tha amount of current, and oonsaquently 
the greater tho divergence of the needle. Tho pressure indicators in 
a central station are connected to iron wires, tamed pressure wlreB, 
which run on the poles away from central station and aro connected to 
the and of the feeders. They will therefore measure tho £. K. p. at 
end of feeders, IESS the drop on the iron pressure wires. To ascertain 
the anount of drop on iron pressure wires test when lamps ore turned 
off the circuit, which will praotioally reduce tho drop of £• E. p. 
on feeders to nothing. How road H. E. p. or volts at tha end of any 
pair of pressure wires and oomparo it with the voltB of tho dymmo 
that feeds it. The difference of B. E. F. will be the orop on the 
pair,of iron wires in question, and this must always be allowed for 
whan reading tho pressure at the end of feeders. The dynamo should 
bo run up to its normal 11. E. P. whilst making this tost. 

Q. 33 - Supposing you hod 110 volt lamps and had, when tho full load was on, 

2 par oent. loss within the consumer’s pranises and 3 per cent, on 
the mains, what should be the pressure at the ends of the feeders? 

A. 33 - 110 volts at lamps with 2 per cent, drop within premises would bo 
112.25 volts outside premises, and a further 3 per oent. drop on 
mains would necessitate a prossuro of 115.75 volts at ond of 

Q. 34 - Supposing there was but half a load on, and you wanted to keep the 
lamps at tho sane candle power as they were when there was a full 
load, would you keep the same pressure at the onds of the feeders 
as with a full load, or what would vou do? 

A. 34 - 


Q. 35 - Yrhat la the result In coat If tha lamps aro kept, aay 5 volts, higher 
than they aro narked? 

A. 35 - I should aay that tha additional aost of limps to oanpany In a year’s 
ran would anount to 200 par cents, or 300 par cent. more than if they 
wara kept at tha rigit volta. 

Q. 35 - Supposing lata at night tha load In a certain part of the town was vary 
light, and continued hoavy In another part of the town, what would be 
raault at the ends of the feeders, supposing station prossure was 
right for the heaviest load, and what would you do to lessen tha great 
prossure at the point mentioned? 

A. 36 - Introduce resistance Into the feoder that was carrying the light load, 
until tha pressure indlaator showed normal volts. 

Q. 37 - How can you toll that a lamp has died naturally or been broken by the 

A. 37 - 


JEfcr footing up tho first two columns, the number of lamps on aaoli side 
of system may bo determined. Lot two days every month be ohosen for 
collootlng broken lamps and supplying new ones, nay ley and 15th of 
each month. An unnsnal percentage of breakage by any one consumer 
may bo seen at once, and at any time tho lamps may bo checked off, to 
see If any have boen lost or stolen. The total of the first nine 
columns, plus the new lamps in stock, should equal the number In last 
column. The total of tho six columns under title, "Broken lamps 
Rac’d," should agree with tho numbor of broken lamps at station. 

Q. 39 - Suppose there was a great wind storm took place in the day time before 
you started up for the night's run, what would you do? 

A. 39 - Sand round a competent person immediately to inspect all lines, and if 
any visible damage has boen done have it repaired. Then get up steam 
as quickly as possible and test all circuits with a low volt current 
at first, so as to save safety-catches in case of a possible short 
circuit that may have boen overlooked. If everything went all right 
raise volts to usual pressure and run for a few minutes. 

Q. 40 - Supposing another wire, say a telephone wire. Should fall across the 
pressure indicator wires, what would be the consequence, and what 
would you do? 

A. 40 - A case of this kind oocurrod at Sunbury shortly after we commenced 

lighting. Engineer started up, as usual, half on hour before regular 
lighting time, and it was found that a dead short circuit existed. I 
Immediately sent a man to Inspect one circuit, whilst I went over the 
other myself, and at the end of circuit found a ITo. 16 copper tele¬ 
phone wire had broken and was hanging over and touohlng three of our 
lines. I had this cut away and all want off right. As our lines are 
generally oarrlod over telephone and telegraph wires, this is a 
casualty seldom likely to occur. The engineer Should, however, start 
up every evening at least half hour before dusk, and tost the lines 
for a few minutes with a low volt current of soy 50 or 60 volts givon 
by half speed of engine. 

Q. 41 - Calculate the size of wire for a servioe 150 foot fron tho main to tho 
back end of tho consumer's promises, which would give a 1 per cent, 
loss with 17 lamps, also with 30 lamps, also with 2 lamps? 

A. 41 - Beslstanoe of seventeen 10 c.p. lamps •• 14.7 ohms. (250 ohms, per 

lamp). Since 1 per cent, of curront is to be lost in wire, 99 per¬ 
cent. crust be utilized in lamps, therefore the wire must have _l_th 
part the reals, of lamps - or .1485 ohm. 99 


Beals, of 19 lamps m 14.7 - 99 per cent 

Besls. of service .1485 = 1 per cent 

Total reals, of lanps and 
servioe » 14.8485 

150 feet servlae x 2 » 300 foot, so the size of wire must be ahosen, 
300 feet of whioh most closely approximates the reals, of .1485 ohm. 
The lineal foot reals, of Ho. 9 pure copper wire B. Y'« 0. is .000471 
ohms. 300 feet of this would measure .1413 ohms., but as we are 
dealing with ordinary copper wire prepared for olaotrioal purposes, 
and not with pure ooppor, it will be about right to add 5 per oont. 
to this theoretical reals., which will bring It tip to .1483 ohm. 
Therefore by using Ho. 9 wire for this service there will be a loss 
of curront in wire of a very small fraotion less than 1 per cent. 

- 11 - 

Beals. of 2 lamps ■ 125 ohms. 125 » 1.2626. The nearest also of wire 

The nearest size of wire la No. 18 , 300 feet of which would measure 
1.35 ohm. (adding 5 per cent, to reals, of pore copper). With this 
size of wire there would he a loss of 1 8 per oent. If the question 

Implies that the exact dlam. of wire In _J_tha of an inch shall he 


ascertained to give exactly 1 per oent.'drop In each oaae It must he 
calculated olr. mils. By approved tables pure copper has a resla. 
of 10.32311 otaa. per mil. foot, and adding 5 per oent. for Impurities 
It would he 10.83927 otaa. For 30 lamps, the actual reals, for a 150 
feet service m 300 feet of wire, allowing 1 per oent. loss, should ho 
.08418 ohms. She reals, of 300 mil. feet would he 3251.781 ohms., and 
3251.7B1 a 38629 a olr. mils. In required wire, and v38629 m 196.6 mils. 

dlam. (She diameter of Ho. 6 wire Is 203 mils, and the loss a trifle 
less than 1 per oent.) As however It la difficult to got wire drawn 
commercially hy the mil., I think It needless to give more than the 
above single example, as In all oaaes within my knowledge, the nearest 
commercial sizes have always been used. 

Q. 42 - Supposing a customer was wired for 25 lamps, how would you ascertain 
the proper way to calculate the service? 

A. 42 - let x per cant, he the loss allowed In service, then 100 - x per oent. 

Is utilized In lamps, therefore the service mat have x reslB. Of 


lamps. She reals, of 25 lamps being 10 ohms., the resistance of the 
service must he x x 10 ohms, let x a 2 then 100 - 2 per cent., or 

98 per cent, of current, is utilized In lamps, and the resistance of 
the service mast he 2 x 10 ohms. » .204 ohm. 


of total reals. 

) of lamps and 
) service. 

Q. 43 - What Is the result if two wires are run parallel and flat In a celling, 
and water gets between than, also the effect on a cut-out If water gets 
on the baok of It? 

A. 43 - In both oaaes a short olrcult will most likely happen, and unless protect¬ 
ed hy a safety-catch between It and supply It would probably do consid¬ 
erable damage. I saw an "L" armature burnt out In Cornwall, Canada, 
through a short olrcult occasioned by a leaky roof. 

Q. 44 - Suppose the B side main line suddenly crossed and the safety eatohes 
burned out In all the feeders on that side, what would you do? 

A. 44 - Keep on running the other side and find out where the trouble la, and 
remedy It Just as quickly as possible. 


Basis, of lamps s 10.00 - 98 per cent. 
Beals, of service - .204m 2 per oent. 

Total reals, of) 
lamps, and ) 10.204 

service, ) _ 

- 12 - 

Q. 45 - Suppose you only had two dynamos, one on the A and the other on the B, 
and there was on both mains only sufficient load for one dynamo, what 
would yon do to keep all the lights going? 

A. 45 - Put in plenty of resistance in field olrcolt. 

Q. 46 - Suppose both were fully loaded, what would you do if one dynamo, say on 
the B side, should break dom? 

A. 46 - The fact of having only two dynamos and no spare would imply a small 

place like Sunbury, which a quick man could run over in about 10 minutes. 

I should switch the red and blue lines together on good dynamo and run. 
at low E» U. and at onoe send a men round to the different hotels 
and stores to ask than to turn out half their lamps fbr the rest of the 
evening, and when he returns run the dynamo up to proper £. 11. S'. I 
should then immediately examine the armature and dynamo that had broke 
down, and if armature was ruined, telegraph at once for a new ono to be 
sont from headquarters by express. 

Q. 47 - What is the object of the spring at the and of the dynamo? 

A. 47 - The spring at the aid of shaft was originally intended to counter-balance 
the attraction of the field on the iron pulley of armature aha ft. In 
the new H dynamos, a brass pulley is substituted for an iron one. There 
is, therefore, no necessity for a spring when the dynamo is properly 
constructed. If the Iran oore of armature is not set exactly central 
lengthways in flold cavity, on passing a current through dynamo, the 
field draws very hard on tho iron oore to get it central, but if the 
position of armature is properly fixed with regard to field, when the 
machine is built, there is no need of any end-spring. 

Q. 48 - What causes the shaft to move endwise? 

A. 48 - When the armature is balanced centrally, lengthways in field, it has 
no tendency to move either way. The inequalities of the belt will, 
however, produce sufficient end motion to keep an oven wear on comutator. 

Q. 49 - What is the objeot of the brass pulley? 

A. 49 - See Answer 47. 

Q. SO - What la the object of the track on whioh the dynamos set, also the objeot 
of tho screws, and vhat bad result can be attained in adjusting those 
screws in an improper manner? 

A. SO - The traoka are set on a strong wooden frame, and are laid exactly at 
right angles to engine shaft. On tightening up the screws, the dynamo 
is f&roed away from driving pulley on engine, or jackshaft, tins tighten¬ 
ing up the holt and providing a ready means of counteracting the effect 
of the unavoidable stretching of new bolts, as the dynamo oan only move 
on the rails in a straight line away from engine, or driving shaft, is 
cannot get oat of alignment with tho same if both screws ore used 
properly, that is, both tightened up alike. If one screw only is run 
in, a very heavy twisting strain is put on the dynamo and traok, which 
is so obvious that it needs no explanation. Furthermore, if the two 
scrows are put up too hard, so os to mate the belt too tight, there 
will be a heavy friction on both engine and dynamo journals, whioh will 
produce heat, and be very injurious to the working parts. 


Q. 51 - H°w do 50a tell that a dynamo has made Its field? 

A. 51 - By trying It with the nearest piece of Iron, saoh as a wrench, &c. 

Q. 62 - In shotting 60m the station In the morning explain how yon leave all 

the switches, including the dynamo switohes, feeder switches, liehtalnp 
protector, &o.? * 

A. 62 - At shutting down time, first throttle the engine down until laape are 
only a hrig^t red, and run this way for about a minute, to give people 
wning that the light is about to be stopped. Then open switohes on 
head-boards of dynaaos, stop the ®glne and oonneot the omnibus wlrea 
to dead pound, by means of the proper plugs of lightning protector, 
leave all other switohes, Ac., as they are; and, lastly, raise all 
brushes offconnmtators. 

63 “ w ™^ l0S P" 1 * 01 * 8 60 manipulate and in what order? 

A. 63 - Flint disconnect onnlbua wires from ground, by taking out the nin w. 
of lightning proteotor, start up engine, and let down drushes on to 
commutators. The fields will then oonmenoe to charge up, but It may 
be a minute or two before they attain their maximum strength, on 
account of the extra resistance left In from the night before, as 
soon as the fields are oharged, close the switohes on head-boards of 
dynamos, one after the other, and if lines are all right, the lamps 
will Immediately light. How step to resistances boxes and work up 
the pressure on feeders to correct point by the Indicators. Whan 
starting a plant of two or more dynamos. It cannot be too strongly 
impressed upon the mind never to close the switch on the head-board 
Of a dynamo until you are absolutely certain, by trial, that the 
field is charged. Commutators and brushes will be rained, and 
armatures hunt out. If this role is not faithfully attended to. 

Q. 64 - Explain about the pressure the brush should bear on the commutator - 
the effeots of heavy and light pressures? 

A * ^ “ SSi? at ?f ll P °\ l3h8d “ d braah0B la 6°° d order . ^e pressure 

should be very Ugit, only sufficient to keep the brush against 
commutator and allow It to contact the current off without sparking. 

With a rough oonmntator, or high bar, a heavier pressure will be* 
found necessary, fbr the time being, in order to cut down sparkinr. 
tat the first opportunity mast be taken to remedy the fault and 
lighten up the tension on brashes* 

Q. 65 - Could you tat a new babbit bearing in an H dynamo bearing? How would 
you do It, how short a time would it take, and what would you do to 
ascertain that you had a good bearing so you oould depend on it fbr 
the evening run? 

A. 66 - In the new H dynamos, the Babbitt bearings are made ranovable and 

Interchangeable. To put in a new bearing, take off pillow-blook oap 
and top bearing, blook up a mature, unscrew bolts and take out steady 
pine that secure pillow-hlook to base plate; slide off pillow-block, 
take out bottom bearing and tat In new one, being oarafhl to see that 
J 8 ao 1 ^ U ° r 1 .^ oa 6114 0X80 t^t it fits well and does 
not rook; slide back pillow-blook, put In steady pins, serew dow 
bolts; remove blooking from a mature and see that It turns freely 
In bottom bearing, oiling the same before turning the armature round. 
.Lastly, pit on top bearing; replace and screw down oap, not too 


tightly at first ; try armature again to see that it revolves freely; 
then pat on belt and run It with steam for half an hoar to wort It down 
properly. Be oarefhl in Hooking up armature that It la supported, at 
oonnatator end, on the Iron cheek of commutator, and not on copper tars; 
also, if blocking up on one aide only, loosen the cap on other side, or 
the journals may be strained. 

q. fi6 _ How deep do you think you ooold wear down the commutator bars of on H 
machine safely, and, when you got down to the dangerous point, what 
would you do? 

A. 56 - 

Q. 57 - Suppose you had started up a dynamo for a week every nl^it; It made its 
field all right and then you connected It to the mains. How suppose 
one night you started It up and It would not mate Its field, what would 
you do, and how would you be certain. If you did auooeed In amusing it 
to make Its own field, that It had the same polarity as before, also 
please explain the probable causes of the failure to make Its own field? 

A. 67 - Carefully examine all the field connections to see that none of them are 
loose or altered; then see that the a hunt wire on head board Is all right, 
and follow back the wire that runs to reals, box, and also the other 
wire from reals, to one of the omnibus wires. If everything appears 
right and the field still refuses to charge up, short-circuit reals, 
box by putting a Ho. 16 copper wire across the two eluding posts of 
same. If field still refuses to charge up, disconnect each leg of 
field and proceed to teat than separately with battery and galvanometer, 
to see if there Is a break in the wire oolled around them. Oo over all 
this work very carefully, and If nothing wrong con bo found, connect 
up everything about the field as It was at first, hut leave It dis¬ 
connected from the main wlrea from brushes. How start up the other 
dynamo, and bring an Insulated Ho. 16 wire from its positive pole to 
the left hand field binding post, and another wire of the same sort from 
the negative pole of the other dynamo to tho right hand field binding 
post. If connections of field are all right this will charge up the 
field In the right dlreotlon. If the field charges up disconnect 
from the other dynamo, and put all oonneotlons hack as they were at 
flret, and if the dynano still refuses to work up Its own field, the 
fault most lie In the armature. In writing of right and left field 
binding post. It Is to he understood that the person viewing them is 
standing with his face to head-board of dynamo. Furthermore, the 
right and left refers only to the new H dynamo that has its flold 
binding posts In the centre of head board. (3ee sketch on p. ) 

If using an old style h or K dynamo where the field binding posts are on 
outside of head board the terms right and left must he reversed. 

Dynamos of all types, whether old or new styles, should be charged 
so that the right h a^ pole-piece (standing faoing switoh board) 
shall attract the north-seeking end of a magietio needle, and the 
left hand pole-piece should attract the other end. Shis Is not 
necessary, as far as the working of a single dynamo is concerned, but 
for the sake of uniformity and order In connecting together two or 

S£ 2 ?£* ard “ 

siilta blotting paper with the solution, connect a pleoeof wira 6 *^ °* 



st sss stsjs ~ i r “ —*■- ** ss** 

A. 68 - This Bight be due to a badly-ooraped bearing. To and out blon> nn 
amature and take off bearing and\ttamlne if anS 

?* m " ^ aln the and use of feeders? 

■ 59 " ntrotnbi 8 cop P®f ooa duotora connected to the oaalbua wires, and 


a* m " ^ Plal f the ^^'awxioe between a main and a feeder? 

A. a) - The nalns are copper conductors that are connected to the ends of the 


?* m ~ f? plal ? 1 * 7 k ®*’ 3 are mw connected to feeders? 

A» 61 - There is usually allowed a drop of 10 per oent in th« h - v 

' ssurrw-jssi. i '~~£■»«*T 




a«PPly the lamps used in stores, houses. 

point, services may be run to 

In this manner t 

2StoS a :.s.“y iag *• «» 

or negative, and oSS« lSofctottf S d™^ 1 " 03 

current. When the blue, oTnejmti™ *?£ ds ? aB0 th0 aurplua 
eat load of lamps, the compenafttal # »* s °***&ae the heavl- 
oonduotor, and carries booom0a a P°altlve 

• , Positive ^ or^^ dSLoT tva i-^ 1 rS9llr8d feoa thS 

(II.) Supposing there ara tao hZ M < 1 f® B ln Ration. 

yards apart. ISTh^e^T ?* «• 20 

house is connected to the red fida 4 ? atan0d * One 

side of mains. The IoTIm ° thor to tho blue 

sKvir* arj.’SK,’ 5 " srss ! ,?s„" 0 ^ 

technic^subliotL Pla ° e 40 entor tat ° the 

flora l ■?„&“, t0 Mother or not the current really 

SLlon!) P y aaaame that 14 4)60 80 *>* convenience of 

th*. „„ lm „ „ a . , „ 

A. 63 - By observing the ampere meter. 

Q. 64 - What would be the result If there ware m, « t 

A and B sides, and the oential or oomi»^ n +^ 1al J uanber of on the 
rare disconnected from the wire between t),! 1 ? 8 a11 the Seders 

effect if there rare twice as mawtam l * JsnamoB, also the 

A. 64 - in the case of there bell 1 SlSSLf«?? 8ld ° 88 oa th « A? 

would be no current passing elthe^ray on blfn^™i^ 68011 aid0 * thore 
fore it would mate no difference to iLm ““thus wire, there¬ 
in the oase of there being twice 1 connected or not. 

A. if hlaok omlbus ? 84de “ on «» 

sink to a low candle power. whilst^ 4h laapa oa B aide wmld 
high lnoandesoence, and many of themluld^rel? 3id ° TOUld rl86 40 a 

Q. 65 - What la the object of a house changing switch? 

A. 65 - If a and B sides are unequally loaded b-v Hw.a 

side one or more heavy cSsumLs^mi^S,^ 40 4h0 low 
a more even balance may be effected^ * 4he houae -°hanging swltoh. 


Q. 66 - Suppose the station was loaded up with the full compliment of customers, 
and it was found that every night the B side had more lights than the 
A, what would you do? 

A. 66 - Throw over permanently (by means of house-changing switches) a sufficient 
number of heavy consumers to mate the balance equal. 

Q. 67 - How would yon select the customers bo aa to produce an even balance and 
yet not have uneven pressures? 

A. 67 - Seleot suoh customers aa are known to olose at certain hours, such aa 

stores, offices, &o., and divide them up aa evenly as possible (accord¬ 
ing to the number of lamps that each one bums) on the red and blue 

Q. 68 - How would you tell, evea supposing that there were an even halanoe 

between the number of lamps on the A and B side as a whole, that thore 
is an unequal balance In different parts of the town? 

A. 68 - By reading the pressure Indicators. 

Q. 69 - Supposing you were to out In 20 customers of 10 lights each, and a 

theatre of £00 lights, and most of the customers did not use the light 
after, say 9sS0, how would you arrange the whole number of lights so 
as to prevent a bad throwing out of the halanoe? 

A. 69 - Divide up the £0 customers as evenly as possible between the two sides, 
and carry three wires Into the theatre, distributing the lamps between 

Q. 70 - What Is the object of safety-catches at the feeder Indicator wires 

where they conneot with the ends of the feeders at the mains, also the 
safety-oatohes In the feeders and mains? 

A. 70 - In ease of a wire falling across pressure wiros a safetyKsatoh placed 
at the connection of such to the feeders, would burn out and prevent 
a permanent short circuit. Safety-oatohes on mains and feeders serve 
for the sane purpose, and they will furthermore designate by the 
extinction of lamps the locality of short circuit, and thus save 
trouble in hunting for the same. 

Supposing, virile running, a oross occurred, and a hoy oome to the 
station and stated that all the lights on two blocks were out, what 
would you do? 

Send down a man to hunt up the oross, get rid of It, and renew the 
safety oatehes. 

Q. 72 - what would he the effeot on the record of the meters If you should 
throw both the B and A over on one dynamo? 

A. 72 - Zf the dynamo on red side was kept running, and the red and blue lines 
thrown together, all the meters on the blue aide would he reversed, 
but If the dynamos on blue side were kept running, and the same thing 
dons, all the meters on the red side would he reversed. 

Q. 73 - Suppose you had the li^itning protector connected and one side of the 
resistance got very muoh hotter than the other, what would he the 
probable causes? 

A. 73 - Some of the coils of wire in hot real stance might bo short-circuited, 
cutting down the resistance, which would allow more current to pass, 
and more heat would be developed. 

Q. 71 - 
A. 71 - 


Q. 74 - YThat la meant when It la said a lanp aro'd? 

A. 74 - The current. Instead of passing wholly around oarbon loop, jonps from one 
copper connection to the other. 

Q. 75 - Have yon ever connected the wires to a socket? 

A. 75 - 

Suppose one of the wire bands on a dynamo came loose and the wire got 
tangled In the field, would you stop? If so, what would you do to start 

Stop Instantly. Throw off belt. Turn axmaturo slowly and find loose 
end of wire. Unwind as muoh as Is Ioobb, and cut off dose with a 
pair of sharp nippers. Then examine well to see that no more ends are 
loose, and start up again. 

Q, 77 - Suppose you had an H armature burn out on the B aide, so you had to 

atop and had a spare armature, explain what you would do to got It In 
the machine and start up as quick as possible? 

A. 77 - Take out necessary screws and bolts to loosen field block on most con¬ 
venient side. Slide off the field blook and half of the zinc plate 
together on some wooden blocking. This will allow the armature to be 
taken out sideways, by first blocking it up, then taking out bolts 
and steady pins of pillow blocks, and sliding them off fron shaft. 

Oat in spare armature by a reversal of this process, and Btart up 
slowly to saa that all is right. 

Q. 78 - Why Is it necessary to lift the brushes away fron the oosmutator when 
you atop the maohlno and before you start up? 

A. 78 - 

Q. 79 _ Y.hon a parson wants the ll£?it what do yon do before and after he has 
our light to ascertain that our bill will be raoro or Igsb than his 
gas bills, or that ho bums nora or leaa of our lights than ho did 

A» 79 - Ascertain the number of gas-bumora he usea, and as nearly as possible 
hla hours of burning. Then sea that he haa no more eleetrlo lamps 
than he had gaa-bumarB, and that he does not use them for a longer 
time every night. 

Q. 80 - Is It or Is It not possible to set the brushes, as regards position 
and pressure, as to oauso the ccnmutator to polish Instead of 

A, 80 - By oareful attention to coranutator and brushes. It is quite possible 
to get than to run without any perceptible spark, in which case the 
oorrmutator will glaze over instead of getting rough, and work in 
this way, it will wear for almost an indefinite time. 

Q. 76 - 
A. 76 - 

tq. hjttitihb op 


'* 1 " lf T,ith ordinary boiler having 100 lbs* proanuro, how many lnohea higher 
will water stand in the gauge than it would without preaaure in boiler? 
A. 1 - About 1/2 an inch. V.hon you atart engine, water goea l/z inch higier. 
First, due to expansion of water; aeoond, to effect of stoan diaen- 

2 - How do you clean the water gauge? 

A. 2 - Blow it out la one way, take apart and clean 1 b another way. Locks are 
provided to blow it out and also to disconnect. 

0 . 3 - If crank pin got hot, and you did not want to stop, what would you do, 
also what would you do to always have a convenient ranedy at hand? 

Q. 4 - How would you apply water to the crank pin, so you could attend to your 
other duties? 

A. 3 and 4 - Use cold water through hose, premanent piping over bearing with 
cook Is beat to use; as this is liable to oocur from carelessness, a 
little oil must be used at times, as water goea through. 

Q. 5 - V,hat is the cause generally of arank pin heating? 

A. 5 - Want of proper lubrication, boxes too tight, not allowing enough room for 
the expansion, due to the normal heating, duo to load; crank pin not 
true, want of allg^mont, bad oil, grit in oil, too loose pounding. 

Q. 6 - If you ware running your engine, and it hod been going for, say, half an 
hour, and then suddenly oocmenoed to thump in cylinder, and you had 
reason to believe you had dry steam, what would you attribute the 
thunplng to? 

A, 6 - Rings on piston binding and Jumping from want of oil, due to oil feed 
not working, not oushion enough. 

Q. 7 - What harm dose it do to allow the orank pin oonneotion to rattle or 

A. 7 - Looseness of parts will soon strip keys, or bolts. Penn it the piston 
to strike cylinder head, damage orank. Loose fit prevonts good 
lubrication, on tho other hand there should be a slight pounding. 

Just anough to convoy to the oar the fact that the bores are not too 
tight, and thus prevent the neaesBlty of constantly feeling the 
bearing to ascertain if it is heating. 

Q. 8 - Wane all the oauses which will produce a pounding or rattle in an engine? 

0. 9 - Lhat causos a boiler to foam, and what would you do to stop it? 


A. 9 - Too little steam room; crowding toller; wator lifts by engine taking 
stean too rapidly; oil In water, salt water. 

A. 10 - Is it totter to carry high or low water? 

A. 10 - Low water. It gives more stean roan, tho steam Is freed easier, and Is 
essential where dry stean Is required, as with the Aimingtan engine. 

C3. 11 - V.hat is good firing and tad firing of a toller? 

A. 11 - A uniform ted of fire, uniformly trlght and thin, with no holes, coal 
thrown quickly and evenly, and door closed quickly, tad firing Is 
Just the opposite. 

0. 12 - How much waste of ooal Is there In banking tha fires of a 50 h.p. toller 
for 10 hours, and how do you tank a fire? 

A. 12 - About l/5 of wliat Is left after shutting down. 

Q. 13 - Suppose you wanted to start an Axmlngton engine, and she turned over 
hard, and you had to do It yourself, how.would you do It? 

A. 13 - Open the oocks, warm the cylinder, then shut off nearly all the stean 
and try and turn her over, if it don’t start odd little more steam, 
then try and turn over - never open throttle so wide that when you 
turn her over she will start off with groat rapidity, otherwise the 
suddon in-rush of stean might carry condensed water from the stean 
piping into the cylinder to a greater extent than can pass through 
tho coCka, when the oyllnder head will to blown off. Some persons 
got engine crank at rigit point, warm cylinder, suddenly open 
throttle and then quiokly close It, and then open slowly to keep her 
In motion. 

Q. 14 - V.hat causes a- toller tube to turn out? 

A. 14 - Bad metal, low wator permits It to became red hot, thick Incrustation 
preventing water receiving hoat quickly enough, sulphur In the coal. 

0. 15 - V.hat do you thittk Is tho best method of feeding water to a toller, in¬ 
jector or pump; If one or the other, why? 

A. 15 - Pump, because you oan graduate your feed so tliat you can cause a con¬ 
stant flow of wator to tho hollar. 

Q. 16 - V.hat Is the disadvantage of sooty water tubes; how are they cleaned, 
and how often should they be cleaned? 

A. 16 - They cause a great Iobb by preventing heat from ooming in contact with 
the tube, a thick coating will In some cases cause a loss of 20 
per cent, of the ooal. A stean Jet Is the moot convenient thing to 
clean thorn; if Jot Is used, inspection will determine when to clean. 

Q. 17 - Suppose you had regular toller pressure, a thin even fire, and the 
engine was doing very little, when suddenly a large load came on, 
what would you do in connection with preparing the toiler to supply 
the stsan, you having no blower? 

A. 17 - Stir the fire quiokly, let the water go low, in a minute or so add 
quiokly ooal, at intervale, oloslng door quiokly, open damters, &o. 

Q. 18 - How often would you blow off tho toller, running say, up to the 

oapoolty of the toller for three hours, and half tho oapaolty for 
sevon hours, you having no hoator? 

A. 18 - It depends on wator. If wator tad, flush up and blow twice a day, and 
once a month completely. 

Q. 19 - What is the benefit of a feed-water heater; what gain In 
all the benefits? 

A * utilizes waste heat of the exhaust stem and Trots hot 

boiler Instead of acid, thus Increases boiler capacity, 
to great extant InoruBtatlon of boiler tubes. 

eoonany; none 

water Into 
also prevents 

Q. 20 - How muoh offlolenoy In a SO H.r. boiler (clean) Is lost l 
of an Inch inorustatlon within the tube? 

A. 20 - Prom 13 to 15 per cent. 


Q. 23 • 
A. 23 • 

- V.hat Is Babbit metal, and givB the proportions? 

- Copper, 3.7; tin, 89; antimony, 7.3. 

Systran says, tin, 25, antimony, 2s copper, 0.5. 

- Suppose the bearings Of an 8jx 10 engine (Armlngton) should get so hot 

as to melt the babbit, how would you proceed to got a new bearing 
ready In a few hours? 

- Have pot with metal ready beforehand. lift out shaft Immediately; take 

out metal and pour beurlng as soon os possible. 

boiler; hot; would you do It 

Can you put a new firo tube in a 
quickly If you had it on hand? 

lower the water below the tube; out the old one out, and put the new 
one In and expand It. 

C. 24 - How would you clean the scale from the Inside of a Baboock tube, what 
tools are necessary? 

A. 24 - 

Q.. 25 Supposing you had been running an Armlngton engine for, say, 2 months, 
and knew that a vory small amount of water In the oyllnder would knock 
off tho cylinder head, and this accident occurred to you. what would 
you attribute the aboldent to? 

A.. 25 Carelessness in not wanning up cylinder to prevent condensation, and 
not leaving oooks open long enough to clear the steam plpe B of con¬ 

densed water. 

S * 26 " Afto f winning engines a month, and had everything worn down to bearing, 
explain how you would ascertain tho minimum amount of oil you oould 
aafoly uao? 

A. 26 - By experiment, djmurrlcg the amount of oil and watching for the 
critical point; a little oxoeaa is beat. 

27 - Vvhat la principle of the automatic oilers? 

A# 27 - Condensation of steam into water; tho apeoifio gravity of water being 
greater than oil foroea tho oil. in drops into the cylinder* 

9 - How long before lighting is neoessary, would you advise the starting 
up of the online? 

9 " d vf^ as 8tarte<1 "P gradually and wanned up. freed of all 

water, all bearings under right condition of lubrication, and run 
for 5 or 10 minutes before putting on load. 

3 “ ^ 8lU> w f °yli«der oil and journals oil, what oil would 

you use for the cylinder and bearings? 

3 - Spena oil; clear heavy mineral oil; tallow. 

L - Kako a diagram, and explain the Arlington & Sims* governor? 

- How do you toll that a belt is slipping? 

- fly glazed surface on bolt, by squeaking, by heat of rulley over which 

of devolutions? 10 " atl °“ notlolnB ^aition after a given number 

" had a 6 lnoh 8in S l0 3>alt conveying 10 H.P., and running 

^,’°°°.5 09t 7 ’ 9r minute, how would you convey the same horse power 
with the same strain on the belt when it was only 3 inches wide? 

- By running 4,000 feet a minute. 

Explain the method of regenerating oil whioh has ( 

5. 35 - WUJJ. ~1». UK. of *.» .h.,5 „« 

A ‘ 35 " founding? 100 " mDnth ’ a " d QranlC Pl " ° ftanor lf thero ^ bB0 “ 

Q. 36 - V,hat is the cause of hammering in some of the throttle valves used for 
hatm orlng? 8hUttlne ° ff st9am ln and how would you stop the 

A. 36 - Poor valve seat; poor connection; water lodging in some pipe connection, 
it moves about by passage of steal over it. ^ 

C * 37 " V 'tX engine? l0Od h °" W ° Uld ?0U I,r ° VOnt 018 eov °mor from controlling 


37 - By adjusting the springs on tha Arlington engine. 

Q. 38 - Suppose your engine run for a month at 350. with throttle open and full 
load, then It gradually, from day to day, went slower, say, 340,336, 
eto., what would you do to oauso the engine to run at the right speed, 
and what would be the cause of tha slowing down In speed? 

A. 38 - Tha spring would have taken a permanent set. 

C, 39 - Suppose tha engine had a constant load and was running 350, then, with¬ 
out any change of load. It ran to 365, then down to 336, and kept this 
up every evening, what In the cause, and what would you do? 

A. 39 - A binding In the eccentric strap, or parts of governor t(jr valvn, or 
rocker ann. 

Q. 40 - How would you tighten a nut If you had no wrench of any kind? 

A. 40 - Use ohlsel and banner. 

Q. 41 - If for some reason the water In the bollor got very low and below the 
gauges, and you didn’t know where it was, what would yon do? 

A. 41 - Pull the fires; then punp up. 

Q. 42 - In setting valve in an Arlington engine, what load would you give it? 

A. 42 - Vo lead. 

Q. 43 - How often should the safety valve of a boiler bo tosted? 

A. 43 - Once a day. 

0. 44 - Suppose a leak ooourrod around one of tho rlvoto of the stoan drum, 
what would you do? 

A. 44 - Caulk It. 

q. 45 _ la it best to caulk a leaky rivet In a bollor when cold or hot? 

A. 45 - Hot. 

q. 46 - Why should an eooontrio strap got hot when it has very little work to 
do, while a bearing, doing 500 times more work, will run cool? 

A. 46 - Bad Workmanship. 

Q. 47 - What caunes grate bars to burn out? 

A.'47 - Too heavy a fire; heavy load clinkers; sulphur In coal. 

Q. 48 - If the slides of the engine should gat out, what would be tho probable 
cause, and how would you ranedy it? 

A. 48 - Top cap too tight; want of oil; grit In oil; scrape the bearings and 

q. 49 - Suppose they sot cutting badly while running, and you couldn’t stop, 
wha$ viould you do? 

A. 49 - Loosen top slides quickly. 

Q. 50 - Should the throttle on Annington engine be partly closed or wide open 
whan engine 1 b running with no load? 

A. 50 - Always wide open. 

Q. 51 - Suppose engine, slacks up too much from heavy load, vhat ore oausos, and 
what would you do? 

A. 51 - Inoraase tho bollor pressure. 


1‘ % I FraD What part ^ a bollar ls “ teat to talcs steam for on Injector? 

Q. M - that is tha lnalda of an ordinary ataan gauge like; explain by sketch? 

?* S " ^ ar ° *? ll8ya turnad hlGhar on tha oan tre of their face? 

A. 54 - To keep tha bait on, a bait always runs to the highest point on a pullay. 

0. 55 - Suppose an angina cutting off a l/4 stroke with 100 lbs. of ataan gave 
ba dTOa?^ d ° r88 P0WQr * ° nd ytm v ' antad 50 horsa T>ow»*V what la to 
A. 55 - Double the apaed of the engine, or double the boiler pressure. 

A* If " ch ?, dlff ! ranoa ln oylindor and Journal oil? 

A. 56 - Cylinder oil must have moro body, and should ba of mineral origin. 

Q. 57 - Wurt^on Indicator and what does a diagram show and mean; make 

Q. 58 - Suppose you run from 5 PJi. until 2»30 AO!., would you bank fire or 
start fresh flrea every day? 

A. 58 - Start fresh fire. 

”• 5S ■ ™ u *> -» 

A. 59 - Bank the fire. 


By i. 


Before a oonemor Is connected, ascertain By passing hia plaoo at least 
every half hour* the oxaqt nmhar of jets actually burn Inc until he closes; 
from this hlB gas bill oan ba almost exactly oaloulatod. Sometimes It will 
ba possible to read hia gas meter* keeping the time of each Jet actually burn¬ 
ing, for, say 20 ninuteB, and thUB ascertain. It Is highly Important to ob¬ 
tain the total nuabor of gas Jots, and tholr hours of burning, and than v.hon 
the electric light Is oonnaotad, the sane Information as to the hours of burn¬ 
ing must be obtained, and if it Is found that the consumer Is using a greater 
number of Jets, or burning the sane number longor, or falls to economise by 
not turning some Jots off when near closing up time, or asks for a hlgier 
candle power lamp, or does anything that would tend to causa his bill to be 
greator than his gas bill, ha .should bo notified at once, and explanations 
made that his bill will be higher, and to what extent, bo when tho bill Is 
presented at the end of tho month he knows what to expect, otherwise his Ig¬ 
norance will cause him to use more light, and then quarrel over the bill, and 
perhaps refuse to pay. It will also produoo on Impression on his mind that tho 
eleotrlo light Is moro costly than gas, whereas; in truth. It might ba as 
cheap. If not cheaper. 

1o moke comparisons, tho light must be burnt on the sane basis as gas, 
light for light, hour for hour, and both about the same power. Suppose a 
customer had been burning 10 lights, each equal to 10 candle power eleotrlo, 
and he had been paying 1 S/4>4 T>or hour for oach gas Jet, or 1 4/l0 mills 
par candle, par hour, for 3 hours per night, for 26 days, his bill would bo 
913.65. Suppose he puts in an equal number of 10 candle power oloctrio 
lanps at 1 l/4(' par hour, his bill for corresponding period would be $9.75. 

Wow suppose he wanted 16 candle power lamps, and wa put them In without 
making him understand that it would oost him more than the sane number of 
gas Jets, because tho 16 a.p. lanpe woro more powerful, then hie bill would 
be $13.52, the sane as gas, he would compare his gas bill, and would then 
flatly believe that our light was no oheaper than gas, for the reason that 
inmost cases customers cannot make a comparison as to the amount of light, 
while with his bills he is perfectly competent to compare. Some custom era 
on making a change from gaa to eleotrlo lamps, put in more oleotrlo Jets 
than they previously had gas Jets. Before the month la over, and when bill 
comes in, they generally forget that they are using a greater number of 
eleotrlo lights than thoy previously uBad gas Jots, and tnoBt of them will 
swear to it, stick to It, and actually believe It, because tho foot of 
adding two or throe Jate is so small a matter that it does not Impress It¬ 
self on their memory. The consequence Is that tho bill 1 b more than the cor¬ 
responding gas bill of last yoar, or the amount whloh they should save over 
gas is lost, and the oonsoquenoo Is that this impression 1 b nevor eradicated, 
and tho consumer le diasatlsfled, while if he were notified, within two or 
three nights after he had the premises connected, of tho faot that ho had 
two or throo more oleotrlo lanpe than ho previously had gaB, and that hlB 
bill would ba Increased to that extent, he would be warned and ledt to ex- 
poot the increase, and this Impression would be maintained for all future 

In private houses it Is Impossible to walk past evory 30 minutes and Jot 
down tho lights; In this oaso, the explanations as to oost, light, 4o., 
should bo very full to the owner. Unless these instructions are carried out, 
75 per cent, of the consumers will be dlsBatlBfled, many will have It dls- 

continued, or not use it, although, it nay actually he cheaper, and the hualnees 
will he an up-hill one. 

All the miatakoa mentioned have been made at the New York Station, where 
thl8 experience haa bean gained in doaling with the public, and tho romedieB 
here raentionod have bean found to work perfectly in every case, ao that all new 
conaumors are perfectly satiafied that they are getting Just what we represented 
they would get. 

In no case, unless it la extremely exceptional, should wiring be done at 
the company’s expense, in order to gain a ouatoner uftor the station is well 
atartod. It ia always boat that tho aompany do no wiring themselves, but turn 
the order over to regular authorized wiring aompany or individual who will give 
estimates, and do the wiring promptly and in a proper manner. If in small 
tavns tho oompany does the wiring itBelf, it would be necessary to obtain on 
expert, tho bill would bo presented by tho company and the customer would in 
most oases use tho threat that ho would stop using the light rathor than pay 
his wiring bill, in order to cooroe tho oompany to eitiior give him the wiring 
free or to out down the bill, thus making a loss to tho oompany. On the other 
hand, the private company, or individual who does the wiring have no difficulty 
in collecting their bills, as tha ouBtomor has no excuse, or mains of oosroion. 

In small towns, from 2,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, after the station has 
boon.'started and three or four prominent plaoos sro lighted, Btop soliciting 
orders for light, but run along quietly and wait. The custom era will gradually 
cone in and ask to be connected; their judgment and desires havine been gained 
by seeing tho light in the prominent places. Customers obtained in this manner 
give no trouble, und In time 75 per cent, of the whole number counted upon to 
take the light, will ask of their own aocord to be connected! After this re¬ 
sult ie obtained soliciting will be beneficial, the parties who do not order 
of their own ocoord are laboring under a misconception as to cost of light or 
wiring, or.require a little urging. 

In nearly every instance, except with the best concerns, parties will 
prevaricate as to the anount of their gas bills. Kany will mentally halve 
the amount. In many oases customers will produce their gas bills when the 
eleotric light bill is rauoh larger, and it la certain that they have burned 
about the 8om8 number of jots and hours. then this occurs, investigation 
has proved that their gas mater Is wrong and has registered too slow. In 
small towns the gas meters, as well as the management of the gas canpany, is 
wretched. There will be many ancmolous bills that will cause a great deal of 

Sometimes the gas bill is snail by reason of tho fact that the parties 
are using snail burners. If ths burner is found to be snail, and not to give 
nearly as much light qb tha regular elootrio, tho fact should be shown to the 
proposed custom ar, and the suggestion made that if he wantB to ksop his bill 
the same he should put in leas alaotrlo, or if he wants more light, the same 
number, explaining that tha alaotrlo will run his bill up In comparison, by 
reason of tho faot that he is using very snail gas burners. In plaolng a 
motor always try to put It in u place where It will be convenient to remove 
or replace tha bottles, and inexpensive to place in position, and whero boys 
and others will not be liablo to tamper with it. It Ib also important to 
select a plaoo whore tha liquids In the bottles will not bo liable to freeze. 

then the station is first started and 2 or 3 oaimmars are oonneoted, it 
la not actually necessary (unless it can ba done conveniently) to put tho 
meters in thoso 2 or 3 places. They should, however, be put In at- onoe if 

ready, but thereafter no oomrumar should be oonneoted, so that he can obtain 
ll#it t unless his neter Is In position and roady to record. For the first 
month a record should be taken every 15 days and bill should be presented. 

After the first month, the taking a motor reading ovary month will be suffi¬ 
cient. The object of talcing It twice during the first month Is to allow the 
oonsumer to see what It costB so that he may be. able to answer the enquiries 
of others, who hesitate until they can ascertain from their neighbors what 
their bill is and how It compares with gas. 

So not take any customers who dose at 6 o’clock, or even 7 o’clock, no 
matter how many lights they may bum, or how hlgi their gas bill may be. 

Sarly closers are not desirable customers, although to a person not versed In 
electric lighting a store burning thrao times as many Jets as any other con¬ 
cern In town, or a largo factory closing at 6 or 7 Fa:., would be thou^it to be 
vary desirable. This Is not the case, for the reason that In the winter, for 
every light burning between 5 and 6 PO!. there must be Invested from $15 to 
$25 In apparatus at the Central Station and wires in the street. Hence, If a 
store whloh closes at 6 Fa:. In December had 100 lights, it would require an 
investment of say $2,000, and 100 Imps burning for 1 hour only, at 1 l/4 
cents per hour, would amount- to $1.25 per day. There are only about 130 
nights in the year tliat any light would be required In a store dosing at 6 Pat. 
and the whole limiting would not amount to over 100 full' hours, which, at $1.25 
per hour, would amount to $125, whereas If these 100 lights were sold to 
various parties who dosed at from 9 to 11 Pa:., the average would be 3 hours 
of aotud burning the year round, Sundays excepted; banco 312 days In the 
year and 100 lanps, at $1.25 per hour, would give $3.75 per day, or $1,170 per 
annon for $2,000 invested, as against $125 from the single consumer, who 
closes at 6 Pa:. The latter consumer would not be desirable if he kept open 
until 10 P41. only Saturday night. 

Factories that work late or all night oro very desirable, but those 
factories that generally close at 6 Pa:., but somotlmoe, when business 1 b good, 
work nights, are not desirable, Whenever poBalblo the local oompany should 
endeavor to soli an isolated plant to the factory, from which the company 
would derive a profit, both from the orlglnd Bdo and from the continuous 
sale of lamps to the purchaser. 

Private houses are very desirable, owing to the superior offsets and 
beauty and quality of the light, which gives it a greater advantage in this 
oonneetlon than In a store. 

V.hen it Is onoo Installed in a privato house parties will not discard it, 
even if the prico were to be placed far above gas. 

Where it Is possible got the consumor to purchase pezmonent electric 
light fixtures from the manufacturers. They will then have made on Invest¬ 
ment, and will bo more likely to pay their bills promptly. 

The mains and poles should bo lnspooted every too or three days. Any mov¬ 
ing of buildings, rebuilding, or any changes liable to be made, should be 
noted and our polos and wires removed or changed sometime before the actual 
necessity occurs. 

In this business, where no stoppage of the light muBt occur under any con¬ 
sideration, the parson In oharge must look ahead for danger, or ohanges going 
on in the town likely oven by ohanoe to produce on interruption. 

In the some way, the moment defeoto in tho apparatus, engine, boilers, or 

anything whioh 1 b likely to oauaa a stoppage in the future, is noticed, it must 
■ " a ranedled at once, or means provided, so that rclian trouble does ooour, it will 
not cause the stoppage of light for on instant. 

Chore should be at loast four or five days* supply of coal on hand in oase 
of a snow storm that might render cartage impossible. The water supply also 
shouid be looked after in time, so that there shall be no sudden lack of water 
by failing of the souroo of supply, stoppage of supply pipe, .freezing. So. Sta¬ 
tions running only at night should start engine and put pressure on mains 30 
minutes before the necessity occurs for lighting up the darkest part of stores. 
This may occur sooner than expootod in some oases, by reason of a storm. 

Lanps are furnished to the consumer free. An aooount of the lanpe supplied 
to eaon person Should bo kopt and also of the number of broken ones roturned. 

Always obtain the brokon lamp for ovory now ono furnished. V.hen the con- 
suner is connected inform him that any lampB missing, or brokon by oarelessnoss. 
must be paid for at $1.00 each. 

In a place whoro they burn frcm 15 to 50 lamps furnish 1 dozen extra; frcm 
B to 15 lamps, furnish 1/2 dozen extra; and froa 1 to 0, 3 extra lampB, over and 
above thosa in the sookots. 

In all oasos when a stock .of lampB is replenished be careful to bring away 
as many broken onee as new ones supplied, and if any aro missing notify the con¬ 
sumer that they will be aharged on his noxt bill. 

a ° t ° rQ * to *» v 'h°re the coiling is low, and the walls and 
ceiling white, it is best to put the lamps upright, and uoe no shade. This 
cheapens the installation, the white walls acting as a roflector. 

“f 9 WlltQ » var y high, a shade may be used, 
the lamps being placed upright, but whore the ceiling ie dark, the best 
position for the lamps is pendant, shade being also. used. A room can be 
lighted with one-third leas .lots when placed in tha centre than when placed 
?“ ^a<*9ta near the wall. In many stores in country towns, especially the 
°“ a * * ha ° a J lln 8 e aro so low that no ohandoliers are required, the 
sockets and shades being oonnooted direct on the aoiling. 

Central Station Engineering Plans 

This volume contains engineering plans and information used in determining 
the construction plan and the cost of various central stations. Included is 
information about the number of lamps and their candle power and about the type 
size, and dimension of the building intended to house the central station. A floor 
plan of the building and miscellaneous other information about the prospective 
central station are also included. The Construction Department's mapping and 
determination department probably extracted this data from reports submitted by 
canvassers. The book contains 192 numbered pages. Only 16 pages have been used. 



5TAT I Ot\. 


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LcunjaS I C.P. 




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Canvass Books 

nei^hirhlnft ns 7f th ? door -to- d °or, street-by-street survey of a municipality or 
h 0 00d ^°M et ! rmln ® the number of Potential customers for a central station. 

U t C mntv H- T,^ 1882 ° r early 1883 ’ when the Edison Electric 
Light Company directed canvassing operations through agents of the Edison 

record f" K 0l f ed L ‘ ghtin S- The P rlnted *°rms on its pa^es were designed to 
use the numh^r nf aCh pr ? SpeCtlve customer, including the type of building, its 
use, the number of gas lamps in operation, the duration of their use 6 and 

f the preSe ? < T,%° f Iar § e trees that mi Sht interfere 
whieh af* i J I r. ° n . ly . t J le two pa g es of "General Instructions to Canvassers," 
0 ' “* ha,e b “" Tl4 

Related material can be found in the canvassing scrapbook of Alfred O Tate 
(Miscellaneous Scrapbook Series). Three other books, dating from 188°: 1884 
contain the canvasses of Worchester, Massachusetts; Knoxville, Tennessee and’ 
probably New York City-s second district. They have not been filmed 

Record Book 

Thom J« H1 a re £?- rd b °£ k covers . the P eri °d June 1883-April 1884. It was used by the 
JtaTons and to 1SOn C . on 5 tructlon Department to list towns canvassed for central 
Anson?a * ^° rd ^ P ercenta S e of central Station contracts assigned to the 
^“P la ® ra * s * Copper Company. At the end of the book are 5 pages of sketches 
217 nnmh t0 d ,T arn0S a " d electric power distribution systems. The S book contains 
217 numbered pages. Only 18 pages have been used. 

/, <dT7 

2 / 

3 / 



— ■%$¥:- . 

&kLy*:<£? / 

\f ' / ^(A/^t^ / <’^^v*\^ 

(/ c^a_^t^ GhhO^ 


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'JL-CO-*-/' $-v~£e_s (JiL^ afty) 

oJ'tYi'i'v^ 6(H'{/ al^/ 
'y&l/oJi/WAspi’/is/i.y . r /^X 

Thomas A. Edison Construction Department Records [not filmed] 

Mapping Department Books 

This two-volume set, whose entries cover the period February 1883-April 
1884, was apparently used by the mapping department of the Thomas A. Edison 
Construction Department. One volume contains an alphabetical listing by city of 
incoming maps prepared by the canvassers and forwarded to the Construction 
Department. The other volume records work done within the mapping department. 
The front cover of each book is labeled "Index Map Department." Each book 
contains 132 numbered pages. Only 33 pages in the first book and 32 pages in the 
second book have been used. 

Gas Statistics Book 

This book contains data about competing gas lighting companies. The 
information was gleaned from circulars sent in 1881 to Western Union telegraph 
stations across the United States. The statistics were used by the Edison 
companies to gauge the gas market competition. The entries appear in rough 
alphabetical order according to state and city. The book includes information 
about cities in most states from Alabama through New York inclusive. The front 
cover is labeled "Gas Statistics Book No. 1." The book contains 360 numbered 

Meter Book 

This unused book was designed for the collection of data about the amount of 
electricity used by central station customers. It contains approximately 250 
unnumbered pages. 

Samuel Insull Pocket Notebook [PN-84-01-04] 

This pocket notebook contains one dated entry for January 4, 1884. It 
consists of notes and calculations by Samuel Insull concerning various central 
station plants. Most of the notes are in shorthand. 

Edison Electric Light Company of Europe, Ltd. Records 

This scrapbook covers the period February-March 1884. It contains three 
documents: (1) a notice for a meeting of the stockholders of the Edison Electric 
Light Company of Europe, Ltd.; (2) a report, dated February 25, 1884, discussing 
proposals to merge the three French Edison companies: the Compagnie 
Continentale Edison, the Societe Electrique Edison; and the Societe Industrielle et 
Commerciale Edison; and (3) a report, dated August 15, 1884, discussing proposed 
changes to the 1883 contracts with the Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft, including the 
expansion of the company's business into Austria, Denmark, and Russia. The spine 
is labeled "European Co 1884 Edison Electric Lt. Co. of Europe." The volume 
contains 188 numbered pages and a table of contents. 

Blank pages not filmed: 24-188. 


■d S. memorciAHcicts <n~> j\A.ojxo<±t.dU AoVWm 

(Jet, JXcj&lJ&o. ^.'HancicU, -&oo&. ( lf.0J 

d. &. £a ^/o/tmeW cm ^ c£a.c^ acjcu^U Gl. <2vv/<UWtx&> 

(■Juu £<jOj- -&o. ^MCMUiua, &nx€^ t fcitps J If ) 

■§2^ f°r o/“«ie -«W-^ »/"- y, „ m 

=^,*, v /^ 

Report of the Hoard of Directors of the Edison Electric 
Light Company of Europe, Limited, to a special meeting of Stock¬ 
holders, hold March, 7th. 1884. 

To the Stockholders of the Edison Electric Light Company 
of Europe, Limited: - 

The following statement presents the condition 
of the Company’s affairs; and the action already taken by the Di¬ 
rectors upon the proposition from Paris for merging the three 
French companies into one Company. 

The total cash receipts of the Company from its organiza¬ 

tion are as follows, viz. 

Receipts prior to April 1881. $ 34,820.00 

Received from Paris in summer and fall 

of 1881 for Paris Exposition. 30,000.00 

Received from sale of Bonds from Nov. 

1881 to November 1883. 50,000.00 

Received from Paris for Opera House plant. 5,800.00 

Received for sale of underground mains.. 418. 52 


This none, has been expends on th . expmm3 or , ho 

Paris Exhibition, including nachinory, freights, and expense, or 

.orteon, M patent fees, and laLgenera! cash'expenses of the Con- 

pany, including cablegrams and consul feos. t*,*, u 

a 'he balance of cash 

now in the treasury is S18.22. There are 

. ape sti11 30tte unpaid debts 


for taxes, legal services, inachinory, *c. amounting to about 

No officer of tho Company has ovor rocoivod any salary 
whatovor, nor has tho Company ovor paid any rant, or paid anything 
whatever Tor Jocal expenses in this country, except one disburse¬ 
ment of $400. for clorical assistance. 

Regarding tho proposition from Paris for morging the 
three French companies into one company, it will be necessary to 
call the attention of the stockholders to the history of our busi¬ 
ness in Europe, in order to intelligently present the present 

In the summer of luui, this Company made an exhibit at 
the Paris Electrical Exposition, pursuant to a contract made be¬ 
tween this Company and Mr. Klie Loon of Paris, who furnished part 
of tho money for the exhibit. The consideration riven by us to 
Mr. Leon was the right to form an Edison Company for Prance. The 
outcome of our success at the Paris Exposition was the formation 
by Mr. Leon or a faris syndicate which proposed to fori" throe Com¬ 
panies in Prance to control the Edison light business for Europe- 
After considerable correspondence an agreement was arrived at, 
and tho well kno wn contract between the Paris Syndicate and this • ■ 

Company was executed, Kovembe- 15th. 1UH1. Under this contract 

three Companies were formed in Paris, viz, 

Cie. Continental Edison, Capital. 1,000,000 francs. 

Societe Electrique Edison, « 1 , 000 ,0o 0 

Soeioto Industrieiio et Commorcialo 

Edison, Capital.. - 

Total. 3,500,000 francs. 

Our Company was to receive, as consideration for the 
grant of its patent rights in Europe, founders shares, or parts 
of founder, in each of the above Companies, entitling us to cer¬ 
tain percentages in the profits of the three Companies, arter 
certain deductions. No Parts of Pounder other than ours, in any 
of the Companies, were to be, and never havo boon,issued. Under 
this a-rangemont, we received the following Parts of Poundor, viz: 

ILL C000 Parts of Ppunder of the Compagnio Continent- 
ale, entitling us to UO por cent of the profits after certain de¬ 
ductions, mentioned below, the remaining 20 per cent of the profits 
going to the general stockholders. 

12). 3000 Parts of Founder of the Societe Industrieiio, 

entitling us to 50 per cent of the profits, after certain deduc¬ 
tions, mentioned below, the remaining 50 pGr cent of the profits 
going to the genoral stockholders. 

— 3000 Parts of Pounder of the Societe Electrique, 

entitling us to 60 per cent of the profits, after certain deduc¬ 
tions, mentioned below, the remaining 40 per cent of the profits 
going to tho general stockholders. 

Our Company parted .1th curtain portion, of it. Pound,,.,,, plying thorn to -ho Pari, syndicat. „„ other, „ 
sions. The commissions were as follows: 


To Messrs. Porgos * loon. »0 part, of rounder. 

To special Commission......... 70 » » 

1UU4, in compliance with the arrangement made with the new syndi¬ 
cate in Paris, hereafter mentioned. 

Tho certain deductions referred to above, taken out of 
the gros3 receipts of each of the three companies, severally, bo- 
rore any profits are to bo divided betweon the general stockholders 
and the parts of founder, on the basis Just stated, are as follows: 
£i I Payment of General Expenses. 

J2) One twentieth Tor legal reserve. 

6 P R >* cent to stockholders. 

[4 ) Directors fees. 

j5j_ A Percentage for redemption of capital. 

The three companies have done a large business in Europe, 
but have thus far made no profits for division among the stock¬ 
holders. The capital of the companies is now exhausted and ad¬ 
ditional money is needed in order to reap the benefit and profit 
resulting from the introduction of the light already made. This 
necessity for additional capital is admitted on all hands, and 
the present proposed plan of amalgamating the three companies, 
with increased capitalisation, grows out of this need. 

It is now proposed to merge the three Companies into one 

th. P4 .„ b . ins » lnd „„ lhe Sooiot . K1 . c , rlqu . and tho Soo . 8ti> 

Industrial!., margin* than, in th. Oampugni. , n _ 

creasing its capital to *0,000,000. francs,- of which 
francs in stock will be issued to the present general 
holders in the three existing companies in exchange, 

actual stock- 
at par, for 


th61r PreSOn ‘ St '' ck - A now syndicate propose., to take the ro¬ 
under „r the stock, <1,.'500,000 fanes, at par, certainly one half 
and possibly the whole, to be paid in on signing the contracts. 
This money is to be used in part in installing a central station 
in Paris, costing with real estate, about 5,250,000 francs. 

It is Proposed to call in all the existing Parts of Poun 
dor in all three Companies, being *>00 in all, as above, and to 
issue in exchange for them 8000 now ones in this large Company, 
entitling the holders to 40 per cent of the profits after deduc¬ 
tions similar to those above named. No other founders shares 
Will DO I3sued. It 13 also proposed to pay cash to those 8000 
founders shares a royalty of 5 cents for every lamp used or em¬ 
ployed by the C ie . Continental (the now Company); These now 
parts of founder, 8000, are to be issued to our Company, but wo 
undei obligation to transfer a certain portion of them, first, 
share for share to the other parties who now hold founders shares, 
forth above, and, second, to certain parties as compensa¬ 
tion or commission for services rendered in bringing out the new 
company. This distribution is as follows: viz. 

yndicato. 2000 parts of founder. 

Old Syndicate. 1070 . 

Puskas S Bailey. ;<li0 

Special Commission.. 70 »» »» „ 


here being 8000 parts of founder, 4500 parts will ro*. 

r ipain to this Company, after the above deduction, entitling this 
Jcompany as holder of such 4500 parts, to 22 1 A per cent of the net 
profits. In the proposed new company there is a provision for a 

j jlamp royalty, as just stated, of 25 centimes (5 cents) for every 

' f 

iflainp used in Europe, including all renewals of the sqme, to be paid 
■ exclusively to the founders shares, as a part of the running ex¬ 
penses of the Compagnie Continental^ Our proportion of this lamp 
royalty, aftor the parts of founder are divided as above, will 

It will be soon that our interest in the profits of the 

ismess, omitting for the pre; 
ty, is reduced by this new ai 

rence to the lamp roy— 

1Baucoa °y new arrangement. Whereas in the case of 
the tnree existing French companies wo are entitled, after certain 
deductions mentioned above, on. ran average, to about one half the 
profits, in the case of this now Company we are to receive less 
than one quarter of the profits. The question immediately arises, 
why are our profits to be thus lessened? The answer is that our 
representatives in Paris instruct us that it is impossible to pro¬ 
cure abroad the additional capital imperatively required in the 
business unless we reduce our share of the profits. I n other 
• words, the money cannot be had on the old terms. 

X. should bo noted, es a partial offset to this d.croase 
gin our shar. „r ths profits, that havo succeeded 

f 1 “" P r ° y ‘ lty ’ * hi * h - ^ * f ‘»< «■>«•». Payable as part or the 
..expenses of the business without reference to , h e fee, .hether 
fc h9re are Profits or not, affords us a certain • 

Mr certain income, although for 

tho immodinto present a small ono. While tho Directors deeply 
rorri-ot the necessity Tor this reduction in tho existing terms, it 
has been impossible Tor them to secure bottor onoa, and they have 
been obliged to accept thia now division of profits i»3 an impera¬ 
tive condition of securing additional capital. 

There are certain other details touching this now or¬ 
ganization which require ospocial mention. Our only knowlodgo 
about them is what wo glean from tho letters of Mossrs. Bailey and 
Batchelor, but wo beliovo that is correct. Those details have 
all been carefully considered, and represent, as they now stand, 
the result of several months of discussion and correspondence bet¬ 
ween us and our friends at Paris. They are as follows; viz*: 

Our company is required to give up its right of vetoing 

contracts made by the French Company, and to give up also its 
right to veto any proposed consolidation or amalgajnation with 
other companies. We aro al30 roquired to consent to tho use of 
any other than the Edison dynamos or lamp. Tho royalty, however, 
is to bo paid to tho part3 of founder, whatever lamp may bo used* 

In rognrd to the amalgamation with other companies, tho now Contin¬ 
ental Company will bind itself not to muke any arrangement with an- 
otner company which would diminish either tho numbor or value or 
the 8000 parts of founder. We aro to have 3 directors for 3 
years in tho proposed new company, also an active manager in our 
behalf, whoso salary will be paid by the now Continental Company. 
There aro some other modifications in the By-Laws of tho now com¬ 
pany but they relate principally to the number and value of shaross 

and other details nor 

icossary now to bo considered. 


The conclusion roachod touching this new company and our 
contract with it, tho principal features of which are set forth 
in this report, has been arrived at only after protracted nego¬ 
tiation. Your Board was for several weeks in doubt whether it 
would not be for our interest to insist upon the existing three 
French compuniea being continued, and to refuse to consent t.o the 
amalgamation, especially on the terms demanded. It was only afte 
your Board were convinced that additional money was imperatively 
required and could not be otherwise obtained, that they yielded. 
The time has arrived for a central station to be installed in Pari: 
and a large amount of money was neoded for tho purpose. Money is 
also needed for manufacturing and other purposes. Our represent¬ 
atives found that the only practicable way in which this money 
could be had was to consolidate the throe companies, and increaso 
the capital stock. This of course necessitated the offering of 
inducements for the raising of the money, which inducement was 
finally settled upon as 200o of the parts of founder in tho pro¬ 
posed new company although it reduces our. percentages in the prof¬ 
its, as above stated, to 22 3 2 P e >‘ cent: However, Messrs. Batch¬ 
elor and Bailey have satisfied us that it is the best that can be 

^ Your Board having decided that it was for the interest 

/ •;* %? r the stockholders to accept the proposition submitted from Paris 

\ 4 %% 

\ J OT aln &lgamat,ing the three companies, they endeavored to obtain 
V sufficient time to submit in advance the project to the stockho 

r ° r »*» r.n . h „ t „„ ^ 

M “ ..-.Mod 

ta k . tho weapons > bi 1 1 ty, F,„ rJr . frort , o 

ind„ m our fM.M. in Pari, to sufficient ^ M{ „ 

~ * hon * “ 1* 4.,., to can a „a...i„ P or th0 

stockho ldoi-s. , 0 combinotions touch- 

lnn °" in «*'» your Board do not deem ,t expod,- 

to aot rurth in detail at tho present time, immediate decision 
was .equirod from ms. Your "irectors accordingly, at a special 

,1,00UnfT ° n th ° 3Uh - do * ° r '- ! —y !«.«, instructed tho P rPs idcn 
to cable to llossrs. Hatcholor and Bailey, authorizing them to sign 
an option to bo given to the new syndicate to form the now Compag- 

ni ° COntlnental ° UP0 " terms above set forth. We have since 

received a cable r,-r..n p„ ■ 

Horn Paris stating that the option has been sign- 

lequosting us to deposit in escrow with Messrs. Droxel, 

^ " & °°. ^ 000 Ptt, ' ts or founder in the existing Compagnie C on - 

tmentalo. These are the parts of founder to be exchanged and 

Riven as conn, ission as sot rn-tv. u above, and ponding tho decision 

of the prosent syndicate 

aris, formed for the purpose of bring 
!"<! out tho now compnny, as to whotho- thoy will proceed in brjnn- 
■nn tho coinpnny out, those p„ r t s „ r pounder oro deposited in escro 
before tho expiration or the option, 00 days, thoy decide to 
brine tho company out one „n„ra„t„, th o stock subscriptions and 
°“ h Ports of rounder .lit bo doliyorrd 

°”r ,0 tte Wt ‘ P “ "POP, bn, if company is no, brought 

out and tho Cash subscript 

nptions guarenteed, they will bo roturnod 

to our treasury. 

Tho principal object of this mooting, called by your 
Directors, is to obtain tho ratification by tho stockholders of 
tho action taken by your Hoard of Directors as oxprossed above* 

Thoro is another matter which your Hoard would mention 
in this report. Tt is that of the indebtedness of the Company 
upon its Debenture Bonds issued November 1st. 1881. 

Tho Paris Exhibit of 1881 cost tho Company a large sum 
of money only a portion of -which was mot by the advance mado by 
Mr. Jieon. There -were also other existing debts, amounting to abou 
S20,000 for patent solicitors fees, casli loans, tfc. Sc. Tt was 
therefore rosolved by your Board to ask tho stockholders to ad¬ 
vance money to the Company in proportion to the stock hold by them 
taking at par debenture bonds at 8 years at 8 per cent for tho 
amount advancod. Accordingly, a circular containing the l' 
proposition was sent to each stockholder .September 8th. .1801, 

Only six replies wore received. The total amount subscribed by 
theeo six stockholders was but a small fraction of the indebted¬ 
ness, oonsoqnen tl y thoso subscriptions wero declined and that plan 
for raising money was abandoned. 

Your Hoard then determined to call a spocial mooting of 
the stockholders to consider the question of creating a Debenture 
Bond indebtedness to raise money to discharge our indebtedness 
Such meeting was held November 4th. .1881 , a printed notice having 
boon sent, October 20th. 1881, to each stockholder. The stockhol- 
dnrs resolved thatmDcbon ture Jionds be issued not t< 

exceed the 

’li« Edison Electric Light Company of Europe, Limited. 

65 Fifth Avenue, Now York, August 15th. 1884. 

he Directors of the Edison Electric Light Company 
of Europe, Limited. 

This conpany is asked by hr Hniloy to give its conson 
■ ertr.iv ;j i-opo.. rd ''hariges in tho present contract with the G 'i r 
, .-.nd tu certain ujdificntionu in tho present nrrangeir.ent 
■. Hess Slemons ft Halsko, Herlin, - and I ’ to submit below 
. stn: i.-.ient of all tho matters involvod. 

system in Oorn.n 

by Isolated plants 

. "■«Lions. The Articles of Associate 
•i a) allow that Co. to "oroot fcranch-o 
every description at homo and abroad" 

possesses the right to manufacture all apparatus, including lamps 
..ess Siemens \ Halsko also have the right to manufacture conjoint¬ 
ly with the German Conpany on paying cor tain royalties to that Com¬ 
pany. Tho Contracts, which were executed March 13th., 1603, gi- 

/e to tho Compagnie Continontale Edison, of Paris, founders shares 
entitling it to 21 per cent of tho net profits of the German Com¬ 

pany after a six per cent dividend has been paid to the cash capi¬ 
tal They also provide for payment to the Cie continontale of a 
royalty on each lamp used or sold in Germany equal to 16/3 of tho 
actual coat of tho lamp to the Oenaan Company; also for the pay¬ 

ment of royalties on the dynamos in each installation, at the rate 
of 12/2 Marks (S3,12) per horse power of the dynamos up to 50 ' 

horse power, and beyond that, 16 Marks (84) per horse power. The 
royalty on dynamos is not yearly and is to be paid once only. 

When the Oerman Company was formed, it paid in cash to the Cie. 
Continontale, 350,000 Marks (887,500), and the Cie. Continontale 
is to forego the above royalties until they roach the said sum of! 
350,000 marks, an amortizement of that advance cash payment thus ■ 
taking place. The Oerman Company now desire to add to their ter¬ 
ritory by taking also Russia, Austria and Denmark, and, while the 
change is being made in their contract, also to make some modi- : 
fications in the terms of their original contract, March 13th., ' 

1883, ! 

The said proposed modifications are as follows: 

1. The German Co. are now restricted to the Edi¬ 
son dynamo for incandescent lighting. They want the 
privilege of using any other type of dynamo they may 

2. The Gorman Co. wish to be free to grant licen¬ 
ses to others to manufacture dynamos without the con¬ 
sent of the Cie. continontale. Under the present con¬ 
tract such consent is imperative. 

3. The German Co, wish to have the right to buy 
patents, the same to cost not more than $5000 or *7,500 
a year. This is a new provision. 

4. No royalty to be paid on dynamos by Oerman Co. 

They now pay the cie. c< 

onunentaie t 

royalty of S3,12 

(or $4,00’ per H. P., a6 explained above. 

5. The loop royulty to bo raised from 16y/3 of 
the cost of loops to a fixed royalty of 40 centimos, 
and is to bo paid for every lanp used or sold in Qor- 
many, Russiu, Austria, or Denmark. so far as we can 
judge, the old royalty would be about six cents per 
lamp and would decrease as the cost of manufacture de¬ 
creased, whilo the now royalty will bo fixed and amount 
to 8 cents per lamp 

6 - Tne Gorman Co would exploit the system in all 
four of the abovo Countries with its own capital and 
^ to establish agoncios in each of those Countries. 

7. The Gorman Co, to give no llcunse for manu¬ 
facturing lamps, but must manufacture all lamps itself. 

8. The German Co. to pay all present and future 
oxpenses of patents in all four of the above Countries. 

The abovo Eight items constitute the modifications, so 
far as i can make them out, which the Oerman Co. now asks to have 
made in the original contract of Uarch 13, 1883. 

It appoars that in negotiating this now Contract, the 
Cio. Continentals have been endeavoring to obtain, in addition to 
the royalties 4c. which they are alroady entitled to, a direct 
participation in the profits received by the Gorman Co. from lo¬ 
cal conpanios formed by it in any of the above countrios, tir-. 
Bailoy writes us that the German Co- was, however, so decidedly 
pposed to this, that he (Hr. Bailey) was compelled to go to Bor- 
n to talk over the matter in person* He writes us that the 

above 8 specified points have been agreed to by the German Co. 
and the Board of Directors of the Cio. Continentalo, but that no 
decision has been arrived at in regard to the said direct parti¬ 
cipation in profits. In a letter to us dated Berlin, July 15th., 
1884, Ur, Bailey writes that he is convinced that it is out of 
the question to expect a direct participation in profits of local 
companies to bo given to the Cio, Continentals, owing to the weak 
patent situation in the countries above named, also to the great 
conpetition in electric lighting, and to the fact that central 
station companies abroad are compelled to pay a tax to the muni¬ 
cipal authorities of cities or towns where stations would be oper 
ated. Hr. Bailey encloses in his letter of July 15th., a copy 
of a long letter written by him to the Cie, Continentals Edison, 
Paris, recommending them to forego any direct participation in pn 
fits of local companies formed by the Oerman Conpany, for the 
reasons above stated, also for the reason that groBt complication; 
would ensue by insisting on the point 

Mess. Siemens 4 Halske being parties to the present con¬ 
tracts with the German co=, it will be necessary to obtain their 
consent to the above mentioned changes now proposed to be made 
touching the existing contract of March, 1883, as well as to any 
other modifications to such contract that may be proposed. This 
consent, however, they have refused to give. Mr. Bailey writes 
that he has discovered the reason of this refusal, which is that 
they have been antagonized by the Oerman Company. it was contem¬ 
plated by the original contract of March 1883, that they (siemens 
fi Halske) should manufacture most of the dynamos and lamps for the 

0 / *r Janey m the interest of 


1 The German Co jo have liberty itself to na; 
Ua own dynamos below 500 lamps capacity, but not to 
hare then, manufactured by any other manufacturer- 

2. The German Co. to take back the right of arc lairps. This right was given them 

ln Artlcla 11 the Agreement of liareh 13, 1833 . 

The German Co. agreed , 0 t to oxplolt any other systaQ 

f a rc light than that of Siemens, or Edison, or a 
sys.em technically i n advance of both. S. 4 u. 

exploit ail other lamps, and were given ex¬ 
clusive riwht rr.» . . 

Gorman navy. 

3. siemens ( as well-as the German Co.) to be 
relieved from the royalty on dynamos. 

4. Siemens to continue to pay the royalty to the 
German Co. of 50 pfennige (about 10 cents) on lanps 
made by t.nem. This is provided for in Article 6 of no 

above mentioned agreement, dated liareh 13, 1833, 

5. The German Co. to be bound to purchase all 
central station dynamos from Siemens 4 Haisiis 

6. The Gorman Co. to pay Siomens a royalty of 5 
per cent on dynamos Manufactured by it 3 elf 

7. The German Co. to admit Siemens 4 Halske to a 
participation in the Lamp Factory of from 25 to 33 per- 
centum just what is meant by this, I am in doubt. 

It would appear, although I am not sure of it, that 
Siemens is to be al>woi to be a partner in na Lamp 
Pactory to this extant. 

The above seven items, all of which I have stated as 
clearly as we can make out the meaning of what is lntenaed from 
the correspondence, are still under discussion at Berlin and Paris. 
Our latest advices are that the discussion is still going on, the 
parties to the discussion being the German Co., Siemens :■ ~ak&, 
and the Cie continentals. Mr. Bailey thinks that the discussion 
will result in having matters settled substantially on the basis 
outlined in this statement. 

*3 are now asked by Mr. Bailey to approve all the mat¬ 
ters now under discussion, a brief statement of which I have now 
made in this paper, and he desires us to cable him at once whether 

wa approve or not, To be more oxact, it wouic 
wants to know, first, whether the first above 
fications in the existing contract of March 13 
isfactory to this r,oay a r.y, and, second, wheth 
:ure the consent of Slwienn :• Halske to the af. 
TE, the Edison Electric Lip.nt no of Europe, L 
>ur permission to concede to dir. ons dalako l 
iet forth above 

We are being continually called upon 

»nd are giving away first one thing and then an 

lh ° and ’ fr0m w hat has already occurred 

we have riven ■ wy everything and wii. 

othing left Has not the time come to hesita, 

ny further nc.^ii Tk „ . „ 

• - The status of ou? bus 

6 ” "”«■ “1 “ "«» 

»™. t. k . Mskor , o 

essions so r ar as thsy involve t i 6su ,. r .j. . * 

A ° r th ’ or th, 

13 ,ak3 SC “°" «"•»«.». , 1:1 haIi 
L ’ CU ‘ UnE ' "*’• »- « "Ufa «r«,. at 
,M ‘ y AUe "“ *«4 kr . „at«ha lo - __ 

Edison Electric Light Company, Ltd. Records 

t®cords cover the period 1881-1919 and include agreements, association 
E ’ s stockholders, and other material relating to the Edison Electric Light 
PlSii r Swan Electric Light Company, Ltd., the Edison and Swan United 
Electric Light Company, Ltd., and their successor companies. 

The documents are part of a collection of exhibits that were used as evidence in 
income tax litigation between Edison and the United States Internal Revenue 
Department in 1926-1929. The case arose from Edison's sale of his shares in the 
F'k E le . ctnc Company, Ltd. The exhibits were contained in two binders, 
labeled "Edison-Swan Electric Light Co. Exhibit B" and "Edison-Swan Elec. Light 
Company Exhibit C." The material was disbound prior to microfilming. 8 








AN AGREEMENT made the Becond day of February, 1881, 
BETWEEN JOSEPH WILSON SWAN, of Newoastle-upon-Tyne, 
Manufacturing Chemist, hereinafter called "the Vendor" of 
the one part, and ROBERT SPENCE WATSON, of the same 
plaoe. Solicitor, on behalf of the hereinafter mentioned 
.intended Company (which ROBERT SPENOE WATSON is herein- " 
after oalled "the Promoter") of the other part. 

the Vendor haB obtained from Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, Letters Patent for Inventions in relation 
to lighting by electricity, and those Letters Patent are 
two in number, and are dated respectively, the second day 
of January, 1880, and the twentieth day of January, 1880, 
and he has applied for, and is about to obtain from Her 
Majesty, two additional Letters Patent for inventions of 
the like nature, and the Letters Patent so obtained, and 
about to be obtained, are hereinafter referred to as "the 
Home Patents." 

AND WHEREAS the Vendor has also obtained, and may 
hereafter obtain. Letters Patent from the Governments of i 

the Colonies and Dependencies of the United Kingdom, and 
from the Governments of Foreign Countries Letters Patent , 

or Documents similar to Letters Patent in relation to his ! 

said invention, and the same Letters Patent and Documents 
already obtained and hereafter to be obtained, including j 

all improvements and new inventions in relation to j 

lighting by electricity are hereinafter referred to as 1 

"the Foreign Patents." 

AND WHEREAS 1b haB been agreed that a Oompany 
shall be formed for the purpose, among others, of purchasing 
from the Vendor the Home Patents. 


1. The Promotor shall before the first day of May 
next, procure a Oompany with a capital of 
£100,000, divided into 10,000 shares of £10 each, 
to be incorporated under the Companies' Acts 
186S to 1880, by the name of "Swan'B Electric 
Light Company, Limited," for the purpose, among 
others, of adopting and carrying this Agreement into 

S. The Memorandum and Articles of the Association of the 
Oompany,shall, before the registeration thereof, be 
approved by the Oompany and by the Vendor. 

3. The Vendor shall sell and the Oompany shall purchase 
the Home Patents, (the two not yet completed 
being completed at the expense of the Oompany), 
including extensions, and if any prooeBS used by 
the Vendor in the manufacture of the Lamps commonly 
known as Swan's Eleotrio Lamps is not comprehended 
in any of the Home Patents, the same prooess is 
nevertheless to be included in the sale hereby 
agreed to be made t.o the Oompany, and such sale > 

shall also include any Trade Mark whioh Bhall be 
obtained in reference to such Lamps. 

4. The Vendor shall also sell, and the Company shall 
purchase, all his the Vendor's tenanoy and interest 
in his manufactory, at Birkenhead, subject to the 
Company's paying all the expenses past and future, 
of the extensions now in progress. 

5. The Vendor will also enter into a covenant with 
the Company to procure, at the expense of the 
Company, Letters Patent for any improvements, 
either by the Vendor alone, or by him in conjunction 
with any other person or persons, in the said 
inventions, or any of them, or for any new invention, - 
6ither by him alone, or by him in conjunction with 

any other person or persons in anywise connected with 
or relating to the manufacture of Eleotrio Lamps, 
or lighting by eleotrioity, including any machinery 
or apparatus for suoh manufacture, or for producing, 
storing, distributing, or transmitting electricity, 
and will, at the like expense, assign the Bame 
Letters Patent to the Company, and such last mentioned 
Letters Patent shall be for the United Kingdom of ” 
Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the 
Isle of Man. 

6. The Vendor will also enter into a convenant with 
the Company that, in case he, or his exeoutors, or 
administrators, shall sell, or transfer, or lioense, 
the use of any of the foreign patents, he will require 
the Purchaser, Transferee, or Licensee, to engage 

that none of the Lamps or things manufactured, or made, 
wholly, or in part, according to such patent, shall 
be Bent to the United Kingdom, and will, at the 
expense and risk of the Company, enforce, or endeavour ! 
to enforce, such engagements. 

7.The Vendor will also enter into a convenant with the 
Company, that he will not, at any time hereafter, 
either solely or jointly, with, or as Manager or 
Agent, for any other Company, persons or person, 
directly or indirectly, carry on, or be engaged, or ~~ 
concerned, or interested in any business of the same 
or of a like nature to that carried on, from time 
to time, by the proposed Company, in any part of the i 

United Kingdom, save so far as the Vendor shall, as a j 

Member of the Company, be interested, or as an officer, I 
agent, or servant of the Company, be employed in the 
business of the Company. 

8.In consideration of the last five preceding clauses, • j 

the Company will pay to the Vendor, £25,000 in cash, l j 

by the following instalments, namely: £10,000 on the I 
expiration of one calendar month, £3,000 on the | 

expiration of twelve calendar months, £5,000 on the 
expiration of two years, £5,000 on the expiration of 
three years, £3,000 on the expiration of four years, 
and £5,000 on the expiration of five years from the 
incorporation of the Company; and if default shall 
be made in the payment of any instalment at the 
appointed time, the Company Bhall thenceforth pay 
to the Vendor, interest thereon, at the rate of £5 
per centum per annum, until payment. Provided always that 
if before the whole of the said sum of £25,000 cash j 

shall be paid, the Company shall be wound up, on the ! 

ground of non-suocess, so muoh of the said £26,000 as 

elm 11 not have become due and payable, shall not be 
paid, but shall be released. 

9. As a further consideration for the Srd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 
and 7th clauses, the Company Bhall, within one oalendar 
month after itB incorporation, allot to the Vendor, 

8,600 £10 Shares in the Company, upon each of which 

the sum of £10 shall be credited as fully paid up. 
PROVIDED ALWAYS, that in the meantime, until the whole 
of the said capital of £100,000 shall be called up, 
the Vendor shall only be entitled to receive out of the 
profits of the Company, one-fourth of suoh part of the 
profits as shall be divided, and a sum equal to £5 

per cent per annum on one-third of the uncalled up part, 
for the time being, of the same capital. AND the 
Company shall also enter into a covenant with the 
Vendor, that on every, or any, issue of new ShareB which 
shall be made during his life, or within 81 years after 
hiB death, the Company, in respect of every or any 
increase in its Capital, will allot to him or his 
Executors, Administrators, or Assigns, Shares, equal 
to oner-fourth of such issue, credited as fully paid 
up, but so that, in the meantime, until the whole 
amount payable on the other Shares issued, shall be 
called up, the Vendor, his Executors, Administrators, 
or Assigns, shall only be entitled to reoeive one- 
fourth of the divided profits of the Company, in 
respect of the whole issue. PROVIDED ALWAYS that -this 
covenant shall not apply to any Shares issued, to 
purchase any Letters Patent, or to carry on any business, 
manufacture, or thiny, not connected with the Vendor’s . 
Electrio Lamps, or any improvements therein; and if any 
Shares issued shall be partly, for all or any of the 
purposes last aforesaid, and partly for purposes 
connected with the Vendor's Eleotric Lamps, or improve¬ 
ments therein, then a proportionate part only of the 
one-fourth shall be allotted to the Vendor, his 
Executors, Administrators, or Assigns. BUT this proviso 
is not to prejudice the right of the Vendor, hiB 
Exeoutors, Administrators, or Assigns, to a pro rata 
allotment of Shares, as a member of members of the 
Company. PROVIDED ALWAYS that in case the Company Bhall 
be wound up whilst any Bum shall remain uncalled up, 
either in respect of the original or any increased 
oapital, the unoalled up sum shall only be required to 
be paid, if, or so far as necessary, for discharging 
the debts and liabilities of the Company, and not for 
the purpose of distribution, as between the members of 
the Company. . . 

10. The Vendor will, for 7 years from the incorporation of 
the Company, if he shall so long live, retain in his 
own name, and in his own absolute ownership 1260 of 
the Bald 8500 Shares, and the Vendor will, for 

14 years from the incorporation of the Company, hold 
as absolute owner, at least £5,000 of the paid up 
Oapital of the Company. 

11. The Vendor Bhall, subject to the ArtioleB of Association, 
for 14 years from the incorporation of the Company, act 
as Managing Director of the technical department of the 

business of the Company, provided he shall so long 
continue able to discharge the duties appertaining 
thereto, and Buch department shall be deemed to 
comprehend the manufacture of the Lamps in its — 

several branches; and whilBt the Vendor shall act aB 
suoh Managing Direotor, as aforesaid, he shall 
devote a sufficient part of hiB time and attention 
to the duties of the office, but shall not be 
required to give the whole of his time and attention 
thereto; and he shall be paid by the Company, as 
remuneration for his services as such Managing 
Director, the annual salary of £1,000, by equal 
quarterly portion, computed from the incorporation 
of the Company. 

12. During a period of five years from the incorporation 
of the Company, if the Vendor so long lives, one of 
the other Directors of the Company shall always, or 
whenever the Vendor bo requires, be a person who has 
been nominated by him. 

13. The Company shall have the benefit of, and be subject . 
to the obligations of the Agreement, dated the first 
day of February instant, between the Vendor and 
Henry Edmunds, the younger; and the Company shall 
also have the benefit of, and be subject to all now 
current contracts, orders, and liabilities of the 
Vendor, in relation to the supply or installation of 

14. Upon payment of the first instalment of the said 
£25,000 cash, and upon the said 2,500 Shares being 
allotted to him, the Vendor will assign the Home 
Patents, and all other the premises hereby contracted 
to be sold to the Company. But the Company Bhall 
engage that until the other 5 instalments of the said 
£25,000 caBh shall be paid, so muoh of the said 
capital of £100,000 as shall be equal in amount to 
the instalments or instalment, for the time being 
Unpaid, shall remain uncalled up, and upon suoh 
payment of the said 1st instalment of the said £25,000 
oash, and such allotment of the said 2,500 Shares, 
there shall also be executed and done, all such other 
deeds, acts, and things, as Bhall be neoeBsary, or 
considered expedient for giving effeot to thiB Agree¬ 
ment. PROVIDED ALWAYS that the Vendor Bhall not be 
required to enter into any covenant guaranteeing the 
validity of the Home Patents, not shall the Company 
require any evidence of such validity, or any evldenoe 
of the title of the Vendor to the said Manufactory, 

at Birkenhead. 

15. All the costs and expenses of the preparation and 
execution of this Agreement, and attending the deeds, 
acts, and things mentioned or referred to in the laBt 
preceding clause, and of preparing and issuing the 
Prospeotus, and of preparing the Memorandum and 
Articles of Association of the Company, and otherwise 
incidental to the incorporation of the Company, 
whether preliminary or not, Bhall be borne and paid 
by the Company. 

16. Upon tlie adoption of this Agreement, by the 
Company, the promoter shall be discharged from 
all liability In respeot thereof. 

17. Company shall not be incorporated, n.wri -- 
this Agreement adopted by them before the first 

day of May next, it shall be lawful for either 
?? tbe parties hereto, by notioe in writing to 
the other, to rescind the same, and in case this 
Agreement shall be so rescinded, neither of the 
said parties hereto Bhall have any claim against 
the other for compensation or expenses in relation 

18. Any difference or question which may arise between 
the Vendor and the Promoter, or between the Vendor 
and the Company, as to the construction, effects, 
incidents, or consequences of these presents, or 
as to the assurances of the said premises or other¬ 
wise as to the mode of carrying out any of the 
clauses or purposes of these presents into effect, 
or as to the breach, or alleged breach, of any 

of the clauses herein contained, or as to any other 
matter or thing in any way relating to or arising 
out of these presents, Bhall as and when it arises, 
or as near thereto as eircumstanoes will permit, 
be referred to an Arbitrator, to be mutually agreed 
upon, or failing suoh mutual agreement and appoint¬ 
ment, to an Arbitrator, to be appointed by the Town 
clerk, for the time being of the Borough of NewoaBtle- 
upon-Tyne, and the decision of the Arbitrator to be 
appointed in either of the says aforesaid, shall be 
final and binding upon all parties; and the Arbitrator 
shall have power to award, by whom and how, and when, 
the costs of, and incident to, any such reference, 
are to be borne and paid; and this clause shall be 
deemed to be an Agreement to refer within the meaning 
of 11th Section of the "Common Law Procedure Act,1854" — 
but so that the time mentioned in the 15th Section 
for making hiB award, may be enlarged by the Arbitrator, 
and so that this Agreement, and any submission here¬ 
under may be made a rule of any Division of Her 
Majesty's High Court of Justice. 

Witness to the Signatures of - 


14929 DHL 14422/1 



7 get) 1881 




of ' 


X.The nan.e of the Company is "Swan's Electric Light Company, 

2. The Registered Offioe of the Company will he situate in 

3. The objects for which the Company is established, are:- 

(a) To adopt and carry into effeot.with or without modification, 
an Agreement,dated the second day of Eebruary 1881 and made 
between Joseph Wilson Swan,of the Borough and County of 
NSwcastle-upon-Tyna.Manufacturing Chemist,of the one part,and 
Robert Spence WatBon.for and on behalf of the said Company,of 
the other part,(a copy whereof is contained in the Schedule to 
the Articles of Association of the said Company),or otherwise 
to purchase and acquire,use,or sell,or otherwise,in any manner, 
deal with the letters patent for the United Kingdom,granted to 
the said Joseph Wilson Swan,for Improvements in Electric Leaps, 
and any other letters patent,which may hereafter be granted to 
him,in or for the United Kingdom. 

(b) To acquire and use,or sell,or otherwise,in any manner,deal 
in any patents now granted,or hereafter to be granted to any 
person or persons whomsoever,for the use or application of 
electricity,magnetism,or other similar agencies,and to acquire 
and use,or sell,or otherwise,in any.manner,deal with any prooess 
or processes,for the use or application of eleotricity,magnet¬ 
ism, or other similar agencies,in any manner whatsoever,and to 
acquire and use,or sell,or otherwise,in any manner,deal with 
any patents for improvements in,or additions to,such patents or 
processes respectively,and to acquire and use,or sell,or other- any manner,deal with any other patents or processes in 
any manner relating to,or connected,with,the machinery,plant, 
or apparatus,for the production,supply,or maintenance,of any 
eleotric or magnetic lights,or otherwise,whether the patents 
or processes mentioned in this olause.are ,or may be,granted 
for,or protected in,the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland,or elsewhere. 

(c) To oarry on the business of manufacturer of the plant, 
machinery,apparatus,fittings,and articles of every description 
whatsoever connected with the application of the said inventions 
patents,and processes,or any one or more of them,and of any 
part or parts thereof,and to purchase,sell,or let,or otherwise, 
in any manner,deal in such plant,machinery,apparatus,fittings, 
and articles,or any part or parts thereof. 

(d) To carry on the business of lighting,with or by means of 
the said inventions,patents,and processes,or otherwise,and as 
part of such business,to enter into and oarry into effect, 
contracts for lighting any place or thing whatsoever,and part¬ 
icularly,but without in any way restricting or limiting the 
foregoing general words,any district,town,city,village,street, 
square,, shop.manufactory.bridge .mine,ship,carriage, 
building,establishment,room,or any part or parts thereof 

respectively,in any portion of the habitable globe. 

(e) To sell,or purchase,or to grant or tafce licenses to use 
the said inventions,patents,and processes,or any of them,or any 
part or parts thereof,to or from any company or companies, 
partnership,person,or persons,in the United Kingdom of Great- 
Britain and Ireland,or elsewhere,and that,subject to a royalty 
or royalties,or otherwise,in any manner whatsoever,and on any 
terms whatsoever,and to enter into any contract or agreement 
for the joint use thereof,by,or in connection with,any other 
Company,partnership,person,or persons,in any manner whatsoever, 
and on any terms whatsoever. 



(f) To purchase,lease,or otherwise acquire for the use of the 
Company,and to occupy,or use,or to improve,manage,or develop, 
and to sell,lease,or otherwise dispose of or deal with any real 
or personal estate,either in the United Kingdom,or elsewhere, 
or any estate,right,or interest therein,and to erect,maintain, 
or reconstruct any buildings,plant,machinery.apparatus,and other 
things of any description,whatsoever,found necessary or conven¬ 
ient for the purposes of the Company,and to acquire,and use, 
and to sell,or grant licenses for the use of,any patents,patent 
rights,or processes,and any trade marks or trade inventions, 

or any interest therein respectively. 

(g) To make and carry into effect arrangements for the union 

on interests,or for joint working,or for amalgamation,either in 
whole or part,with any other Company,Society,partnership,or 
person,carrying on business within the objeots of this Company, 
and upon the terms either that ( so far as is consistent with 
this Mennrandum) this Company,or the Company,Sooiety,partner- 
ship*person with which it shall make the arrangements,or some 
other Company,Sooiety,partnership,or person,shall carry on the 
amalgamated business,and for all or any of the said purposes, 
if necessary,to establish any new Company,and to take shares 
in any such new or other Company,as partial or entire payment, 
or consideration,and to hold or sell such shares in any such 
new or other Company,or to distribute or allot them among the 
shareholders in this Company. 

(h) To purchase,or acquire,and adopt,all,or any part of,the 
business,property,and liabilities of any Company,Society,part¬ 
nership, or person formed for all or any purposes within the 
above objects,or with objeots similar auxiliary or ancillary 
thereto,or in any way connected with the business which this 
Company is authorised to carry on,and to conduct,liquidate,and 
wind up its business and affairs. 

(i) To sell,dispose of,or transfer,the business,property,and 


undertaking of the Company,or any part thereof,in consideration 
of payment in cash,or in shares in another company,or in cash 
and shares. 

(j) To borrow or raise money by tne issue of,or upon,bonds, 
debentures,bills of exchange promissory notes or other obligat¬ 
ions or securities of the Company,or by mortgage,or'charge of 
all or any part of the property of the Company,or of its uncall¬ 
ed capital or without security,or in such other manner as the 
Company shall think fit,and with such powers of sale and rights 
of transfer,and upon such terms as to priority,or otherwise, 
as the Company shall think fit,and to make,accept,endorse,and 
execute promissory notes,bills of exchange,and other negotiable 
instruments of whatever kind or description. 

(k) To invest the moneys of the Company not immediately required 
upon such securities,or in such manner,as may be,from time to 
time determined. 

(l) To establish agencies,warehouses,and depots,for the purp¬ 
oses of the Company,in Great, Britain and elsewhere,and to dis¬ 
continue and regulate the same. 

(m) To procure the Company to be constituted or incorporated as 
a Sooiete Anonyms in any foreign country. 

(n) To accept and take hold or sell shareeor stock in ary 
company,society,or undertaking,the objects of which shall,either 
in whole or in similar to those of this Company,or such 
as may be likely to promote or advance the interests of this 
Company,and to take in payment wholely or in part of the consid¬ 
eration of any contract,and to hold or sell the shares in any 
Company,Society,or undertaking,with which the Company shall 
enter into any contract. 

(o) To obtain any Act of Parliament for the dissolution of the 
Company ,and the incorporation of the members thereof as a 
Company,with objects similar in part,or altogether,to those of 
this Company,or for conferring any powers of this Company, 


which may ha deemed necessary or desirable for carrying out 
the objeots of the Company,and to promote or oppose any bill in 
Parliament affeoting the interests of the Company,and that eitha- 
alone,or in conjunction with,any other Company or Companies, 
person or persons. 

(p) To apply to Parliament,or to the Privy Council,or to any 
department thereof,or to any governments,municipal or other 
Corporations,or to any magistrates,or public authorities,or 
officers,or other persons or person,for,or to purchase,or other¬ 
wise acquire,and to work,use,and dispose of any powers,concess¬ 
ions provisional orders,authorities,licenses,or privileges,which 
may be considered necessary or desirable for,or in relation 

to,the objects and business of the Company,and to make any 
arrangements,with any of the bodies or persons mentioned in this 
clause,with relation to any of the objects or business of the 

(q) To do all or any of the matters herein authorised,in any 
part of the world,and either alone or in partnership,or in 
conjunction with,or as factors or agents for any other Companies 
or individuals. 

(r) To do all such other things as are incidental or conducive 
to the attainment of the above objects, 

4. The liability of the Members is limited. 

5. The Capital of the Company is £100,000,divided into 10,000 
shares of £10 each,with power to increase the same capital,or 
other the capital for the time being,and the shares of which ary 
increased capital may,from time to time consist,may be divided 
into different olasses,with such preference,guarantee,or privil¬ 
ege,as,between themselves,as shall be determined by the regulat¬ 
ions of the Company subsisting from time to time. 

We,the several persons whose names and addresses are subscribed, 
are desirous of being fomed into a Company,in pursuance of this 
Memorandum of Association, and we respectively agree to take 
the number of Shares set opposite our respective names. 

Karnes and Addresses and Descriptions of Subscribers. Number of 

taken by 

' ~ ----—-—--- Subscriber . 

John Williamson, of 

Southgarthj Westoe, 

in the County of Durham.Chemical Manufacturer. i. 
Hilton Philipson, 

No.6.prior Terrace,Tynemouth. 

Northumberland. Colliery Owner. 2 * 

Alexander Shannon Stevenson, 

of No.45 Pront Street,Tynemouth. , 

Northumberland. Chemical Manufacturer. 

James Craig,of 

N ° * 1 i P f ior ' 0 Torrace, Tynemouth, , 

Northumberland. Merchant. 

James Hall,of 

p f* or Terrace,Tynemouth. , 

Northumberland. Ship Owner. 

John Theodore Merz, 

of The Quarries,in the 3orough and 
County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

Richard Sims Donkin, 

Chemical Manufacturer. 

amp Ville,North Shields, 


John Cameron Swan, 

Dean Street,Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

---Tr-, . ,,_ _ Merc hant. 

D&uea tiae 3rd day “ ’ - 

Witness to all the above Signatures, 

Robert Spence Watson. 


; 149 29 C ST 1.14422/2 



7 Feti 1881 



„ £* . . - 

>i;j It is agreed as follows:- H 

J? l.The regulations contained in the Table marked "A", BjH 
in the first Schedule to "The Companies' Act 1862,"shall 
not apply to this Company. 


2. In the construction of these Articles,the following 
words and expressions shall have the following meanings, 
unless such meanings he excluded hy,or be inconsistent 
with,the subject or context,viz.:- 
"The Statute"means and includes "The Companies'Act 1862," 
and every other Act now or hereafter to be in force, 
concerning Joint Stock Companies with limited liability, 
and which applies to the Company. 

"The Company," means Swan's Elect lie Light Company,Limited. 
"General Meeting" means a .General Meeting of this Company. 
"Month" means calendar month. 

loard" means the Board of directors. 

ISpecial resolution" means a special resolution passed in accor¬ 
dance with section 51 of "The Companies' Aot,1862." 

Words importing the singular numbsr only,include the plural 

Words importing the plural number only,include the singular 

Words importing the masculine gender only include the feminine 

Words importing natural persons only,include corporate bodies 
mutatis mutandis. 

3. The business of the company shall include the several 

objects expressed in the Memorandum of Association,and all matt¬ 
ers which,from time to time,shall appear to the Directors to 
*e expedient for attaining those objects, and may he commenced 
as soon after the registration of the Company as the hoard in 
its discretion shall thin*' fit,notwithstanding that the whole 
of the shares have not been subscribed for,allotted,or taJcen p 

4. 2,500 of the Shares of the Company shall be allotted as 
provided by the agreement with Joseph Wilson Swan,mentioned in 
the Memorandum of Association,and set forth in the Sche 
hereto,and upon each of these Shares the full sum of £10 shall 
be considered to have been paid. 

5. A written application for Shares in the Company,followed by 
an allotment,and by notice of such allotment given to or receiv¬ 
ed by the applicant,shall be deemed to be an acceptance by 

the applicant of the Shares allotted,and shall authorise the 
Directors to place the applicant on the Register as a Member of 
the Company,subject to these Articles. 

6. If two or more person, sre so Joint holder, of 
any share,™ one of aaoh person. « give effeotaal reoeipt. 
for any dividend or other so. of money payable in r.speot of 
such Share. 

7. Bvery Member shall give to the Secretary or lave at the 
registered office of the Company,notice,in writing,of an add¬ 
ress in the United Kingdom,and no Member who shall change his 
name or address, or .being a woman,shall many,and no husband of 
any such last mentioned Member shall be entitled to receive any 
dividend or to vote until noticeof the ohange of name or 
address or marriage be given to the secretary in order to permit 
of its being registered. 

8. Ho person shall be recognised by the Company as having title 
to any fractional part of a share,nor otherwise than as the sole 
holder,or,as a joint holder of the entirety of such Share,nor 


shall the Company he hound by,or recognise any,equitable,con¬ 
tingent, future,or partial interest in any Share in the nature 
of a trust or otherwise. 

9. Subjeot to the other provisions of these Articles,the Shares 
of the Company shall be under the control of the Directors, 

who may allot or otherwise dispose of the same to such persons, 
upon such terms,and at such times,as they may think fit,and 
for the benefit of the company. 

10. The Directors shall have full power to allot fully or 
partially paid-up Shares as the consideration,or part of the 
consideration,for any purchase or tran saction made or entered 
into by them,or as the remuneration for any services rendered 
in the promotion or formation of the Company,or in the carryiflg 
out of the objects of the Company,and the Directors may attach 
to any Shares so allotted under this olause such conditions as 
to the transfer of such Shares,or any portion of them,as they 
may deem fit. 

11. Bvery allottee of paid-up or partially paid-up Shares 
shall be credited in the books of the Company with the amount 
agreed upon. 

12. Bvery Member shall be entitled to a Certificate under the 
Common Seal of the Company, specifying the Share or Shares held 
by him. Bach Certificate shall specify the amount paid up there¬ 
on at the time of issuing the same,and the Secretary shall, 
whenever required by a Member endorse on his Share Certificate 
the further amounts from time to time paid-up thereon;'and the 
Certificate of any Share,which may be the subject of joint 
ownership,shall be delivered to the person first named on the 

13. If such Certificate is worn out or lost,it may be renewed 
on payment of 10/-,or such other sum as the Directors may 
prescribe,but no person shall be entitled to a new Certificate 
in place of that alleged to have been lost.or worn out without 


furnishing to the Company such evidence of loss or wear,and 
such indemnity in respect of the issue of the new Certificate, 
and otherwise el^s the Directors shall reasonably require. 

14. The Company shall have a first and permanent charge and 
lien upon all Shares,and on all dividends declared or payable 
in respect thereof.for all moneys due to,and liabilities subsis¬ 
ting with,the company,from or on the part of the registered 
holder,or any of the registered holders thereof,either alone or 
jointly with any other person,including any call the resolution 
for which shall have been passed by the Directors,although the 
time appointed for its payment may not have arrived.But the 
registration of a Transfer of any Shares shall determine such 


15. The Directors may,from time to time.make such calls upon 
the Members in respect of all moneys unpaid on their Shares 
ae they think fit: two months,at least,shall be the interval 
between suooessive calls,and fourteen days' notice,at least, 
of each call shall be given to each Shareholder;no oall shall 
exceed £2 per share. 

1'3. A call shall be deemed to have been made at the time when 
the resolution of the Directors authorising such call was passed 
17. If the call payable in respect of any Share is not paid 
before or on the day appointed for payment thereof,the holder, 
for the time being,of such Share,shall be personally liable to 
pay the same to the Company,together with interest for the same, 
at the rate of £10 per cent, per annum,from the time appointed 
for the payment thereof to the time of the actual payment. 

18.On the trial of any action which may be brought by the 
Company to recover any debt due for any oall,it shall be 
sufficient to prove that the name of the defendant is on the 
register of Members of the company as a holder of the number of 
Shares in respect of which such debt aocrued,and that notice 


of such call was duly given to the defendant in pursuance of 
these Articles of Association, and that suoh oall was not paid, 
and it shall not he neoessaiy to pro/Tve the appointment of 
the Directors who made suoh call, nor that a quorum of Direct¬ 
ors was present at the Board at which suoh oall was made, nor 
that the meeting at whioh suoh oall was made was duly convened 
or constituted, nor any other matter whatsoever,hut the proof 
of the matters aforesaid shall he conclusive evidence of the debt. 

19. The Directors may, if they think fit,receive from any 
Member willing to advance the same, all or any part of the 
moneys due upon the shares held hy him, heyond the sum act¬ 
ually called for; and upon the moneys so paid in advance, 

or so much thereof as, from time to time, exceeds the amount 
of the calls then made upon the shares in respect of which 
such advance as been made, the Company may pay interest at 
suoh rate as the Member paying such 3um in advance and the 
Directors agree upon; and this Article, if so agreed, shall 
apply to Shares allotted under the 10th Article. 

20. The joint holders of Shares shall be severally, as well 
as jointly, liable to the payments of all aalls in respect 


21. The instrument of transfer of any Share in the Company 
shall be executed by the transferee as well as the transferor, 
and the transferor shall be deemed to remain a holder of suoh 
share until the name of the transferee is entered in the 
Register Book in respect thereof. Before any transfer shall 
be registered, intimation of the application to register 
shall be forwarded by post to the transferor and the trans¬ 
feree, and suoh transfer shall not be registered until two days 
after such intimation shall have been forwarded. 

22. Shares in the Company shall be transfacred in any form 
whioh the Directors may approve of, and, subject to the 


regulations hereinafter contained,may he transferred to any 
person not being an infant,lunatic,or otherwise under any legal 
disability,hut Shares may be transferred or held by a married 
woman for her seperate use. 

23. There shall be paid in respect of the registration of any 
transfer,or transmission of Shares,in the Company such sum, 

not exceeding 5s,as the Board shall,from time to time,prescribe, 
and,when the registration is effected,the instrument of transfer 
shall be kept by the Company. 

24. The Directors may decline to register any transfer of 
Shares made by a Member who is indebted to the Company,or who 
may be solely or jointly liable to it for any call or interest 
thereon,or in respect of any bill,note,security,or advance, 
notwithstanding the sane may not be then due,or in any case where 
the Directors shall consider the proposed transferee to be an 
irresponsible person,or that the transfer will not be conducive 
to the interests of the Company. Any Member whose transfer 
shall not be allowed by the Directors,may,if he shall think 

fit,appeal to a General Meeting,and the decision of suoh Meeting 
shall be final. 

25. The transfer books shall be olosed daring the ten days 
immediately preceding,and the seven days immediately after,the 
Ordinary General Meeting in each year,and may also be closed 
at suoh other time or times as the Directors shall deem exped¬ 
ient, so that the same be not olosed for any greater period in 
the whole than one month in each year. 

26. The Bxecutors or Administrators of a deceased Memher shall 
be the only persons recognised by the company as' having any 
title to his Share. 

27. Any person becoming entitled to a share,in consequence of 
the death,bankruptcy,or insolvency of any Member,or in conseq¬ 
uence of the marriage of any female Member,may be registered as 
a Member upon suoh evidence being produced as may,from time to 


time,l3e required by the DireotorB. 

28. Any person who has become entitled to a Share,in conseq- 
uenoe of the death,bankruptcy,or insolvency of any Member,or 

in consequence of the marriage of any female Member,may,instead 
of being registered himsblf,eleot to have some person,to be 
named by him registered as a transferee of such Share. 

29. The person so becoming entitled shall testify such election 
by executing,to his nominee,an instrument of transfer of suoh 

30. Any instrument of transfer shall be presented to the comp¬ 
any, accompanied with suoh evidence as the directors may require 
to prove the title of the Transferor,and thereupon,and upon 
payment of the registration fee,the Company shall register the 
transferee as a Member. But this Article i3 without prejudice 
to Article 24. 


31. The Directors may,by a resolutiL on of at least three-fourths 
of their number,confirmed by a General Meeting of the Company, 
accept in the name and for the benefit of the Company a surren¬ 
der of'the Shares ofany Member who may be desirous of retiring 
from the Company,all sums whatever,for the time being,payable 

in respect of suoh Shares having been previously paid by suoh 
Member,and such Shares shall be disposed of in suoh manner for 
the benefit of the company as the Directors shall thinlc fit. 

32. If any Member or his executors or administrators fails to 
pay any call on t$e day appointed for payment thereof,the Direc¬ 
tors may,at any time thereafter during suoh time as the call 
remains unpaid,serve a notice on him,his executor,or administ¬ 
rator,(or if none,by advertisement,twice in theTimes.and twice 
in some newspaper,published daily,in Newcastle-upon-Tyne,and 
such notice shall be deemed sufficiently given if so advertised) 
requiring payment of such call,together with interest and any 


expenses thtfc may have accrued by reason of suoh non-payment. 

33. The notice shall name a further day,on or before which 
such call,and all interest and expenses that have aocrad by 
reason of suoh non-payment are to be made. It shall also name 
the place where payment is to be made (being either the registe¬ 
red office of the Company or some other place at which calls 

of the Company are usually made payable), and shall also state, 
that in the event of non-payment at or before the time,and 
at the place appointed,the Shares,in respect of which such call 
was made,will be liable to be forfeited. 

34. If the requisitions of any suoh notice as aforesaid are 
not complied with,any Share,in respect of which such notice has 
been given ,may,at any time thereafter,be fore payment of all 
calls,interest,and expenses,due in respect thereof,has been forfeited by a resolution of the Directors to that effect 

35. The Directors may also,by resolution,forfeit ary shares 

for the purpose of enforcing the charge or lien given by Article 
14 for money other than calls due to the Company,but only after 
such notice,and subject to such conditions.mutatis mutandis,as 
are expressed in Articles 32,33,and 34. 

36. Any Share so forfeited shall be deemed to be the property 
of the Company,and may be disposed of in suoh manner as the 
Directors,for the benefit of the Company,may think fit. 

37. In the meantime,and until any Share so forfeited shall be 
re-sold,re-allotted,or otherwise disposed of,as aforesaid,tne 
forfeiture thereof may,at the discretion and by a resoluti on of 
the Directors be remitted,as a matter of grace and favour,and 
not of right,on payment of the call,interest,and expense (if 
any) owing thereon to the Company at the time of the forfeiture 
being declared,with., interest on the whole at the rate of 

10 per cent, per annum up to the time of the actual payment 
thereof,if the Directors shall think fit to receive the same,or 
on myother terms which the Directors may deem reasonable. 


38. Any Member,whose shares have been forfeited,shall,notwith¬ 
standing,be liable to pay to the Company all calls,interest, 
and expenses,owing upon suoh Shares at the time of the forfeit- 

39. Neither the reoeipt by the Company of a portion of ary 
moneys which shall,from time to due from any Member of 
the Company,in respeot of his Share,either by way of principal 
or interest or otherwise,nor any indulgence granted by the Comp¬ 
any in respeot of the payment of any such moneys,shall preclude 
the Directors from thereafter proceeding to forfeit suoh Share 
as herein provided. 

40. -The forfeiture of a Share shall involve the extinction of 
all interest in and also all claims and demands against the 
Company,in respect of the Share,and all other rights incident to 
the Share,except only such of those rights as are by these 
Artioles expressly reserved. 

41. A statutory declaration,in writing,that a call in respeot 
of a Share was made,and notice thereof given,and that default 
in payment of the call was made,and that the forfeiture of the 
Share was made by a resolution of the Directors to that effeot, 
shall be sufficient evidenoe of the facts therein stated as 
against all persons entitled to such Share,and suoh declaration, 
and the reoeipt of two of the Directors for the price of suoh 
Share shall constitute a good title to suoh Share;and a certif¬ 
icate of proprietorship shall be delivered to the purchaser, 
and therupon he shall be deemed the holder of such Share,disch¬ 
arged from all calls due prior to such purchase,and he shall not 
be bound to see to the application of the purchase money,nor 
shal l his title to such Share be affected by any irregularity 
in the proceedings in reference to suoh sale or forfeiture. 

42. In case the whole or anypart of the business or assets of 
the Company shall be sold,or in case the Company shall be amalg¬ 
amated with any other Company,in accordance with the powers in 

• 16 

these presents,or in the Memorandum of Association contained,and 
the whole or any part of the consideration for such sale or 
amalgamation shall consist of shares in any other Company,and 
any Member of this Company or other person shall negfe ct or 
refuse to comply with any regulations,which may be nade 
affecting the Shares of the Company,for the purpose of carrying 
such sale or amalgamation into shall be lawful for 
the Directors to forfeit the shares to which any person,who 
shall so neglect or refuse,shall be entitled;but in every case 
the Company shall pay the full market value of such Shares,at 
the time of the forfeiture thereof,such value,in case of diff¬ 
erence,to be ascertained by arbitration,in manner hereinafter 


43.The Directors may.with the sanction of the company previosly 
given at an Extraordinary General Meeting,convert any paid-up 
registered Shares into Stock,which shall possess the same right 
of voting and other rights,and be transferable in the same 
manner,as nearly as circumstances will admit,as Shares of the 
same amount. 


46. The Directors may,from time to time,with the sanction of 
a General Meeting,oreate any additional Capital,divided into 
Shares of such amount,as the General Meeting,sanctioning such 
creation,directs;or,if no direction is given,as the Directors 
shall determine. 

45. All new Shares shall carry such rights and have such 
preference or priority (if any) as to divided or otherwise,and 
shall be subject to such regulations,as the General Meeting 
sanctioning the creation of such new Shares .shall determine. 

46. All Shares or Stook,issued under the last two preceding 
Articles,shall be offered to the Members in proportion to the 
existing Shares held by them, and such offer shall be made by 


notice specifying the number of Shares or portions of stock 
to which the Member is entitled,and limiting a time within 
which the offer,if not accepted,will be deemed to be declined; 
and after the expiration of such time,or on receipt of an 
intimation from the Member to whom such notice is given,that 
he declines to accept the shares offered,the Board may dispose 
of the same,in such manner,as they think most beneficial to the 
Company{provided that,if owing to the inequality in the number 
of Shares to be issued,and the number of Shares held by Members 
willing to accept the same respectively,any difficulty shall 
arise in the apportionment of such Shares,or any of them,the 
same shall be determined and settled as the Board think fit. 

47. In the 45th Article,any capital raised by the creation of 
new Shares shall be considered as partof the original capital, 
and shall be subject to the same provisions with reference to 
the payment of calls,and the forfeiture of Shares on non-payment 
of calls or otherwise,as if it had bean part of the original cap¬ 

4S.The Capital of the Company may,from time to time,with the 
consent of the Members,expressed by special resolution,be 
reduced to such, an extent,as may,by such resolution,be then 
determined. The Board may,on such resolution being passed, 
apply to the proper Court,and do all other necessary things 
expedient to obtain the confirmation thereof. 


49. The first General Meeting shall be held at such time,not be¬ 
ing more than four months after the registration of the Company, 
and at such place,as the Directors may determine,and subsequent 
General Meetings shall be held at such time and plaoe as may 
be prescribed by the company in General )£eeting;and,if no other 
time or plaoe is presoribed.a General Meeting shall be held on 
such day in February, in every year, and at such place as may be 
determined by the Directors. 


50. The above-mentioned General Meetings shall be oalled Ordin¬ 
ary Meetings > all other General Meetings shall be oalled 

51. The Directors may,whenever they think fit.and they shall, 
upon a requisition made,in writing,by not less than one-fifth 

in number of the Members of the Company,convene an Extraordinary 

52. Any requisition made by the Members shall express the 
object of the Meeting proposed to be called,and then shall be 
left at the registered office of the Company. 

53. Upon the receipt of such requisition,the Directors shall, 
forthwith,proceed to convene an Extraordinary General Meeting. 

If they do not proceed to convene the sane within twenty-one 
days from the date of the requisition,the Requisitiomsts.or 

any other Members amounting to the required number,may,themselves, 
» Extraordinary General Masting,t° Se laid at tie of«s 
the compandor at eom. convenient place .ithm (its Ml., di¬ 
stant therefrom,hut not ..oh time a. having regard 
to the Company 1 s regulation, a. to notice,the Kegniaitlonl.t. 

54. Seven days' notice,at the least,specifying the place,the 
day,and the hour of Meeting,and,in case of special business,the 
general nature of suchbusiness shall be given to the Members, 
in manner hereafter mentioned,or in such other manner,if any, 
as may be prescribed by the Company,in General Meeting,but the 
non-receipt of suck notice by,or the accidental omission to 
give such notice to,any Member shall not invalidate the proceed¬ 
ings at any General Meeting. 

55. Any Member entitled to vote may,on giving not less than 
four days' notice,submit any resolution to a Meeting yond the 
matter contained in the notice of such meeting. Notice of such 
additional resolution shall be given by leaving a copy of the 
resolution at the registered office of the Company. 



56. Minutes shall be made in books provided for thsfc purpose, 
of the proceedings of every Meeting,and every minute signed 
by any person purporting to be the Chairman of the Meeting 

to which it relates,or to be the Chairman of the Board,shall be 
sufficient evidence of the facts therein stated. 

57. All business shall be deemed special that is transacted at 
an Extraordinary Meeting,and all that is transacted at an 
ordinary Meeting,with the exception of sanctioning a dividend, 
and the consideration of the accounts,balance sheets,and the 
Ordinary Report of the Directors. 

58. No business shall be transacted at any General Meeting, 
except the election of a Chairman and the declaration of a 
Dividend,unless a quorum of Members is present,personally or by 
proxy,at the time when the Meeting proceeds to business,and 
such quorum shall be ascertained as follows,-that is to say,if 
the persons who have taken shares in the Company,at the time of 
the Meeting,do not exceed ten in number,the quorum shall be 
threejif they exceed ten,there shall be added to the above 
quorum one for every twenty-five additional Members,with this 
limitation,that no quorum shall,in any case,exceed ten,and for 
this purpose joint owners of any share shall be together number¬ 
ed as one Member only. 

59. If within one hour from the time tppointed for the Meeting, 
a quorum is not present,the Meeting if convened upon the requis¬ 
ition of Members,shall be dissolvedjin any other shall 
stand adjourned to the same day in the next week,at the same 
time and place,and if,at such adjourned Meeting,a quorum is not 
present,those Members present,personally,or by proxy,shall be a 
quorum,and may transact the business forwhich the Meeting was 

60. The Chairman (if any ) of the Board of Directors shall 
preside as Chairman at every General Meeting of the Company;but 

if there is no such Chairman,or if at any Meeting be is not 
present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for 
holding the Meeting,or should decline to take the chair,then 
some one of the Directors present at the Meeting t if any) 
shall preside at such Meeting,and in case no Director shall he 
present,or he willing to take the Chair.then the Members present 
shall choose one of their number to he Chairman. 

61. The Chairman may,with the consent of the Meeting,adjourn 
any Meeting from time to tome,and from place to plaoejbut no 
business shall he transacted at any adjourned Meeting other than 
the business left unfinished at the Meeting from which the ad¬ 
journment took place. 

62. No business shall he discussed or transacted at any General 
Meeting,except the election of a Chairman whilst the chair may 
he vacant. 

63. At any General Meeting,unless a poll is demanded by at 
least five Members,a declaration by the Chairman that a resol¬ 
ution has been carried,and an entry to that effect in the book 
of the proceedings of the Company,shall be sufficient evidence 
of the fact,without proof of the number or proportion of the 
votes recorded in favour of,or against,such resolution. 

64. If at any meeting,a poll is demanded by notice in writing, 
signed by five or more Members present at the meeting personally 
and entitled to shall be taken in such manner as the 
Chaiiman directs;and the result of such poll shall be deemed to 
be the resolution of the c ompany in General Meeting. In the 
case of an equality of votes a t any General Meeting,the Chair¬ 
man shall beentitled to a seoond or casting vote. No poll shall 
be demanded on the election of a Chairman of a Meeting,or on any 
question of adjournment. 


65. Every Member shall have one vote for every five shares 
held by him up to fifty,and he shall have an additional vote 

for evexy fifty shares beyond the first fifty,but no Member 
shall have more than twenty votes. 

66. If. any Member is a lunatic or idiot,he may vote by his 
Committee,curator bonis,or other legal curator,such person 
having previously furnished to the Directors such evidence as 
they shall require of his title to represent such Member. 

67. Bxcept as provided in the preceding person other 
than a Member duly registered,and who shall have paid everything 
for the time being due from him and payable to the Company in 
respect of his share,shall be entitled to be present,personally, 
or by proxy,at anyOeneral Meeting of the Company. 

68. If two or more persons are jointly entitled to a share or 
shares,the member whose name stands first in the register of 
Members,as one of the holders of such share or shares,and no 
other,shall be entitled to vote in respect of the same. 

69. No Member shall be entitled to vote at any General Meeting 
unless all calls due from him have been paid;and no Member shall 
be entitled to vote in respect of any share that he has acquired 
by transfer,at any meeting held after the expiration of three 
months from the registration of the Company,unless he has been 
possessed of the share in respect of w^iich he claims to vote, 
for at least three months previously to the time of holding the 
meeting at which he proposes to vote. 

70. Votes may be given either personally or by proxy. 

71. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing,under 
the hand of the appointer,or if such appointer ia a Corporation, 
under the Common Seal. No person shall be appointed a proxy 
who ia not a Member of the Company. 

72. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be deposited' at the 
registered office of the Company,not less than twenty-four 
hours before the time for holding the meeting at which the per¬ 
son named in such instrument proposes to vote;but no instrument 
appointing a proxy shall be valid after the expir&tuonof twelve 
months from the date of its execution,unless in the case of 

the adjournment of any Meeting first held previously to that 

73. Any instrument appointing a proxy shall he in the follow¬ 
ing fomi:- 


11 of being a 

Member of "Swan's Electric Light Company,Limited," and 
entitled to vote or votes,hereby appoint 

of as my proxy to vote for me,and on 

W behalf,at thefOrdinary or Extraordinary as the case may be) 
General Meeting of the Company to be held on the day of 

and at any adjournment thereof. 

Dated this day of 

No act or voire,done or given by a proxy shall be rendered 
invalid by the revocation of theappointment,by death or other¬ 
wise,until notice of suoh death or revocation shall have been 
given to the Directors. 

74. No objection shall be made to the validity of any vote, 
except at the Meeting or poll at which suoh vote shall be 
tenderedjand every vote whether given personally or by proxy, 
not disallowed at such meeting or poll,shall be deeded valid 
for all purposes of suoh Meeting or poll whatsoever. 

75. The Chairman of any Meeting shall be the sole and absolute 
judge of the validity of every vote tendered at such Meeting or 
at the poll demanded at such Meeting,and may allow or disallow 
the votes tendered according as he shall be of opinion that 
the same are or are not valid. 


76. The number of Directors shall not exceed fifteen,or be 
fewer that five,and the first Directors shall be James Cochran 
Stevenson of South Shieldsin the County of Durham M.O. 

Hilton Philipson of Tynemouth in the County of Northumberland 
Coal Owner Alexander Shannon Stevenson of the same place 

Chemical Manufacturer James Craig of the same place Merchant 
John TheodoreMerz of the Borough and County of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne Manufacturer Joseph William Swan of the same place Chemist 
and John Cameron Swan of the same place Merchant,and at any¬ 
time hefore the Ordinary Meeting,in the year 1881,the Board 
may,from time to time,add to their number,by the appointment of 
duly qualified Members as Directors,so as the whole number of 
Directors shall never exceed fifteen,or be less than three. 

77. The qualifications of a Director shall be the holding of 
Shares or Stock,in his own right,of the nominal value of £1,000 
or upwards. 

78. The office of any Direotor shall be vacated- 

(a) If he hold any other office,or place of profit,under the 
Company,except that of Manager or Managing Director,or legal 
adviser of the Company. 

(b) If he be declared lunatic,or become of unsound mind. 

(o) If he become bankrupt,or suspdnd payment ,or attempt to 

compound with his creditors. 

(d) If he cease to hold the required number of Shares or Stock, 
to qualify him for the office. 

(e) If he continously absent himslef from the Meetings of the 
Board,without leave from the Board,for a period of six months. 

(f) If he resign his office. 

(g) If he participates in the profits of any contract with,or 
work done for,the Company,except and subjeot as mentioned in 
the next two Articles. 

Unless these disqualifying conditions,or any of them,shall be 
dispensed with, in any speoial oase by a resolution of the 
Members of the Company in General Meeting. 

79. Notwithstanding the last preceding article,no Direotor 
shall vacate his office by reason of his being interested in any 
contraot with,or any work done for,the Company,provided the 
next article be complied with. 


80. If any Director be exther direotly or indirectly concerned 
or interested in ary contract proposed to be made by,or on 
behalf of,the Company,whether for lands,materials,work to be done 
or for any purpose whatsoever,during the time he is a Director, 
he shall,on the subjeot of any such contract in which he may be 
so concerned of interested,be precluded from voting or otherwise 
acting as a Director. And if any contract or dealing shall be 
entered into,in which any Director shall he interested,then the 
terms of such contract or dealing shall be submitted to a 
Meeting of the Board,and no such contract shall have force 
until approved and confirmed by the majority of the votes of the 
Directors present at such Meeting. 

81. The continuing Directors may act,notwithstanding any vacan¬ 
cy in their body. 


82. The Directors shall manage the bisiness of the Company in 
such manner as,in their judgment and discretion,thay may think 
most expedientjand may exercise for this purpose all such powers 
and do all such acts and things,aB are not by the statute,or 
these Articles direoted or required to be exercxsed,or done by 
the company in General Meeting subjeot,nevertheless,to these 
Articles,and subject also to such valid regulations as may be, 
from time to time,prescribed by the Company in General Meeting; 
but no regulation made by the Company in General Meeting shall 
invalidate any prior act of the Board which would have been 
valid if the regulation had not been made. 

83. Without prejudice to the generality of the Article herein¬ 
before shall be lawful for the Directors,from time 
to time,to do anyof the matters and things following,that is 

to say:- ' » 

(a) To pay the preliminary expenses of,and incidental to,the 
formation of the Company. 

(b) To adopt and carry into effeot,with or without modification, 
the agreement with Joa. Wilson Swan mentioned in the Memorandum 
of Association. 

(c) To exercise the powers given by"The Companies' Seal Act, 

1864,"which powers the Company is hereby expressly authorised 
to exercise. 

(d) To appoint and remove Managing Directors,Secretaries 
Engineers,Managers,Solicitors,Architsets,5ankers,Agents and 
Officers and Servants of the Company,and to confer on them 
respectively such powers,not exceeding the powers of the Board 
of Directors,and to pay them such remuneration,and to take or 
require such security or indemnity as the Directors may think 

(e) To borrow in the name or otherwise on behalf of the Company 
such sums of money as they,from time to time,think expedient, 
'either byway of mortgage of the whole or any part of the prop¬ 
erty of the Company,including its unpaid Capital,wifli or without 
power of sale,or by bonds or debentures,transferable,or other- 
vase,or in such manner as they may deem best,and any such sums 
may be borrowed from any of the Directorsjand it is particularly 
declared that,any such mortgage may be to an incorporated or 
unincorporated Building Society,and,that,for the purposes of 
such a mortgage,any of the Directors,or anyother persons or 
person appointed by the Board,may individually become members 

or a member of,and take shares in any such Sooietyjand the Shares 
may,from time to time,be transferred to others of the Directors 
or other persons or person as the Board may,from time to time, 
think fit,and it is also particularly declared that any moneys 
borrowed may be secured by vesting all,or anyof,the property of 
the Company,including its unpaid capital in Trustees,with such 
pov/ers of sale,and other powers,as may be thought proper. 

(f) In the ordinary course of business of and for the Company, 
to make,accept,draw,or endorse any promissory note,bill of • 
exchange,banker's draft,bill of lading,or such other like 

instrument on behalf of the Company,or to adopt or act in that 
behalf in the ordinary course of the business of the Company, 
or in pursuance of a resolution of the Board authorising the 
act in question. 

(g) To refer to arbitration any matter in difference between 
the company and any person,whether a Member or not. 

(h) To concur with any other company,or person,in carrying 
into effect any purpfiee or object of the Company. 

(i) To purchase,or acquire, and adopt,the whole,or anypart,of 
the business,property,and liabilities of any other such company, 
society,partnership,or person,asmentioned in paragraph (h) of 
clause 3 of the Memorandum of Association but subject to the 
approval of an Extraordinary Meeti-ig of theCOmpany. 

(j) To enter into contracts and arrangements for the sale of 
the property and goodwill of the business of the Company to 

any other Company,or person,or for the amalgamation of the Comp¬ 
any with any other Company,upon auoh terms as the Directors may 
deem fit,but subject to the approval of an Extraordinary 
Meeting of the Company. 

(3c) To determine on the device for the seal of the Company, 
and cause the same to be executed,and to mate regulations for 
the custody and uses of such seal. 

(l) To institute,conduct,or compromise,terminate,and abandon 
any civil aotion, or other proceeding,relating to the property 
or affairs of the Company,and to compound for,or abandon any 
debt o t debts due to the Company,and to give time to any debtor 
for the payment of his debt. 

(m) To pay the consideration money for any real or personal .r 
property to be purchased by the Company or the Directors,or for 
any services rendered to the Company,either preliminary to the 
formation of the Company,or subsequent thereto,or for any serv¬ 
ices rendered,or to be rendered,by any Agent of the Company, 
wholeiyin money,or in Shares in the Company,fully paid-up or 


Otherwise,or partly in money,and partly in Shares,fully paid- 
up or otherwise,as may he agreed upon between the persons so to 
he paid and the Directore. 

(m) To defer the payments of calls upon any Shares upon such 
terms as they may think advisable. 

(o) To determine what buildings shall be erected,pulled down, 
rebuilt,or altered,and by whom and on what termsjalso what con¬ 
tracts shall be entered into,and what works executed by the Com¬ 
pany,and on what terms. 

(p) To purchase,or acquire and work,any patent rights or 
licenses,and to apply for or obtain letters patent in the United 
Kingdom or elsewhere,and to sell or license the use thereof. 

(q) To take any conveyance or lease in the name of Trustees 
for the Company,and to give the Trustees such indemnity as they 
and the Directors may,from time to time,agree upon. 

(r) To sell and dispose of,in such manner as they shall think 
fit,or to let on lease or otherwise,any of the buildings,offices 
lands,property,and premises of the Company,when the same,in the 
opinion of the Board,shall be no longer required for the pur¬ 
poses of the Company, or may be disposedof to the advantage of 
the Company. 

(s) To buy,or take on lease,any real or personal property that 
they may think requisite for the purposes of the Company,and 
again to sell the same. 

(t) To invest any surplus capital of the Company in Government 
or real securities,or such other securities,or in suoh Shares as 
they may,with the sanction of the Company inGeneral Meeting, 
select,but except under Article 31,they shall not employ any 
part of the funds of the Company in the puohase of its own 

(u) To open agenoies and branch establishments. 


84. The Directors shall elect one of their number Chairman at 


their first Meeting after every annual election of Directors^ 
and whenever he shall be absent from a Meeting of the Directors, 

a Chairman for such Meeting shall be appointed by the Directors 

85. The Directors may appoint and cancel the appointment of 
suoh committees of their number as they may think fit,and may 
regulate the duties and procedure thereof,and delegate any of 
their powers thereto,except the power of making calls. 

86. Allacts done by any Meeting of the Directors,or of a comm¬ 
ittee of Directors,or by any person aotxng as a Director,shall, 
notwithstanding it any be afterwards discovered that there was 
some defect in the appointment of any such Director,or persons 
acting as aforesaid,or that they,or any of them ware,or was, as valid as if every such person had been duly 
appointed,and was qualified to be a Director. 

87. The Ordinary Meetings of the Directors shall be held at 
the registered Office of the Company,but the Directors may, 
nevertheless,meet together,for the despatch of business, at 
suoh other places ,and,in either case,at such times and make 
suoh regulations as they -think proper,for the summoning and 
holding of their Meetings,and the transaction of business 
thereatJand they may,from time to time,determine the quorum 
necessary for the transaction of business. 

88. Questions arising at any Meeting shall be decided by the 
majority aof votes of the Directors present,every Director 
having one vote;and,in case of an equality of votes,the presid¬ 
ing Ghaliman shall have a second or casting vote. 

89. The Directors shall cause minutes to be made,in books 
provided for the purpose,of the following matterB,viz.:- 

(a) Of all appointments of Officers made by the Directors. 

(b) Of the names of the Directors present at every Meeting of 
the Board;and the Membere of Committees,appointed by the Board, 
present at every Meeting of the Committee. 

(c) Of the proceedings of all the Meetings of the Board,and of 
all Meetings of Committees. 

90.The minutes of any proceedings of any meeting of the Board, 
or of any such Committee,if signed hy the person purporting to 
be the Chairman of the Meeting,or of the next succeeding Meeting 
shall be sufficient evidence,without farther proof,of the facts 
therein stated. 

91. Every receipt for purchase,mortgage,or other moneys,signed 
by two of the Directors,and countersigned by the Seeretary, 
shall be an effectual discharge for the moneys therein expressed 
to be received,and shall exonerate every corporate body,or other 
persons or person,paying the same,from seeing to the application 
thereof,or being answerable for the loss,rais-appliaation,or 
non-application,thereof;and every deed and other document, 

to which the seal of the Company shall be affixed,shall be 
binding on the Company,as regards the purchaser,lender of money, 
or other person dealing with the Company in relation to any of : 
the matters comprised in the same deed or document,it being 
intended that no suoh purchaser or other person shall be 
concerned to inquire whether the Seal was properly affixed. 

92. Every Director,Auditor,Seeretary,and other Officer,his 
heirs,executors,administrators,and assigns,shall be indemnified 
by the Company for all losses and expenses incurred by them 
respectively,in or about the discharge of their respective 
duties,except such as happen from their own respective wilful 
acts or defaults;and,in particular,every Director and person 
incurring any liability under Paragraph 2 of Article 83,by 
beooming Member of any Building Society,shall also be indemnif¬ 
ied by the Company,and the Company may secure any suoh indemnity 
as hereinbefore mentioned,by a mortgage or charge,of all or 
anypart of the property of the Company,or of its unpaid Share 
capital,or otherwise. 

93. The Directors shall be entitled to receive,and be paid 


yearly,ouch sum as may tie voted t>y the shareholders In General 
Meeting,as and for remuneration for their services as Directors, 
and such sum shall he divided amongst the Directors for the time 
being,in such manner and proportions as they shall,from time to 
time,determine among themselves. 


94. The said Joseph Wilson Swan shall he the first Managing 
Direotor of the technical department of the business of the 

95. In addition to the powers and duties of an Ordinary Direc¬ 
tor, every Managing Director or Manager of the Company shall 
have and exercise such powers and authorities,and shall perform 
s-ich duties in respect of the business and affairs of the Comp¬ 
any as may,from time to time be vested in or assigned to him by 
the Board,provided that such powers and authorities shall not 
exceed those of the Board itself. 

96. A Managing Director shall not,while he continues to hold 
that subject to retirement by rotation,and he shall 
not be taken into account in determining the rotation of retire¬ 
ment,but he shall be subject to the same provisions as to 
vacating office as the other Directors,and may be removed by 
special resolution;and,if he cease to hold the office of Direct¬ 
or from any cause,heshall,ipso facto and immediately,cease to 
be a Managing Director,but these provisions shall not apply to 
the said Joseph Wilson Swan during the fourteen years named in 
the agreement with him,mentioned in the Memorandum of associat¬ 
ion,during which period he shall hot be at liberty ,to resign, 
but may be removed by special resolution. 

97. The remuneration of the Manager of Managers or Managing 
Direotor or Managing Directors shall,from time to time,be fixed 
by the Company in General Meeting,and may be by way of salary, 
or commission,or participation in the profits,or by any or all 
of these modes. But the said Joseph Wilson Swan shall receive 


as Managing Director,the sum fixed by the First Agreement with 
leave scheduled hereto. 


98. The said Joseph Wilson Swan shall continue a Director for 
fourteen-years after the incorporation of the Company,unless 
removed hy special resolution,and the said John Cameron Swan who 
has been nominated hy him,shall continue a Director for five 
years from such incorporation,hut if under Article 78 the said 

■ John Cameron Swan or any successor Of his shall,during the 
said five years,vacate his office or die,the Baid Joseph Wilson 
Swan 8hall,if he think fit,supply the vacancy. Whilst the said 
Joseph Wilson Swan shall continue a Director under this Article, 
he shall not,and whilst the said John Cameron Swan and his 
successors shall,under this Article,continue a Director,he shall 
not he taken into account in determining the rotation of Direc¬ 
tors. At the first Ordinary Meeting after the registration of the 
Company,the whole of the Directors shall retire from office, 
and at the first Ordinary Meeting in every subsequent year,one- 
third of the Directors for the time being,or if their number is 
not a multiple of three,then the number nearest to one-third, 
shall retire from office. 

99. The one-third,or other nearest number,to retire during the 
first and second years ensuing to the first Ordinary Meeting 

of toe Company shall,unless the Directors agree among themselves 
be determined by lot amongst themselves. In every subsequent 
year,the one-third,or other nearest number who have been longest 
in office,shall retire;and in case more than the number to 
retire shall have been in office for thesame period,the Direct¬ 
ors to retire shall be determined by lot amongst themselves. 

100. A retiring Director shall be re-eligible. 

101. The Company,at the General Meeting at which any Directors 
retire in manner aforesaid,shall fill up the vacated offices 
by electing a like number of persons. 


102. If,at any Meeting at which an election of Directors ought 
to take place,the places of the vacating Directors are not 
filled up,the Meeting shall stand adjourned till the same day 
in the next week,at the same time and place;and if at such 
adjourned Meeting the places of the vacating Directors are not 
filled up,the vacating Directors,or such of them as have not 
had their places filled up,shall continue in office until the 
Ordinary Meeting in the next year,and so on,from time to time, 
until their places are filled up. 

103. The Company,nay,from time to time,in General Meeting, 
increase or reduce the number of Directors,and may also determ¬ 
ine in what rotation such increased or reduced number is to 

go out of office. 

104. Any casual vacancy occurringin the Board of Directors may 
be filled up by the Directorsjbut any person so chosen shall 
retain his office so long only as the vacating Director would 
have retained the same,if no vacancy had occurred. 

105. The Company may,by a special resolution,remove any Direc¬ 
tor before the expiration of his period of office,and may,by m 
ordinary resolution,appoint another person in his stead. T he 
person so appointed shall hold office during such time only as 
the Direotor in whose place he is appointed would have held the 
same,if he had not been removed. 


106. The Directors may,with the sanction of the Company,in 
General Meeting (whenever in their opinion ,the net profits will 
admit of it) deolare a dividend to be paid to the Members,and 
may also,(whenever in their opinion ,the net profits of the 
Company will-admit of it> ,make and declare an interim dividend 
of such amount,and payable at such time,as they Bhall determine, 
but so that in declaring any dividend,they have regard to any 
preference dividends which may be payable on any preference 
Shares or shares created or raised under any special arrangesnt 

as to dividend. 

107. Except where otherwise provided,the dividends declared 
shall he payable on all shares (not being preference shares or 
shares created or raised under any special arrangement as to 
dividend) in proportion to the anount of capital for the time 
being paid up in respect of such shares. 

108. No dividend shall be payable except out of the profits 
arising from the business of the Company. 

109. The Directors may,before recommending any dividend,set as¬ 
ide out of the profits of the Company,such. sum as they think 
proper,as a reserve fund,to meet contingencies,or for equalising 
dividends,or for enlarging,improving,renewing,repairing,or 
maintaining the works connected with the business of the Company 
or any part thereof,or to cover loss in wear or tear or other 
depreciation,or diminution in value of any pro party,which shall 
belong to,or from time to time,be acquired by the Company, 

and the Directors may invest the sum so set apart as a reserve 
fund,upon such securities as they may select,and may,from time 
to time,alter and vary such investments, Provided always that if 
and whenever the Directors consider that the amount of the 
reserve fund is unnecessarily large,they may,with the consent 
of aGeneral Meeting,distribute such portion thereof,as they,with 
the like consent,may think unnecessary to retain among the hold¬ 
ers of ordinary shares,as a bonus,such distribution being in 
proportion to the amount of capital for the time being paid up 
in respect of such shares. 

110. The Directors may deduct from the dividends payable to 
any Member all such sums of money as may be due from him to 
the Company,on account of calls or otherwise. 

111. Notice of any dividend that may have been declared shall 
be given to each Member,in manner hereinafter mentionedjand 
all dividends unclaimed for three years,after having been 
declared,may be forfeited,by the Directors,for the benefit of 


the Company. 

112. Ho dividend shallhear interest as against the Company. 


113. The D-rectors shall cause true accounts to he kept— 

Of the stock-in-trade of the Company, 

Of the sums of money received and expended hy the Company, 
and the matter in respect of which such receipt and 
expenditure takes place,and 

Of the oredits and liabilities of the Company. 

114. The hooks of accounts shall he kept at the registered 
office of the Company,(and subjeot to aivy reasonable restrict¬ 
ions as to the time and manner of inspecting the same that may 
he imposed hy the Company in General Meeting,to threeother clear 
days' previous notice to the Secretary,)shall he open to the 
inspection of the Members,during the hours of business. 

115. Once at the least,in every year,the Directors shall lay 
before the Compmy ,in General Meeting,a statement of the income 
and expenditure for the past year,made up to a date not more 
than three months before such Meeting. 

116. The statement so made shall show,arranged under the most 
convenient heads,the amount of gross income,distinguishing the 
several sources from which it has been derived,and the amount 

of gross expenditure,distinguishing the expense of the establis¬ 
hment, salaries, and other like matters. Svery item of expendit¬ 
ure, fairly chargeable against the years' income,shall be brought 
into account,so that a just balance of profit and loss may be 
laid before the Meetingjand in cases where any item of expendit¬ 
ure which may,in fairness,be distributed over several years, 
has been incurred in any one year,the whole amount of such item 
shall be stated,with the addition of the reasons why only a 
portion of such expenditure is charged against the income of the 

117. A balance sheet shall be made out,in every year,and laid 

before the Company,in General Meeting,and such balance sheet 
shall contain a summary of the property and liabilities of the 
Company.arranged under the heads appearing in the form annexed 
to Table A of the Act of 1862,or as near thereto as circumst¬ 
ances admit,and shall be accompanied by a Heport of the Direct¬ 
ors as to the state and condition of the Company,and as to any 
dividend they may be prepared to recommend. 

118. A copy of such balance sheet shall be open to the 
inspection of the Members,at the registered office of the Comp¬ 
any,for three days previously to the Annual Meeting. 


119. Once,at least,in six months,the accounts of the Company 
shall be examined,and the correctness of the balance sheet 
ascertained by one or more Auditor or Auditors. 

120. The first Auditors shall be appointed by the Directors, 
subsequent Auditors shall be appointed by the Company,in General 


121. If one Auditor only is appointed,all the provisions herein 

contained,relating to Auditors,shall apply to him. 

122. The Auditors may be Members of the Company,but no person 
is eligible as an Auditor who is interested,otherwise than as 
a Member,in any transaction of the Company,and no Director,or 
other officer of the Company,is eligible during his continuance 
in office. 

123. The election of Auditors shall bemade by the Company,at 
their Ordinary Meeti. ng in each year. 

124. The remuneration of the first Auditors shall be fixed by 
the Directors;that of subsequent Auditors shall be fixed by the 
Company in General Meeting. 

125. Any Auditor shall be re-cligihle on his quitting office. 

126. If any casual vacancy occur in the offieeof an Auditor 
appointed by the Company,the Directors shall forthwith call an 
Extraordinary General Meeting for the purpose of supplying the 



127. If no election of Auditors is made in manner aforesaid, 
the Board of Trade may,on the application of not less than five 

Members of the Company,appoint an Auditor for the current year, 
and fix the remuneration to "be paid to him bythe Company for 
his services. 

128. Every Auditor shall he supplied with a copy of the balance 
sheet,or proposed balance sheet, and it shall be his duty 

to examine the same with the accounts and vouchers relating 

129. Every Auditor shall have a list delivered to him of all 
books kept by the Compan. , and shall,at all reasonable times, 
have access to the books and accounts of the Company. He may, 
at the expense of the Company,employ Accountants or other pers¬ 
ons to assist him in investigating such accounts, and he may,in 
relation to such accounts,examine the Directors or any other 
officer of the Company. 

130. The Auditors shall make a report to the Members upon the 
balance sheet and accounts,and in every such report shall state 
whether , in their opinion ,the balance sheet is a full and fair 
balance sheet,containing the particulars required by these 
regulations,and properly drawn up,so as to exhibit a true and 
correct view of the state of the Company's affairs; and,in case 
they have called for explanations or information from the 
Directors,whether such explanations or information have been 
given by the Directors,and whether th$r havejbeen satisfactory; 
and such report shall be read,together with the report of the 
Directors,at the Ordinary Meeting. 


131. Notices or other documents requiring to be served upon 
any Member,may be served,either personally,or by sending the 
same through-the post in a pre-paid letter,addressed to such 
Member at his registered place of abode in the United Kingdom; 


and no person who has not a registered plaoe of abode in the 
United Kingdom shall he entitled to any notice,but such Member 
shall be treated and dealt with as having had notice,or as 
having agreed to dispense with notice,anything herein contained 
to the contrary notwithstanding. 

132. All notices directed to be given to the Members shall, 
with respect to any Share to which persons are jointly entitled , 
be given to whichever of such persons named first in the 
register of Members,and notice so given shall be sufficient 
notice to all the holders of such shares,and to all future hold¬ 
ers of such Shares,or persons claiming under them. 

133. Any notice,or other document,if served bypost,shall be 
deemed to have been served at the time when thelet\.er containing 
the same would be delivered in the ordinary course of the post, 
and,in proving such service,it shall be sufficient to prove 
that the letter containing the same was properly addressed,and 
put into the post office. 

134. Svery' person who,by operation of law,transfer,or other 
means shall become entitled to any Share,shall be bound by any 
and every notice anl other document,which,previous to his name 
and address being entered on the register in respect of such 
Share,shall have been given to,or left at,or sent to the address 
of the person,in whose name the share shall have been previously 
registered,or would have been given,had such Member had a 
registered place of abode in the United Kingdom. 


135. If any difference,the manner of deciding which is not 
herein beforeprescribed,or which is directed to be settled by 
arbitration without further directions,arise between the Comp¬ 
any and any Member,Trustee,representative,or other person, 

or bodies of persons to whom the regulations of these presents 
apply,such difference shall be referred to an Arbitrator,to be 
mutually agreed upon and appointed,or failing such mutual agree- 

ment and appointment to an Arbitrator,to be appointed by the 
Town Clerk for the time being of the Borough of Newoastle-upon- 
Tyne,and the decision of the Arbitrator appointed in'either of 
the ways aforesaid,shall be final and binding upon all parties, 
and the Arbitrator shall have power to award by whom,and how, 
and when the costs of,and incident to,any such reference are 
to be borne and paid,and this clause shall be deemed to be an 
agreement to refer within the meaning of the 11th section of 
the "Common law Procedure Act,1854," but so that the time 
mentioned in the 15th section for making his award may be enlar¬ 
ged by the Arbitrator,and so that this Agreement,and every 
submission hereunder,may be made a rule of any Division of Her 
Majesty's High Court of Justice. 

We,the several persons whose names and addresses are subsc¬ 
ribed,are desirous of being-formed into a Company,in pursuance 
of this Memorandum of Association,and we respectively agree 
to take the number of Shares set opposite our respective names. 

S5S5SKKtSSe S BtM SS K =ttC a-~.. s .. !;=s .„„.. !: „ 

Names and Addresses and Descriptions Number of Shares 

of Subscribers. taken by 

- ' ___ each Subscriber. 

John Williamson,of 

Southgarthjipestoe, in the County 

Of Durham.. Chemical Manufacturer. 1. 

Hilton Philipson, 

No.6 Prior Terrace, Tynemouth. 

Northumberland.Colliery Owner. 1. 

Alexander Shannon Stevenson, 

of 45 Pront Street,Tynemouth, 

Northumberland. Chemical Manufacturer. 1. 

James Craig, 

No.11 Prior's Terrace,Tynemouth, 

Northumberland.Merohant. 1. 

James Hall, 

No 9 Prior Terrace,Tynemouth. 

Northumberland.Ship Owner. X. 

John Theodore Merz, 

of The Quarries,in the Borough and County 

of Newcastle-on-Tyne.Chemical Manufacturer, l. 

Richard Sims Donkin, 

Camp Ville,North Shields. 

Northumberland.Shipowner. X. 


John Cameron Swan, 

. 1 Dean Street, 

Newoastle-on-Tyna. Merchant. 1. 

Dated the 3rd day of February,1881. 

Witness to all of the above Signatures, 

Robert Spence, w&tson, 


And I the said Robert Spence Watson hereby certify thd; the 
several alterations and additions respectively made in the 
76th and 98th Clauses of the above Articles of Association, 
to which X have affixed my initials,were so respectively made 
with the consent and approbation of all the parties who have 
subscribed their names to the said Articles. 

Robert Spence Watson. 

referred to in the 


AN AGREEMENT made the second day of Pebruary,1881,BETWEEN 
JOSEPH WILSON SWAN,of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,Manufacturing Chemist, 
hereinafter called "the Vendor" of the one part,and ROBERT 
SPENCE WATSON,of the sameplaoe,Solicitor,on behalf of the here¬ 
inafter mentioned intended Company (which ROBERT SPENCE WATSON 
is hereinafter called "the Promoter") of the other part. 

WHEREAS the Vendor has obtained from Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria,Lett ere Patent for inventions in relation to lighting 
by electricity,and those Letters Patent are two in number,and 
are dated respectively,the second dy of January,1880,and the 
twentieth day of January,1880,and he has applied for,and is 
about to outain from Her Maj esty.two additional Letters Patent 
for inventions of the like nature,and the Letters Patent so 
obtained,and about to be obtained,are hereinafter referred to 
as "the Home Patents." 

AND WHEREAS the Vendor has also obtained,and may hereafter 
obtain,Letters Patent from the Governments of the Colonies and 
Dependencies of the United Kingdom,and from the Governments of 
Poreign Countries Letters Patent or Documents similar to Letters 
Patent in relation to his said invention,and the same Letters 
Patent and Documents already obtained and hereafter to be obtained 
including all improvements and new inventions in relation to 
lighting by eleotricity are hereinafter referred to as "the 
Poreign Patents." 

AND WHEREAS it has been agreed that a Company shall be formed 
for the purpose,among others,of purchasing from the Vendor the 
Home Patents. 

NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED as follows :- 

l.The Promoter shall before the first day of May next,procure a 


Company with a Capital of £100,000,divided into 10,000 shares 
of £10 each,to he incorporated under the Companies' Acts,1862 
to 1880,by the name of "Swan's Electric light Company,limited," 
for the purpose,among others,of adopting and carrying this Agr¬ 
eement into effect. 

2. The memorandum and Articles of the Association of the Company 
shall,before the registration thereof,be approved by the Company 
and by the Vendor. 

3. The Vendor shall sell and the Company Bin all purchase the 
Horae Patents,(the two not yet completed being completed at the 
expense of the Company,) including extensions,and if any process 
used by the Vendor in themanufaoture of the lanps commonly 
known as Swan's Electric Lamps is not comprehended in aiyof the 
Home Patents,the same process is nevertheless to be included in 
the sale hereby agreed to be made to the Company,and such sale 
shall also include any Trade Hark which shall be obtained in 
reference to such Lamps. 

4. The Vendor shall also sell,and the Company shall purchase, 
all his the Vendor's tenancy and interest in his manufactory,at 
Birkenhead,subject to the Company's paying all the expenses 
past and future,of the extensions now in progress. 

5. The Vendor will also enter into a covenant with the Company 
to procure,at the expense of the Company,Letters Patent for any 
improvements,either by the Vendor alone,or by him in conjunction 
with ary other person or persons,in the said inventions,or aiy 
of them,or for any new invention,either by him alone,or by him 
in conjunction with any other person or persons in anywise 
connected with or relating to the manufacture of Bleotric Lamps, 
or lighting by electricity,including any machinery or apparatus 
for such manufacture,or for producingj;storing,distributing,or 
transmitting electricity,and will,at the like expense,assign the 
same Letters Patent to the Company,and suoh last mentioned 


Letters Patent shall be for the United Kingdom of Great Britain, 
Ireland,theChannel Islands,and the Isle of Han. 

6. The Vendor will also enter into a covenant with the Company 
that,in case he,or his executors,or administrators,shall sell, 
or transfer,or license,the use of any of the foreign Patents, 
he will require the Purchaser,Tranaferee,or Licensee,to engage 
that none of the Lamps or Ih ings manufactured,or made,wholely, 
or in part,according to such patent,shall be sent to the United 
Kingdom,and will,at the expense and risk of the Company,enforce, 
or endeavour to enforce,such engagements. 

7. The Vendor will also enter into a covenant with the Company, 
that he will not,at any time hereafter,either solely or jointly, 
with,or as Manager or Agent,for anyother r-ompany,person or 
persons,directly or indireotly,carry on,or be engaged,or concerned 
or interested in my business of the same or of a like nature 

to that oarried on,from time to time,by the proposed Company, 
in any part of the United Kingdom,save so far as the Vendor shall 
as a Member of the interested,or as an officer,agent, 
or servant of the employed in the business of the 

8. In consideration of the last five preceding clauses,the Comp¬ 
any will pay to the Vendor,£25,000 in cash,by the following 
instalments,namely: £10,000 on the expiration of one calendar 
month,£3,000 on the expiration of twelve calendar months,£3,000 
on the expiration of two years,£3,000 on the expiration of 
three years,£3,000 on the expiration of four years,and £3,000 
on the expiration of five years from the incorporation of the 
Company;and if default shall be made in the payment of any inst¬ 
alment at the appointed time,the. Company shall thenceforth pay 
to the Vendor,interest thereon,at the rate of £5 per centum per 
annum,until payment. Provided always that if before the whole 
of the said sum of £25,000 cash shall be paid,the Company shall 
he wound up,on the ground of non-success,so much of the said 


£25,000 as shall not have become due and payable,shall not he 
paid,hut shall he released. 

9. As a further consideration for the 3rd,4th,5th,6th,and 7th 
clauses,the Company shall,within one calendar month after its 
incorporation,allot to the Vendor.2,500 £10 Shares in the Comp¬ 
any, upon each of which the sum of £10 shall he credited as fully 
paid up. PROVIDED ALWAYS,that in the meantime.until the whole 
of the said capital of £100,000 shall he called up,the Vendor 
shall only he entitled to receive out of the profits of the Com¬ 
pany , one- fourth of such part of the profits as shall he divided, 
and a sum equal to £5 per cent. per,annum on one-third of the 
uncalled up p*rt,for the time being,of the same capital. AMD 
the Company shall also enter into a covenant with the vendor, 
that on every,or any,issue of new Shares which shall he made 
during his life,or within 21 years after his death,the company, 
in respect of every or any increase in its Capital,will allot 

to him or his Executors,Administrators,or Assigns,Shares,equal 

to one-fourth of such issue.credited as fully paid-up,hut so 
that,in the meantime,until the whole amount payable on the other 
Shares issued,shall he called up,the Vendor,his Executors, 
Administrators,or Assigns,shall only he entitled to receive 
one-fourth of the divided profits of the Company,in respect of 
the whole issue. PROVIDED ALWAYS that this covenant shallnot 
apply to any Shares issued,to purchase any Letters Patent,or to 
carry on any business,manufacture,o F thing,not connected with 
the Vendor's Electric Lamps,or any improvements thereinjand if 
any Shares issued shall he partly,for all or any of the purposes 
last aforesaid,and partly for purposes connected with the Vend¬ 
or's Electric lamps,or improvements therein,then a proportionate 
part only of the one-fourth shall he allotted to the Vendor, 
his Executors,Administrators,or Assigns. BUT this proviso is 
not to prejudice the right of the Vendor,his Executors,Administ¬ 
rators,or Assigns,to a pro rata allotment of Shares,as a member 


or members of the Company. PROVIDED AD WAY 3 that in oase the 
Company shall be wound up whilst any sum shall remain uncalled 
up,either in respect of the original or any increased capital, 
the uncalled up sum shall only be required to be paid,if,so far 
as necessary,for discharging the debts and liabilities of the 
Company,and not for the purpose of distribution,as between 
members of the Company. 

10. The Vendor will,for 7 years froe the incorporation of the 
Company,if he shall so long live,retain in his own name,and in 
his own absolute ownership,1250 of the said 2500 Shares,and 

the Vendor will,for 14 years from the incorporation of the Comp¬ 
any,hold as absolute least £5,000 of the paid up capit¬ 
al of the company. 

11. The Vendor shall,subject to the Articles of Association, 
for 14 years from the incorporation of the Company,act as 
Managing Director of the technical department of the business 
of the Company,provided he shall so long continue able to dis¬ 
charge the duties appertaining thereto,and such department 
shall be deemed to comprehend the manufacture of the Damps in 
its several branohesjand whilst the Vendor shall act as such 
Managing Director,as aforesaid,he shall devote a sufficient part 
of his time and attention to the duties of the office,but shall 
not be required to give the whole of his time aid attention 
thereto;and he shall be paid by the Company,as remuneration for 
his services as such Managing Director,the annual salary of 
£1,000,by equal quarterly portions,computed from the incorporat¬ 
ion of the Company. 

12. During a period of five years from the incorporation of the 
Company,if the Vendor so long lives,one of the other Directors 
of the Company shall always,or whenever the Vendor so requires, 
be a person who has been nominated by him. 

15. The company shall have thebenefit of,and be subject to the 
obligations of the Agreement,dated the first day of February 


instant,between the Vendor and Henry Edmunds,the youngeriand the 
Company shall also have the benefit of,and he subject to all 
now current contracts,orders,and liabilities of the Vendor,in 
relation to the supply or installation of Lamps. 

14. Upon payment of the first instalment of the said £25,000 
oash.and upon the said 25,00^ Shares,being allotted to him, 
the Vendor will assign the Home Patents,and all other the prem¬ 
ises hereby contracted to be sold to the Company. But the Comp¬ 
any shall engage that until the other five instalments of the 
said £25,000 cash shall be paid,so mach of the said capital of 
£100,000 as shall be actual inamount to the instalments or 
instalment,for the time being unpaid,shall remain uncalled up, 
and upon suoh payment of the said 1st instalment of the Baid 
£25,000 cash,and suoh allotment of the said 2,500 Shares,there 
shall also be executed and done,all such other deeds,acts,and 
things,as shall be neoGssaiy,or considered expedient for giving 
effect to this Agreement. PB0VID3D ALWAYS that the Vendor shall 
not be required to enter into at$r covenant guaranteeing the 
validity of the Horae Patents,nor shall the Company require any 
evidence of suoh validity,or any evidence of the title of the 
Vendor to the said Manufactory,at Birkenhead. 

15. All the costs and expenses of the preparation and execution 
of this Agreement,and attending the deeds,acts,and things ment¬ 
ioned or referred to in the last preceding clause,and of prepar¬ 
ing and issuing the Prospectus,and of preparing the Memorandum 
and Articles of Association of the Company,and otherwise incid¬ 
ental to the incorporation of the Company,whether preliminary 
or not,shall be borne and paid by the Company. 

16. Upon the adoption of this Agreement,by the Company,the 
promoter shall be discharged from all liability in respect 

17. If the Company shall not be incorporated,and this Agreement 
adopted by theiu before the first day of May next,it shall be 


lawful for either of the parties hereto,hy notice in writing 
to the other,to rescind the same,and in case this Agreement 
shall he so rescinded.neither of the said parties hereto shall 
have any claim against the other for compensation or expenses 
in relation theret.o. 

13. Any difference or question which may arise between the Vend¬ 
or and the Promoter.or between the Vendor and the Company, 

as to the construction,effects.incidents,or consequencesof these 

presents,or as to the assurances of the said premises or other¬ 
wise as to the mode of carrying out any of the clauses or purp¬ 
oses of these presents into effect,or as to the breach,or 
alleged breach,of any of the clauses herein contained, o.aa»as to 
any other matter or thing in aryway relating to or arising out 
of these presents,shall as and when it arises,or as near 
thereto as circumstances will referred to an Arbitrator, 
to be mutually agreed upon and appointed,or failing such mutual 
agreement and appointment,to an Arbitrator,to be appointed by 
the Town Cleric,for the time being of the Borough of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, and the decision of the Arbitrator to be appointed 
in either of the ways aforesaid,shall be final and binding 
upon all parties:and the Arbitrator shall have power to award, 
by whom and how,and when,the costs of,and incident to,any such 
reference,are to be borne and paid;and .this Clause shall be 
deemed to be an Agreement to refer within the meaning of 11th 
Section of the "Common Law Procedure Act,1854," but so that the 
time mentioned in the 15th Section for making his award,may be 
enlarged by the Arbitrator,and so that this Agreement,and any 
submission hereunder may be made a rule of any Division of Her 
Majesty's High Court of Justice. 


19. AS WITNESS the hands of the parties,the day and year first 
hereinbefore written. 

Witness to the Signatures of- 



(Signed) Joseph Wilson Swan. 

Robt.Spence Watson. 

(Signed) Hxlton Philipson. 

16556. C.N. L.. 16990/1 



3 8 0 4 
16 MAR 188S 

£30 £30 £10 
10 /- 





1. The name of the Company is n The Edison Eleotrio Light 
company Limited". 

11. The Registered Office of the company will to situate 
in England. 

111. The objects f nr which the Company is established are:- 

1. To adopt and oarry into effeot an Agreement, dated 
the 18th day of February 1883, and made between THOMAS 
ALVA EDISON of the first part; DREXEL MORGAN 2 3 * * & * * COMPANY 
of the second part; EGISTO PAOLO FA3BRI and GEOSVaNOR 
SORTER LOWREY of the third part; and the Right Hon. 
EDWARD PLEYDELL BOUVERIE and others, whose names are 
theretoattached, of the fourth part (a copy of which is 
set out in the Schedule to the Artioles of Association 
registered herewith), for the acquisition by the c°mpnny 
of the several patents therein 3P 9 ° 1 £ i0 £» 

whole of the patents taken ofct for the United Kingdom 
by the said Thomas Alva Edison or on his behalf in _ 
relation to the application of sleotrioity or magnetism, 
as a' lighting, heating and motive agent, subject to 
any modifications in the said Agreement, which may be 
agreed upon betweee the Company and the said Thomas 
Alva Edison and the said Drexel Morgan & Company. 

2. To acquire any additional letters patent, rights, ® 
or monopoly relating to the inventions mentioned in the 
said Agreement, or any inventions of a like oharacter, 
or any interest therein upon any terms, and to take 

and work any lioense or lioenses in oonneotion with 
any 3U0h invention. 

3. To do all such things (including applications for 

disclaimer) as may be deemed expedient for using and 

otherwise obtaining the full benefit of the patents 

and inventions for the time being belonging to the 

company, or in which it is interested, with full power 

to grant lioenses for the use thereof, and to manufact¬ 

ure, sell, and let apparatus for the application of the 

said inventions. 

4. To acquire the goodwill of, or any interest in, any 
trade or business, similar or analogous to any trade or 
business whioh the Company is authorised to carry on. 

5. To acquire and work all neoessary maohinery, materials, 
and things, and to acquire by lease, purohase, or otherwise, 
any land or buildings, or to ereot any buildings for any of 
the purposes of the Company. 

6. To sell, improve, develop, manage, work, maintain, let, 

mortgage, or otherwise deal with, and dispose of, all or a ny 
part of the business and property of the Company, in suoh 
manner, on suoh terms, and for suoh purposes as the nomroany 
may think proper. ~ 

7. To obtain and p a y out of capital the expenses of obtain¬ 
ing any ,ot of Parliament or any Provisional Order of the 
Board of Trade, for enabling the Company to carry all or 
any of its objeots into ef f eot. 

8. To unite, oo-operate, or amalgamate with any company 
hereafterto be established for, or already engaged in, 
objects similar or analogous to those of the Company, 

and to acquire, for the benefit of the Company, and in the 
name of the Company, or otherwise, all or any of the- Shares, 
or Stook, or any other interest in any 3uch Company, and 
to promote the formation of any suoh company. 

9. To do all suoh other things as are incidental or con¬ 
ducive to the attainment of the above objeots. 

IV. The liability of the Members is limited. 

V. The Capital of the Company is £1,000,00 0, divided into 
50,000 A Shares of £10 eaoh, and 50,000 B Shares of £10 each, 
with power to inorease the Capital, so that the same be divided 
into an equal amount of A Shares and B Shares but not otherwise. 


the several arsons whose names and addresses a re subscrib- 
’ ad, are desirous of being farmed into a conPaay, 
uursuanoe of this Memorandum of A30° oi ation, am we 
raaneotively asree to take the number otfAIBhares in the 
Capital of the Company set opposite our respective'names 

Names. Addresses and Descriptions of 

Number of "A" Shares 
taken by 
o.nVi Siihnflriber. 

Edward Pleydell Bouverie 
44 Wilton crescent i Westminster W. C. 

John Lubbook 

High + Elm, 

Down, Kent, 

Wil 1 iara 0 air R at ham 

3 Fenohyroh’. corner 

Howard GilliaV 

4 Crosby Square 

E. C. 

W r;. Fowler 

38 Grosvenor Square, 

London. M.P. 

Frederick Joseph Bramwell F.E.S. 
Engineer. . 

37 Great George St., S. 


Hibbard Johnson 

57 Holborn Viaduct 
Electrical Engineer 

(500) five hundred 
(500) pive hundred 

(600) Five hundred 
(600) Five hundred 
(6<)0) Five hundred 
(500) Five hundred 
(500) Five hundred 

Dated the 15th day of March 1883 
Witness to the above Signatures 

Riohard L. Harrison, solicitor 
Clerk to Messrs. Waterhouse & Winterbotham 

B i New Court, Lincolns Inn, W. c. 


3 8 0 6 
16 MAR 1 88.3 

Registrat ion 
St am p 5/- 


Ion elcoot jjnr * limited. 
'%liminary; ' 

' 1 T hs regulations of "able A in the first schedule to the 
Comcanies' Act, 1862, shall not apply to this Co f: )an y> x 

so far as the same are repeated or oontained in these Articles. \ 

2. -he Company may from time to time exeroise any powers 
whioh by the Companies Aots, 1362 to 1880, a Company ed 
' • Shores may exeroise if authorised hy its Articles of 

Association, including therein the power to reduce it a Capital 

whether paid up or uncalled, and either hy cancellation f * 

unallotted Shares or otherwise, and .he power to divide its H 

Capital or any partthereof into Shares of smaller, or to Ml 

consolidate the same into Shares of larger amount than that HBK 
fixedhy the Memorandum of Association. 

capital . 

3. The registered holders Ox Shares in the ^ ^ nnntinue 
time .heing whatever the number issued, shall be and oontinue 
associated, and the business of the Company may be at once 
commenced and the regulations for the management of tne Company 
shall be in force. 

4. The Shares shall, so far as consistent with the " 

Agreement raferredto in t he Memorandum of Association { a copy 
of whioh is oontained in the Schedule hereto), be allotted by 
•nd at the discretion of the Directors, and the A Shares shaii 
„-ave ’such preferential rights over the B Shares as are specified- 
in the said agreement. 

5 m h e Company may from time to time by an Extraordinary 
nesolution increase K. Capital beyond the*amount mentioned 
in the Memorandum of Association by the oreation °^ n ®lA 
B Shares as provided by the said Agreement, and suoh new A 
shares unless it be otherwise determined by suoh^ re solution, 
lhall be Offered in the first instance to A Shareholders 

on the register in proportion to their respeotive holdings, 

and suoh lew B'sharSs shall be allotted as provided Jy^he 

said Agreement, but save as aforesaid all new Capital shall oe 
allotted to such persona, and in suoh manner, and subject to \ 
suoh condit ions as to CaLls or otherwise, as the Board shall 
d e sm f it. 

a Tf qaveral persons are registered as .‘joint holders of 
Share any one of suoh persons may give4ef factual reoeilpts 
for any Lividend, Sonus, or return of Capital payable in respect 
of suoh Share. 

7. Every jjerriber ghall be entitled to a Certificate or 
srtificatee under the Common seal of the Company, specifying 
the Share or Shares held by him, and the amount paid up, or x - 

deemed to bo paid up thereon, and if any such certificate be worn 
out, defaced, destroyed, or lost, it may be renewed on payment 
of five shill in.s, or suoh less sum as the Directors may prescribe. 

8. The Company shall not bebound by or rooognise, even 
though having not ioe thereof, any other right in respect of a 
Share than an absolute right thereto .in the registered holder 
thereof for thetime being, and such right in Oase of trans¬ 
mission hereinafter mentioned. 


9. The instrument of transfer of any Share in the Company 
shall be under seal and in suoh form ae the Board may approve, 
and be exeouted both by the transferor and transferee, and the 
transferor shall be deerndd to remain the holder of suoh Share 
until the name of the transferee is entered in the register book 
in respeot thereof. 

10. The Directors may in their absolute discretion, and without 
assigning any reason, deoline to register any transfer of \ 

Shares not fully paid up made by a Member to any person not 
approved by them. 

11. Ev ery Deed of Transfer must be left at the Off ioe of 
the Qompany to be registered, accompanied by the Certificate 
of the 8h?.re to be transferred, and suoh other evidence as 
the Directors may reasonably require to prove the title of the 
transferor, or his right to transfer the Shares, and with the 
payment of such fee as the Directors shall from time to time 
determine, and thereupon the Directors, subject to the power 
vested in them by Article 10, shall register the transferee 
pa a Shareholder, and shall retain the peed of Transfer. 

IS. The transfer boeks may be closed during the fourteen 
days immediately preceding every ordinary general Meeting. 

13. The exeoutors or administrators of a deoeased Member 
shill be the only persons reoognised by the Company as having 
any title to his Shares, exoept in the case of Shares held 
on joint account, in which case the survivors only shall be 
reoognised by the Company as the persons entitled to suoh 
Shar9 s. 

14. Any fcerson beooming entitled to registered Shares, in 
consequence of the death or bankruptcy of any Member, or in 
consequence of the marriage of any female Member, or in any 
other way than by tranfer, may upon such evidence sustaining 
the character in respect of which he proposed to aot under 
this clause, a 3 may from time to time be required by the 
Directors, or on hi 3 title being produoed, either be registered 
himself as a -Member in respeot of suoh Shares, or subjeot to 
the regulations as to transfer herein contained, may transfer 
the same to any other person. 



15. The Directors may from time to time mates suoh Calls 
upon the Members in respect of all moneys unpaid on their Shares 
as they may thinl-c fit, provided that one month'snotioe at least 
be given of aaoh Call. 

13. -r-aoh Member shall be liable to pay the amount of every v 
Call 30 made on him to the person and at the time and plaoe v 

appointed by the Directors, ar.din case of default topay 
interest for the same at suoh rate as the Direotcrs shall fix, 
not exceeding £10 per cent, per annum from the day appointed 
for payment thereof to the time of the aot ual payment, and 
joint holders of Sharesshall be so liable severally as well as 
jointly in respect of all Calls thereon and interest. 

17. The -nireotorsmay, if they thinh fit*receive from any 
Member willing to advance the 3ame, all or ay part of the 
moneys unpaid upon the shares hold by him beyond the sums actually 
oallod up,' and the moneys so paid in advance or so mueh thereof 
as shall, from time to time, exoeed the amount of the Calls 
then made upon the Shares in respect ofwhich suoh advance shall 
have been made, may ha treated as loans, at suoh interest, and . 
on 3Uoh terms, as the Members paying suoh sums in advance and x 
the Directors shall agree upon. 


18. Th9 Company shall have a first charge or paramount lien 
upon all Shares for all moneys due to it from and forall 
engagements with the holder or any of the joint holders thereof, 
either alone or jointly with any other person, whether the 
period for the payment, fulfilment or disoharge thereof shall \ 
have aotually arrived or not, including all Calls, the 
.resolutions for which shall have been passed by the Directors, 
although the times appointed for their payment may not have 

19. Suoh lien may be made available by a sale of all or any 
of the Shares subjeot to it, provided that no suoh sale shall 
be made exoept under a resolution of the Directors, and until 
notice in writing shall have been given to the indebted 
Member or his exeoutors or administrators, orthe trustee in 
his Banhruptoy, requiring him or them to pay the amount for 
the time being due to the Company, and default shall have been 
made for twenty-eight days from suoh notice in paying t be 
sum thereby required to be paid. 

30. In case of suoh sale the Dirootors shall apply the 
clear proceeds, after the payment of any expenses, in or 
towards the satisfaction of suoh debts or engagements, and the 
residue (if any) shall be paid to suoh Member, his exeoutors, 
administrators, or assigns. 



31. If any member falls to pay any Call or other money 
payable in respect of a Share on the day appointed for payment 
thereof, the Directors may at any time thereafter during such 
time as the Call or other money shall remain unpaid, serve a 
notice on him requiring him to pay the same, together wit h the 
internet that may have aoorued, and any expenses that may hawe 
been inourred by the Company by reason of suoh non-payment. 

32. The notice shall name a further day not less than 
twenty-one days after the day first appointed, on or before 
whioh suoh Call or other money, and all interest and expenses 
infcurred by reason of suoh non-payment are to be paid. It 
shall also name the place where payment is to be madej the plaoe 
so named being either the pegistsred office of the Company, or 
some other plans at which the Calls of the Company are usually 
made payable. The notice shall also state that in the event 
of non-payment at or beforethe time and at the place appointed, 
th9 Shares in respect of whioh such Call or other money may be 
payable, will be liable to be forfeited. 

23. If the requisitions of any suoh notice as aforesaid 
be not oompli9d with, any Share in respect of which such 
notice shall have been given, may at any time thereafter 
before payment of all Calls or other moneys, interest and 
expenses due in respect thereof shall have been made, be 
forfeited by a resolution of the Direotors to that effeot. 

24. Any forfeited Shares shal be deomedeto be the 
property of the Company, and may be sold, re-allotted, or 
disposed of in suoh manner as the Directors shall think fit. 

26. Ahy Member whose Shares have been forfeited, shall, 
notwithstanding, be liable to pay tot he Company all Calls or 
other moneys and expenses owing upon or in respect, of suoh 
Shares;at the time of forfeiture, together with interest 
t here on. 

26. A certificate in writing under the seal of the Company 
and the hands of two Direotors, and oountersigned by the 
peoretary, that a Share has been duly forfeited, in pursuanoe 
of the regulations of the Company, or sold under Artiole 19, 
shall be oonolusive evidence of euoh forfeiture or sale, as 
the case may be, and also in favour of the purohaserof its 
regularity and validity, so that t h9 remedy of any person 
aggrieved shall be against the Company, and in damages only, 
and an entry of every suoh Cert ificate shall be made in 
the minutes of the proceedings of the Directors, and suoh 
Certificate and the receipt of the Company, for the prioe of 
such Shar9 shall constitute a good title to suoh Share. 



any sale o y xne ^ 

or onares sold under Artiole 19, the purchaser anallba 
registered as the Proprietor of the Shares, and snail r oaivs 
a Certificate of such Proprietorship, under article 7, and 
shall hold the sh res disoharged from all Calls due prior to 
his riurohaae; and he shall not he hound to see to the 
application of the purohass-money. 

38* The Directors may, at any time, before any Shares 
so forfeited shall have been sold, realised, or otnerwise 
disposed of, in their discretion, remit or annul the 
forfeiture thereof, upon payment of all moneys due to the 
Com-oanv from the Late holder orholdere of suoh onare, and 
all txlenses incurred in relation to suoh forfeiture, or 
generally upon suoh terms as they shall aeem fit. 


29. The first Qrdinarp* General Meeting shall be held 
at such time, within four months after tne incorporation of 
the Company, and at suoh place as the piireotors may v 
determine. The subsequent Ordinary General Meetings shall 
be held once, at least, in e aoh year, at suoh time and place 
as the Direotors may determine. 

SO. '’’he Direotors may, whenever they think fit, and they 
shall, upon a requisition, made in writing, by five Members 
of the Company holding, in the aggregate Shares to -he 
nominal amount of £10,000 of the issued Capital for the 
time being of the Company, oonvene an Extraordinary General 
Meet ing. 

31. Any suoh requisition shall ®*5 re * fl -* 11 ® ( °?& 0t n + f +ha 
the meeting proposed to be called, and shall be left at the 
registered Office of the Company. 

32. Upon receipt of suoh requisition, the Direotors shall 
forthwith proceed to convene an extraordinary General 
Meeting. If within fourteen days from the n«rv 

re qu is it ion they do not prooeadto oonvene suoh extraordinary 
p o-naral meeting, the re qui sit ionist s, or any other five 
Members hoidin| the required amount of Shares, may ^® m ®®l V93 
oonvene the same j but no suoh requisition shall regain in 
foroe for more than two oalendar months from the time 
when the same shall be deposited at the offioe. 

33. The Direotors or Mentoers convening any meeting 
shall give fourteen days’ not ioe, at least, specifying 
the place, the day, and the hour of meeting, and, incase 
of speoial business, thegeneral nature of f u0 ^^ ?® * 
to the Members, in manner hereinafter mentioned, or in 
suoh other manner (if any) as may be prescribed by -he 
Company in general Meeting; but the non-reoeipt of suoh 
notice by. or the aooidental omission to give any suoh 
notice to) any timber, shall not invalidate -the proceedings 

at any General Meeting. Whenever any meeting is adjourned 
for twenty-one days or more, at least five days notice 
of the place and hour of meeting of suoh Adjourned Meeting 
shall he given in a like manner. 

34. All business shall he deemed special that is 
transacted at an Extraordinary Meeting, as well as all 
business that is transaoted at an Ordinary Meeting, with 
the exception of choosing a Ch&irman (if neoessary), 
sanctioning a Dividend, eleoting Directors and Auditors, 
and other officers in the plaoe of those retiring by 
rotation, and voting their remuneration, considering the 
accounts and the report of the Directors, and passing 
any resolution relating to or arising out of the subject 
matter of suoh report. 


35. No business shall be transacted at any General 
Meeting, exoept the ohoice of a Chairman (if neces.sary), 
and the declaration of a Dividend, unless five Members 
shall be present in person or by proxy at the time when 
the meeting proceeds to suoh business. 

36. Tf within half-an-hour from the time appointed 
for the meeting, a quorum (as defined by the olause 
immediately preosding) be not present, the. meeting, if 
oonvened upon the requisition of Members, shall be 
dissolved. In any other case it shall stand adjourned 
to the same day in the next week, at the sane time and 
plaoe} a a if at such Adjourned meeting a quorum be not 
present, it shall be adjourned sins die. 

37. The Chairman (if any) of the Board of Directors 
shall preside asChaiman at every general Meeting of the 

38. If there be no suoh Chairman, or if at any meeting 
he is not present within fifteen minuted after the time 
appointed forholding the meeting, or be unwilling to aot, 
the Directors present shall ohoose one of their own 
number to aot as Chairman, and that^falling, the Members 
present and entitled to vote shall appoint some one of 
their own number to be Chairman. 

39. "he Chairman may, with the oonsent of the meeting^ 
adjourn any meeting from time to time and plaoe to 
plaoe, but no business shall be transaoted at any 
Adjourned Meet ing other than the business left unfinished 
at the meeting from whioh the adjournment took plaoe. 

40. At any General Meeting, unless a poll is demanded 
by at least three of the Members holding in the aggregate 
fifty Shares and present in person by by proxy and 
entitled to vote, a declaration by the Chairman that a 


resolution lias teen oarried and an entry tb that? effeot 
in the ComnanY's Books, shall toe sufficient evidence 
of the faot without proof of the number or proportion of 
vot 9 s recorded in favour of or against suoh resolution. 

41. If a poll is demanded toy three or more Members 
holding in the aggregate fifty Shares, and present in 
person or toy proxy, and entitled to vote, it shall toe 
taken in suoh manner and at suoh time and place as the 
Chairman direots, and the result of such poll, as deolared 
by the Chairman, shall be oonolusive, and shall toe 
deemed t o be the resolution of the Company in General 

43. Minutes shall be made in books provided for the 
purnose, of all resolutions and proceedings of General 
Meetings, and any suoh minutes if signed by any person 
purporting'to be the Chairman of the meeting to whioh 
they relate, or by any other person present thereat, 
and appointed by the Board of Directors to sign the 
same in his place, shall toe reoeivatoleas evidenoe of 
the faots therein 3ta‘od, without further proof} tout 
if suoh minutes were signed otherwise t’nan toy the 
Chairman of the meeting to whioh they relate, they shall 
be read to the next succeeding General Meeting, and on 
being found or made oorrect shall be signed by the 
Chairman thereof. 


43.- Every Member shall have one vote for every A 
Share held by him, and one vote for every two B Shares 
held by him. In case of an equality of votes, the 
Chairman shall, in addition to the votes to whioh he 
otherwise maybe entitled, have a casting vote. 

44. If two or more persons are jointly entitled to 
a Share or Shares, the Member whose name stands first 
in the Register of Members, as one of the holders of 
such Share or Shares, and no -father, shall be entitled 
to vote in respect of the same. 

45. If any Member is an infant, minor, married 
woman, not having her Shares registered in her own 
name under "Tire Mhrried Woman's property Aot, 1870 , 
lunatio, or person of unsound mind, he or she may 
attend General Meetings and vote by his or her guardian, 
tutor, husband, oommittee, or legal our at or, or by any 
one of them, if more than one, suoh person having at \ 
least twenty-four hours before the time of holding 
suoh meeting, furnished to the Directors suoh evidenoe 
as they shall require of his title to represent such 
Member, unless the Directors shall have previously toy 
resolution admitted his right to vote at suoh meeting 
in respeot thereof, and Members attending General Meetings 
by suoh representatives shall be deemed personally 

46. -No ..ember shall be entitled to vote on any 

at any -eneral Meeting or upon a poll, or he reokoned ina 
quorum, rT whil at any Call or other sum shall he due and 
payable to the Company in res osot of any of the Shares 
of suoh Member, and no Member shall be entitled to vote 
in respeot of any 3hare that he has acquired by transfer, 
unless he has been registered as the owner of suoh Share 
in respeot of which he claims to vote fl «**!!£?* “2? 

' month previously to the time of holding the meeting at 
whioh he proposes to vote. 

47. Voss may be given either personally or *7 

Wo person shall be appointed a proxy who is not a Member 
of ths Company and qualified to vote. 

' 48. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be 
deposited at the pegistered Office of the Company not less 
than twenty-four hours before the time for holding the 
meeting at which the person named in suoh instrument 
proposes to vote. 

49. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the 
following form with suoh variations as oiroumstanoes may 
re quire. 


in the County of being a Member of the EDISON 

(belig likewise, a Member of the Company) as my proxy 
to vote for me and on my behalf as holaer of Shares 
at the (Ordinary or Extraordinary as tne oase may be; 
General Meeting of the Company, to be held on tne 
day of M and at any adjournment thereof. 

As witne33 my hand this 

BO. The qualification of a Director shall t>® the 
holding in his won right of not less than 500 A or B 
Shares of the Company. 

Bl. The number of Directors shall not be less than 
five nor more than s=>venj but this oiause shall be 
oonstrued as being only dlreotory, and the oontinning 
Directors may act, notwithstanding any number of vaoanoies. 

52. The fi-rst Direotors shall be - 



Sir JOHN LUBBOCIC, Bart, M.P., and 

and they shall hold office until the First ordinary Meeting 
in the year 1883, until which time the Dirootors for the 
tim 9 being may add any qualified Members to their number, 
so that there be not more than seven Directors in all at 
any time. The said Edward Pleydell Bourverie shall be the 
first Chairman of the Board. 

53 . The annual remuneration of the Chairman shall be 
£600, and the annual remuneration of the other Direotors 
shall be the sum neoessary to provide £300 for eaoh. Suoh 
remuneration shall be divided among the Direotors (other 
than the Chairman) as regards one moiety in proportion to 
their attendance, and as regards the other moiety in equal 
amounts, unless the Board shall otherwise determine. Should 
the amount aotually paid as dividend out of the profits of 
any Jraar exoeed £10 per cent, to the "A" Shareholders and 
£5 per oent. to the "B" Shareholders, a sum equal to 10 
per~csnt. of the exoess shall be paid by way of further 
remuneration to the Bo rd of that year, to be divided 
between them as they may think fitj but in no oase shall 
the entire remuneration of the Board (including the 
Chairman) for any one year exoeed £5,000. 

54. If any Director shall be called upon to go or 
reside abroad on the Company's business, or otherwise to 
perform extra services, the Board may arrange with suoh 
Director for suoh speoial remuneration for such servioes, 
either by way of salary, commission, or the payment of a 
stated sum of money, as they shall think fit. 


55. The business of the Company shall be managed by 
the Direotors, who may exercise all suoh powers Of the 
Company as are not by any Aot of Parliament , or by these \ 
Artioles, required to be exeroised by the Corsany in 
General Meeting, subjoot nevertheless to any regulations 
of these Articles, to the provisions of any Aot of Pari lament, 
and to suoh regulations not "being inconsistent with the 
aforesaid regulations or provisions, as may he proscribed 
by the Company in General Meeting; but no regulation 
made by the Company in General Meeting shall invalidate 
any prior aot of the Direotors which would have been 
valid if suoh regulation had not been made, and the 
generality of the powers hereby oonferred upon the 
Direotors shall not be limited by any subsequent clause 
or proviso conferring any express power. 



66. In furtherance, and not in limitation of, and without 
prejudice to the general powers oonferred or implied in the 
last preoeding Article, and of the other powers oonferred 
"by these presents, the Direotors shall be entrusted with, and 
may perform the fallowing powers and duties:- 

(a) They may take suoh steps as they think fit to oarry 
into effect the said Agreement mentioned in the Memoran¬ 
dum of Association, and they may Pay the oosts, charges, 
and expenses, preliminary and incidental to the 
formation, establishment, and registration of the 

(b) They may also appoint, and at their discretion remove 
or suspend suoh Managers, Secretarios, Officers, Clerks, 
Agents, and Servants for permanent, temporary, or 
speoial servioes, us they may from time to time think 
fit, and may determine their duties, and fix their 
salaries or emoluments, and may requiresoourity in 

3U0h instances, and to suoh amount as they think fit. 

(o) They may aot on behalf of the Company in all matters 
relating to bankrupts or insolvents. 

(d) They may appoint any person or persons to accept and 
held in trust for the Company any property belonging to 
the Company, or in whioh it is interosted, and may 
execute and do all such deeds and things as may be 
requisite to vest the same in suoh person or parsons. 

(e) They may also compound abandon or refer to arbitration 
any olaims or demands by or against the Company, and 
observe and perform theaward. 

(f) They may also males and give receipts, releases, and 
other discharges for moneys payable to the Company, 
and for the olaims and demands of the Company. 

(g) They may invest any of the funds of the Company 
(not immediately required for the purposes thereof) 
upon suoh security bther than the Shares of the 
Company, and in suoh manner as they may think fit, 
and they may from time to time vary or realize 3uo h 
investment s. 

(h) They may from time to time make, vary, and repeal- 
bye-lavs for the regulation of the business of the 
Company, it a Officers and Servants, or the Members of 
the*Company, or any seofcion thereof. 

(i) They may also enter into all suoh negotiations and 
oontraots and resoind and vary all suoh oontraots 

and execute and do all suoh acts and deeds and things, 
in the najne and on behalf of the Company, as they may 
consider expedient for, or in relation to, any of 
the measures aforesaid or otherwise for the purposes 
of the Company. 



Cl - ) '"hay may establish Branch Offices, Agencies, or 

Local Boards in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, and 
may make such regulations for their management as 
they may from time to time think proper, and for 
that purpose may aipoint- such Local Directors, 

Managers, Ascnts, nffioers, Clerks and Servants, with 
such remuneration and at such salaries as they may 
oonsider advisable, and may pay the expenses 
occasioned thereby out of the funds of the Company, 
and may from time to time discontinue all or any of 
such Branch Offices, agencies, or Local Boards, shd 
may remove or suspend all or any of the Local 
Directors, Managers, Agents, Officers, Clerks, or 
Servants for such reasons as they may think proper 
an d advisable, and without assigning any oause. N - 


( 1 ) 


m- 0 y may from time to time raise or borrow, for 
the :urpo 3 es of the Company, suoh sums of money as 
theymay think proper. All money borrowed for the 
■ourposes of the Company may be raised by a mortgage 
of the whole or -any part of the Company s property, 
including Letters Patent and the Company a Capital, 
whether called up or not, or other property, or 
by Debentures, or upon suoh other security and upon 
suoh terms as the Directors may think fit. 

They may by such signature or signatures of any 
one or more of their number as may be fixed from 
time to time by resolution of the Board, 'with he 
ooun cr signature of the Secretary of the Company, 
Iraw. * make, aJid endorse Bills of Exohaxic© 
and Promissory Notes on behalf and for the purposes 
of the Company, and also execute under the seal of 
the Company, and issue Debenture Bonusorotner 
obligations. Every instrument, to whioh the seal n 
of the Company shall be affked shall be signea by 
two Direotors,. and be countersigned by the Secretary 
or other Officer appointed by the Board. 

d’hev may purohase for Shares or suoh other 
consideration as they may think fit, and upon any 
terms the business, goodwill and property, or 
either of them, or any part thereof respectively, of 
any Company (wh&'fcher in liquidation ov not or 
other person or persons whatsoever carrying on any ^ 
business comprised in the objects of the Company, 
and under the authority of an Extraordinary 
resolution may sell to any Company oarrying on or 
formed for carrying on the like businesses, or any 
or either of them, for Shares therein to be 
distributed among the Members, or otherwise the 
business, estate, and effeots of the Company, and 
shall have power to do all auoh things us may ft© x 
neoessary for carrying any such sale or transaction 
as aforesaid into effeot, and in oase a::.y contract 
entered into by the Direotors for suoh purposes as 
aforesaid involves the dissolution of the Company, 
the Company shall thereupon bo dissolved. 

57. "’he Company shall have power t o use off ioial Common 
Deals under "The Companies Seals Act, 1864 , in + f 35 ^ 

countries as the Direotors shall detenr, ine, and the Direotors 
shall have power to appoint any Agents, or Agent, Committees; 



or Committee abroad to be duly authorised acents of the 
Company for the purpose of affixing and using suoh Foreign 
Ccmmon ^eals, and they may impose 3uoh ire strict ions on the 
use thereof as they shall think fit. 

disqualification ok directors. 

58. The Office of a Direotor shall be vacated:- 

(l) If he oeases to hold the due qii al ifio at ion or 
if his removal be deoided upon by a resolution of an ^ 
Extraordinary General Meeting. 

(2) if he beoomes of unsound mind or bankrupt, or 
suspends payment, or files a petition for the liquidation 
of his affairs, or compounds with his creditors, or is 
oonvioted of a misdemeanor or felony. 

(3) If he shall send in his resignation in writing 
to the Directors, and thesame shall be accepted by 
the Board, or be not withdrawn for the space of 
fourteen days. 

69. All aots done at any meeting of the Kireotors:or 
of a Committee of Direotors, or by.any person acting as 
a Direotor, shall bovalid, notwithstanding that it be 
afterwards discovered that there was some disqualification 
or defect in the appointment of any Direotors, or of any 
person or persons aot ing as aforesaid, or that they or 
any of them were disqualified. 


60. At the Ordinary Meeting to be held in the year 
1883 and at the Ordinary Meeting in every subsequent year, 
one third of the Direotors for the time being or the 
nearest number to one third shall retire fnom offioe. 

61. The one third or other nearest number of sudh 
Direotond as aforesaid to retire in any year shall 
always be those who have been longest in office, and in 
case of equality in that respeot they shall, unless the 
Direotors ‘agree among themselves, be determined by lot. 
A retiring Direotor maybe re-elected. 

63. The Company may, by a resolution of an Extra¬ 
ordinary (jensral Meeting, remove any Direotoh before the 
expiration of his term of office, and may by an ordinary 
resolution appoint another person in his stead. The 
person so appointed shall hold office only for so long 
as the Direotor removed would, exoept for suoh resolution, 
have held the same. 

63. The Company at the General Meeting, at which any 
suoh Direotors as aforesaid retire in manner aforesaid, 
shall fill up the vacated offioes by electing a like 


number of persons, unless it be necessary to eleot 
more or fewer, inorder to give effeot to a resolution 
for altering the number of Directors. 

64. If at any meeting at which an eleotion of 
Direotors ought to take place as aforesaid, the places 
of the retiring Direotors are not filled up, the 
meeting shall stand adjourned till the same day in 
the next week, at the same time and place, and if 
at any suoh Adjourned Meeting,the plaoes of suoh 
retiring Directors are not filled up, suoh retiring 
Direotors or suoh cf them as have not had their 
places filled up, shall oontinue in office until the 
Ordinary Meeting in the next year, and 30 on from 
time to time until their plaoes are filled up, unless 
it shall be determined at suoh meeting to reduce the 
number of Direotors. 

65. The Company may from time to time in General 
Meeting increase or reduce the number of Direotors. 

66. Any casual vaoanoy ooourring in the Board of 
Direotors may be filled up by the Direotors, but any 
person so ohosen shall retain hie office so long 
only as the vaoating Direotor would have retained the 
same, if no vaoanoy had ooourred. 


67. The Direotors may meet together for the dispatch 
of business, adjournand otherwise regulate their 
meetings as they think fit, and determine the quorum 
neaessary for tbe transaction of business both by 
Board and Committees, until otherwise fixed the 
quorum for a Board Meeting shall be three Direotors. 

68. Questions arising at any Meeting of the Direotors 
shall be decided by a majority of votes. In oase of 
an equality of votes the Chairman of suoh meeting. 
shall have a seoond or casting vote. 

69. A Direotor may at any time summon a Meeting of 
the Direotors. 

70. The Direotors may eleot a Chairman of their 
Meetings and determine the period for whioh he is t o 
hold office, but if no Chairman be elected, or if 
at any Meeting the Chairman be not present at the 
time appointed for holding the same, the Direotors 
present shall ohoose some one of their number to be 
Chairman of suoh Meeting. 


71. m iia Direotors may delegate any of their powers to 
Committees, oonsisting of such members of their body as they 
think fit, Any Committee so formed shall, in the exeroise 
of the powers so delegated, oonform to any regulations 
that may be imposed on it by the Directors. 

7 2. A Committee may el eot a Chairman of their Meetings. 

If no suoh Chairman be eleoted, or if he is not present at 
the time anointed for holding thesame, the Members present 
shall ohoose oneof their number present t o be Chairman ox 
suoh meeting. 

73. A Committee may, subj eot to any regulation made by the 
Board, meet and adjourn as they may think proper. Questions 
at any meeting shall be determined by a majority of votes 
of the Members present,, ad in case of* an eq.ual division or 
votes, the Chairman shall have a casting vote. 

74. The Direotors shall keep an attendance book, in wnioh 
eaoh Direotor present at any meeting of Direotors or 
Committee of Direotore shall sign his name. 

75. The Directors shall oause minutesto be made in books 
provided for the purpose 

(l) of all appointments of Officers the Direotors, 
and of their salary and remuneration. 

(3) Of all orders made by the Direotors, or by Committees 
of ~D i rs ot o rs, and 

(z) Of all resolutions and proceeding s of General Meetings, 
and of Meetings of the Directors and Committees of 
Direot ors. 

And a-y suoh minute as aforesaid, if signed by any person 
•nurporting to be the Chairman of such meeting, or by 
Chairman of the next suooeeding meeting, shall be receivable 
in evidence without any further proof. 

76. The Common seal of the Company shall be kept by the 
oscretary at the Company's uegistered Office, and shall be 
under the eole control of the Dirootors, and shall be 
employed only in pureuanoe of a resolution of the Board of 


77. No Dividend shall be payable exoept out of the balance 
standing to the oredit of profit and lose at the end of 
the vear in respect of which it is deola^od, or in excess , 
of the amount fro# time to time rooommended by the Board 
of Direotors. 

78. "he amount from time to time .rooommended by the Board 
of Direotors for payment of Dividends shall be applied. 
Firstly, in payment of a preferential cumulative Dividend 



at the rats of £6 per oent. per annum 
the time being paid up or oredited as 
shares, and Seoondly, in payment of. a 
on the amounts paid up or credited as 
A and B shares. 

on the amount for 
Paid up on the A 
Dividend pari passu 
Paid up upon the 

79. The Dirooters may of their owh authority, but only 
out of what they deem to be the profits arising from the 
business of the Company, from time to time pay to the 
r/rembers a sum on aooount of Dividend at suohrate as they 
shall think fit. 

80. The Directors shall in priority to any Dividend set 
aside out of the profits of the Company suoh sums as they 
think proper for bad debts or losses, or for the 
depreciation, repairing or maintaining of any of the 
property of the Company, or meeting any other contingencies 
or purposes Of the Company, and may apply the same 
accordingly, andin the meantime may invest any sums so 
set aside in or on suoh securities as they may select - , 
other than the Shares of the Company. 

81. The Directors may deduct from the Dividends payable 
to any Member all suoh sums of money as may be due from 
him to the Company on aooount of Calls or otherwise. 

82. Nctioe of any Dividends that may have been declared 
or be payable shall be given to eaoh Member in manner 
hereinafter mentioned, and no Dividend shall bear interest 
as agin3t the Coiupany. 


83. The Directors shall cause true aooounts t o be kept 
of the Company's business and transactions and of all 
3urns of money received and expended by the Company and the \ 
matters in respect of whioh suoh reoeipt and expenditure 
take plaoe, and of the credits, assets, and liabilities 
of the Company. In ascertaining the balance of the Profit 
and Loss Account for the purposes of the said Xgroement, 
or of any division of profits, the said aooount shall be 
debited wit h all expenses and outgoings ohargeable in 
respect of the period over whioh suoh aooount extends, 
whether they have bee;: actually paid or exist only as 
liabilities of the Company, as well as with a proper 
amount in respeot of depredation, and shall be credited \, 
with all earnings and inoorce aoorued within the said period. 

84. A statement of the Company's financial position 
shall be laid before every Ordinary general Meeting to be 
held after the year 1883, made up to a date not more than 
three months before suoh meeting. 



86. Once in every year, namely, preparatory to eaoh 
ordinary General Meeting, the aooouni s of the Company 
shall he examined, and thooorreotnese of the Financial 
Statement ascertained hy one or more Auditor or Auditors, 

86. "he first Auditor or Auditors shall he appointed hy 
the Directors, and subsequent Auditors shall he from time 
to time annually appointed hy the Company in General 

87. "he Auditors need not, hut may he Members ofthe 
Company; and no Director or other Officer of the Company 
shall he eligible during his continuance in office. 

88. The remuneration of the Auditors shall he fixed hy 
the Directors. 

90. If any oasual vaoanoy oocurs in the office of Auditor, 
the Directors shall forthwith fill up the same. 

91. In case at any time thore shall he a total failure 
of Auditors appointedin manner aforesaid, and no 
extraordinary General Meeting shall have been called 
during one week for the purpose of supplying suoh failure, 
the Board of Trade may on the application of not less than 
five members of the Company appoint any Auditor for 
the current year, and fix the remuneration to he paid 
to him hy the Company for his servioes. 

93. vvory Auditor shall he supplied \iith a copy of 
the Financial statement, and it shall he his duty to 
examine the same with the accounts and vouchers 
rel at ing the i-et o. 

95. Fvery Auditor shall have a list delivered to him 
of all book3 kept hy the Company, and shall at all ' \ 

reasonable times have access tothe hooks and aooount s of '• 
the Company. 

94. The Auditors shall report to the Members upon the 
Financial Statement, and they may give suoh information 
to the Members an the state of the Company's affairsas 
they.may think fit. 


96. A notica may be seryed by the Company upon any Member, 
either personally or by sending ^ t3l ? ou S l1 . a 5 °fL =f«red ^ 
prepaid letter, addressed to auoh Member at his -ogistered 
place of abode. 

06 . All notices directed to be given to the Members shall, 
with re snoot to any Share to which persons are 
entitled, be givento whichever of suoh persons is named 
in the Register of Members, and notice so given 
Sail be sufficient notice to all the holders of suoh Shared 

97. Any notice if served by post shall be deemed to have 
been served on the 'day following that on which ^e letter 
oon+aininv the same was boated, and in proving suoh service . 
it shall be sufficient to prove that the letter oontaining 
the notice was properly addressed and put in the Post Office. 

98. Any Member residing out of the United lUngdom may name x 
name an address within the United Kingdom at which all 
notioes shall be served upon him, and all not ices served 

at 3U0h address shall be deemed to bo_ well s 9r v®^* If he 
shall not have mused suoh an. address ne snail not oe 
entitled to any notices. 

99 "he Company ratifies and adopt s the Agreement mentioned 

in-the Memorandum of Assoc iation, and ths Eirectors shall 
forthwith do all acts neoeesary for carrying the sa.ue in«o N 
full effect subject to any modifications which may be 
agreed upon*between the Board and the said THOMAS A-jVA 

interpretation CLAUSE. 

100 In the interpretation of these Articles the following 
woSds and^expressions shall have the following meanings, 
unless excluded by the subject or oontext:- ^ 

"Month" shall mean calendar month. 

Words importing the singular number only shall 
include the plural. 

Words importing the plural numbor only shall include 
the singular. 

Words importing the masouline gender shall include 

word "BankrUptoy" shall inolude 1 iauidat ion by 
arrangement under "The Bankruptoy Act, 1869 . 


names, addresses and descriptions of subscribers 

Edward ’’leydell Bouvarie 

44 Villa ^reeflent, Westminster 

John Lubbock, High Elm, Down, Kent 

Howard Gilliat 

4 c rosby Square, London, E. c. 


William Gair Eatham, 2 Fenchurch Corner 

Wm.Fowler, 38 Groavenor Square,London, M.P. 

Frrader'.ok Joseph Bramwell, F.R.S. 

37 Great George st. , S.W. 


Edward Hibberd Jphnson 
57 Holborn Viaduct 

Electrical Engineer 

Dated the 15 day of March 1883 

Richard L.Harrison 


Clerk to Messrs. waterhouee & Winterbotham 
1 New Court 
Lincolns Inn W.C, 

S0l rs . 



AN AGBEEMSNT dated the 18th day of February 188s™™ 
and made between THOMAS ALVA EDISON of Menlo Parle , New 
Jersey, U.S.A. of the first part DBEXEL MOBGAN AND COMPANY 
of New York, U.S.A. of the second part EGISTO PAOLO FaBBBI 
of New York aforesaid and GBOSVENOR POBTEB LOWBEY also 
of New York aforesaid of the third part and THE BIGHT 
HONOBABLE EDWARD PLEYDELL BOUVEBIE and the other persons whose 
names appear at the foot hereof opposite the number of shares 
to be subscribed for bjr them in the company hereinafter >• 

mentioned of the fourth part. • 

WHEREAS the said Thomas Alva Edison is the owner of the 
Patents specified in the Schedule hereto subject to oertain 
rights therein of the parties hereto of the second and third 
the parties hereto as follows that is to say:- 

1. The parties hereto of the fourth part will within two 
months after the execution of this Agreement by the Parties 
hereto of the first three parts form a company to be regis¬ 
tered under the companies Aots 186S to 1880 with liability 
limited by shares and to be called The Edison Eleotrio Light 
company Limited for the purpose (inter alia) of purchasing 
and acquiring the said Patents and adopting this Agreement 
and the parties hereto of the fourth part will subscribe 
for the number of A shares in the said Company set opposite 
their names respectively and will not part with such shares 
or any of them during the first year after the formation of 
the company. The company shall commence its business immediate¬ 
ly after its incorporation. 

3. Drexel Morgan & Co. wil subsoribe for 5,000 A shares N 
in the said Company and will not part with such shares or any 
of them during the first year after the formation of the 

3. The Capital of the Company shall be £1,000,000 divided 
into 50,000 A Shares of £10 each and 50,000 B Shares of £10 
each with power to inorease the capital beyond £1,000,000 

so that all such increased Capital be divided into an equal 
amount of A Shares and B glares. N 

4. The yearly profits of the company available for Dividend 
shall be applied: - 

Firstly- In payment of a preferential cumulative Dividend 
of £5 per cent, per annum on the amount for the time i 
being paid up or credited ae paid up on the A Shares, 
whether part of the original or of any increase of 
C&pit al. 

Secondly- In payment of a Dividend pari passu on the \ 
amounts'paid up or credited as paid up on the A and 
B shares of whatever issue. 


In the event of the winding up of the c °mpany tne repayment 
of the amount paid up or credited as paid up on the A shares 
of whatever issue with any arrears of the oumulative Divideend 
of £5 par oent. thereon shall have priority, -'.ny ^urther 
surplus of assets shall he distributed over the A ®d B 
shares of whatever issue in proportion to the amount Paid up 
or credited as paid up thereon i.e. suoh surplus shall he 
distributed as to. one-half among the A shares and as t o 
*•''0 other half among the B shares. 

The voting power shall he as follows: 
share and 1 vote for every 3 B shares. 

. 1 vote for each A 

The Qualification for a Direotor unless otherwise a ^t® r ®^ 
hy special resolution shall be the holding of 500 A or B shares 

oO 000 A shares shall he first issued and actually suhsorlh- 
ed^for within 31 days after the formation of the company and n 
It share shall he paid up thereon within 14 days after the 

issue thereof. 

The said Thomas Alva Edison with the concurrence of the / 
Parties hereto of the second and tnird parts will sell and 
Itsign to the company (l) the several Patents specified in yne 
Schedule hereto hiin| the whole of the *-tents talcenout ^ 
hv him or on his behalf in relation to the applAction / 
electricity or magnetism as a lighting and motive 

to\hem or 9 any i of 1 them S^in^ett'/ 
uled l^apahle of bein£ used for the exhibition of the § 
said Patents or the production of electric light and t 
lease of No.57, Holborn Viaduct. 

•, m*. Company shall he entitled without further payment than 

is hlreinfner mentioned to all extensions of the said 
Patent rights and to all- Improvements wh ^h may oe made by 
. the said Thomas Alva Edison upon or connected with the 
said inventions so far as the said extensions ana p 
m9nts vav "elate to the application of eleourioity or 

.iLSKisa srs&s 

Seoii?t of & suoh 1 notioe^eleot to^uire the Improvement 

referred to. in suoh rofcio. the amount to he paid by t he # 

?^d% U ^iSi%n l ^hS^«Jl%^ub if the Comply ; 

ss KsSas«si . 4 rfrSeS 

clause to such improvement shall ooase. 




10. -’he consideration to be Paid by ths Company for the 
said Patents and plant shall he (First) a sum not exoeeding 
£30,000 cash to hs paid to the parties heret J o of the seoond 
part in respeot of the aotual expenditure in England on 
the part of the parties hereto of the first thrae t parts 
with reference to the said patents plant business and 
lease up to this time. (Secondly) The allotment to the said 
T. A. Edison of one fully paid-up B s'iare for every £10 
of capital aotually paid up or credited as paid up in 

respect of A shares of what ever/ issue. Every suoh allotment 

to the said T. A. .Edison of B shares of whatever issue shall 

he made within one oalendar month after every suoh sum of 

£10 shall he actually paid up or oreoited as paid up. All 
n9C9ssary contracts shall he from time to time exeouted by 
the Company in order to enable the said X A. Edison to 
register the same prior to th9 issue of theshares to he 
allotted to him as aforesaid. 

11. The said T. A. Edison will not -without the consent of 
the Company before the year 1890 part -with one fifth part 
of the B shares -which may he from time to time allotted 
to him and the Company may refuse to register any transfer 
of suoh shares exeouted contrary to this olause. 

13, The Company shall pay to tho parties hereto of the 
seoond part on the execution and delivery to it of the 
necessary assignment or assignments of the said Patents 
the sum of £20,000. 

13. The csrtifioates of ono half of tho 3 shares for the 
time being allotted to the said Thomas Alva Edison or his 
nominees shall be retained by the Company and no dividends 
shall be aotually paid in respect of suoh one-hul f of the 
B shares until the dividends which would otherwise have 
been payable in respect thereof shall have made up the 
said sum of £20,000 so paid as aforesaid interest being 
oomputod'on the account at the rate of £5 nor cent, per 
annum with yearly rests. 

14. In no event shall any claim be made against any of 
the parties hereto of the first three parts'for the return 
of any part of the said sum of £20,000 or any interest 
thereon but the 3aid sum v/hen repaid or satisfied by the 
means aforesaid shall not be deemed income of the Company. 

16. The Company will immediately after the assignment or 
assignments of thesaid Patents grant to the said Thomas Alva 
Edison or his nominees free and exolusive licences to use 
all or any of thesaid Patents or any improvements thereof 
for the purpose of looomotion only on railways or tramways 
or on oommon roads and for all other purposes except the 
application of elsctrioity or magnetism as a lighting or 
heating agent or as a motive agent otherwise than for the 
purpose of 3U0h looomotion as above expressly specified. 

And every 3ich licence Shall contain such negative and 
other oovenante by the Company as may be necessary or 
nroper for protecting the said T.A. Edison or his nominees 
in the enjoyment of suoh free and exolusive licences. 

16. The said "homas Alva Edison will from time to time 
w ith all reasonable despatch supply t o the Company at the 
•DriBe 3 oharged by him to his most favoured oustomor (suoh 
prloes not to oxfieed 50 oe'nt s saoh for isolated business 
and 40 oent s each where the lamps are to be used in 
connection with oentral lighting stations) all suoh eleotric 
lamps as shall be required by the Company for the purpose 
of their operations. The said • A« Edison will until ^ 

January 1st 1883 with all reasonable dispatoh regard being 
had to the oaPacity of his works and hi3 other engagements 
supply to the* Company at the prioBs oharged by him to 
his most favoured customers all such dynamos and other 
plant as shall be required by the Company. All such lamps 
dynamos and plant to be delivered to the order of the 
Companyat the plaoe of manufacture and to be paid for in 
oash and if so required to be paoked and shipped by the said ^ 
m .4. wdison as the agent and at the cost of the Company. 

But the Com nan y shall not be bound to purowase from the 
said "hom:.3~Alva Edison except that, the Company shall 
within one month after its incorporation puroha3e of the 
said Thomas A. Edison elootrio lamps dynamos and other plant 
to the extent of £30,000 at the prioes charged to hi3 most j 
favoured oustomer. 

17. If the Company shall no be incorporated within 
the said period of two calendar months or if the first 
issue of A shares shall not be actually subscribed for 
within the 3aid period of 21 days or if £5 per share.; 
shall not be paid up thereon within 14 days after the i33i 
thereof then and in any of suoh oases this Agreement 
and everything herein contained shall be void. 

18. The said parties hereto shall at the expense of the 
Company enter into and exeoute and procure the exeoution 
by all other proper parties of all such further deeds and 
agreements as may be neoessary to give full effect to the 
provisions of those presents and in the event of any 
difference as to what shall be contained in suoh further 
deeds and agreemtns or in reference to the oarrying into 
offeot of any clause of these presents the s me shall be 
referred to the decision of two or move responsible X 

persons to be appointed in the usual way one by each of 
the parties to the difference or their umpire. 

19. This Agreement may be modified from time to time 
after the formation of the Company with the oonsont of 
the said Thomas Alva Edison and of Drexel Morgaif & Co. 
and of the Company. 

<30. All B shares of whatever issue shall be delivered 
to Drexel Morgan & Co. exoept that the one-fifbh Part 
thereof which is to re ain untransferred under clause 11 
may after i 3 Bue be retained by the Company until the 
year 1890. 

IN ’.VITNESS whereof the said parties to these presents 
have hereunto 3et their hands the day and year first 
above written. 






























00 * • 33, 1878 
Nov. 7 » 

Tjeo. 38 " 

June 17,1379 
Nov. 10 " 

J)9 0. 15 n 

Jan. 3 1880 

FeD.10 " 

„9l3.. 11 " ’ 

April 5 " 

Sept. 16 " 

Sept. 34 " 

Sept.35 " 

q9 pt. 30 » 

Oot 37 " 

F-Vb. 8, 1881 
Feb. 9 V 

35 " 

pet). 34 ' " 

Maroh 9 " 

Mar. 31, " 

April 35 " 

April 36 " 

May 3 " 

May 4' " 

J une 7 " 

June 8 " 

June 8 " 

July 6 " 

In whoee Name taken out . 

T. A. Edison 
E. 6. Brewer 
T.A. Edison 

E. G. Brewer 
P. Jensen 

E. G. Brewer 
P. Jensen 
E. G. Brewer 
P. Jensen 
E. fr. Brewer 

P. jensen 
E. G. Brewer 

P. Jensen 
E. G. Brewer 
P. Jensen 

i lolt* V) 


No* of Patent. 

30. 3331 

31. 34B3 

32. 3&04 

33. 3953 

34. 4034 

35. 4174 

36 4553 

37~ 4553 

38 4571 

39 4576 

Signatures of 'Parties of 
the Fourth Part. 

*nd others) 


July 33 1881 
Aug. 11 " 

Sept. 1 " 

Sept. 10 " 

Sept. 19 11 

Sept, 37 " 

Oot. 18 V 

Oct. 18 " 

Oot. 19 " 

Oot. 19 " 


In whose Name taken- out. 
E. G. Brewer 

P. Jensen 

E. G. Brewer 
P. jensen 

E. G. grower 



No. of Shares 




n. 2 S . j <:>V. ;Ji ; ci J,/ 

SM M E N T m £ 

6 6 0 4 
8 MAY 1883 
10 /- 5 /- 

A N AG 5N M E N T made the t hirty fir st day 
of M'aroh One thousand eight hundred and eighty two 
Jersey United States of America of the one part 
(hereinafter oalled the company of the other part N 
WHEREAS by an Agreemat dated the eighteenth day 
of February One thousand eight hundred and eighty 
two a.'d made between the said Thomas Alva Edison 
Of the first Part Drexel Morgan and Company of the 
ssoond part Egisto Paolo Fabbri and Grosvenor 
Porter Lowrey of the third part and the Right 
Honorable Edward Pleydell Bouverie and the othe^j 
persons whose names appsar at the foot thereof 
opposite the number of shares to be subscribed for . 
by them in the Company (then in course of formation) 
of the fourth part It was agreed that the caP^fc 1 
of the Company should be One Million Pounds 
divided into Fifty thousand A Shares of Ten pounds 
eaoh and Fifty thousand B Shares of Ten pounds each 
as therein ment ionedand that the said Thomas Alva 
Edisonwlth the concurrence of the said parties 
thereto of the second and third parts should sell 
to the Company the several Patents specified , 

in the Sohedule thereto being patents for the 
application of eleotrioity or magnetism as a 
lighting heating and motive agent -together with 
certain electrio lamps dynamos and other plant 'j 

therein mentioned and that the consideration for the said 
patents and plant should he (First) a sura not exceeding 
Thirty thousand pounds Cash and (Seoondly) A he allotment 
to the said -homas Alva Edison of one fully paid up B N 
share of the Company for e.very "'sn pounds of Capital 
actually Paid up or credited as paid up in respect of 
A shares of whatever issue AND ’AH E SEAS the said 
Company was incorporated on th9 fifteenth day of 
March one thousand eight hundred and eighty two NOW 
THESE BBESENTS WITNESS that it is hereby agreed as 

THE Company hereby adopts and oonfirras the said 
Agreement of the eighteenth day of February One 
thousand eight hundred and eighty two and agrees with 
the said Thomas Alva Edison to be bound thereby and to 
do and execute all suoh not s and deeds as by the 
said Agreement are contracted tobe done and executed 
by the Company. 

THE said Thomas Alva vdison heroby agrees with the 
Company to do and execute all suoh acts and deeds as 
' by the said Agreement are oontraoted - to be done and \ 
executed by the said Thomas Alva Edison. 

THE Company will as Hart- of the consideration for 
the said 3ale allot to the said Thomas Alva Edison 
or his nominees Fifty thousand B shares numbered 1 t*» 
50000 inclusive as fully paid up shares and will 
make suoh allotment at the times prescribed by t bs 
said Agreement 

IN WITNESS vhoroof the said Thomas Alva Edison hath 
hereunto set his hand and seal and the said Company 
have caused their Common seal to be affixed theday and 
year first above written 

1 jy the above named Thomas Alva ( 
Edison in the pre3onoe of 

Thomas Alva Edison 

Saul Insall 
Geo. Vi'. Knight 

3 3 A L 

Not ary 

State of titsw York ) 

City and County of New York ) 

On this thirty first day of 
Mar oh One thousand eight hundred 
and eighty two before me personally 
came Thomas Alva Edison to ms known 
and known to me to be the person 
described in and who signed the 

above agreement and acknowledged 
that he signed tho same for the 
purpose named. 

In Testimony Whereof I have hereunto set my hand 

and affixed my seal of office the day and year 

last above written. 

Walter B. Horn 

Notary Public 

. ?. Bouvsrie Chairman Edison Eleotrio Light 

Anson Direotor ditto 

. Molanhite georetary ditto 




16841 p.i'i.L. 16S89/1 

7 117 
19 MAY 1883 

of the 


n>wf /y/ss-y 

if The name of the Company is "THE SWAN UNITED ELECTRIC 

2 , The registered offloe of the Company will be situate ^ 
in England. 

3. The objects for which: the Company is established are:- 

(A) To adopt and carry out, subject to any toodifioation, 
the following contracts, viz:- 

(1) A contract dated the 16th day ««[»* nd 
made bet we -n Mr. J.C.Swan, on behalf of the Swan 
Electric Light Company, Limited, of the_one - J *^» 

•and Mr. T.ATWelton, for and on brhalf oa Com^a-y, 
of the other part: 

(3) A contract dated the 16th day of {Jay, 1863, am 

r jr,u“s* t « , ssis.s; ??sv,s~ | 

under the said two contracts: 

(3) A contract dated the 16th of ,, a L ^82, and 

. *>rr.s astfeK sr ss&ii* 

of the other part. 

( ?2.’«°r?.ttT« ILrrtr»«““?oSe r !» ! lS y i ^nor e 

• SS irvtfss&srsrsik*' 

of messages, or for electroplating or separating or . 
rth“i!S«»!« i» met a l 3 ,or f»» oar.yln^ out or , 
facilitating any mechanical operation, or xor o 
to any other purpose whatsoever, 

or nature of those hereinbefore mentioned, or of 
totally different kind or nature: 

(c) To contract for the lighting of any ^ ?? 


an§ to*purchase," manufacture, sell, let, or otherwise 



deal in lamps or other appliances in any direotly or 
indirectly connected with eleotrio or magnetio light's, 
or any parts thereof: 

(f) To manufacture, sell, let, supply, and deal in any oahlea, 
wires, instruments or telegraPhio or electrio materials or 

(£') To establish and .aintain centres from which electricity 
or oleotric force may he distributed in any ray or supplied"- 
or used to or for any purpose, and to contract for the 
performance of any servloo or the execution of any work 
whioh can be effected by alotricity or any engine, machine 
or appliance, moved or acted upon by eleotricity or electric 

(?) To establish and oarry on any system of transit in 
which electricity shall be one of the agencies of looomation,-- 
and for suoh purposes to construct roads or ways of :\ny hind: 

(G) To ffianuf a-d ure or acquire, sell, let, or deal in any 
engines, instruments or appliances for producing, storing 
distributing or otherwise dealing with electricity or adapted 
for the utilisation of electricity as a motive power or other- 
vise, or whioh can be used by the Company for any of its 

(H) To take out or acquire by original application, nurohase, 
license- or otherwise, any letters patent, patent rights 

or privileges relating to any invention calculated to he of 
servioe to the Company in carrying out any of the objects 
aforesaid, and to grant any lioonses at royalties, or 
oth9rv/i39, for the sale or exorcise of any invention of 
pat ent right of the Company: 

(l) To acquire any concessions, lioonso 3 , "ayleaves, ease¬ 
ments or rig'-r *-3 necessary for the carrying on of any business 
of the Company in any part of the world: s 

(j) To purchase or take over, or take on lease or otherwise, 
the whole or any part of any property or undertaking whioh 
oould, under the powers hereinbef >re contaimed, be owned or 
worked by the Company, and in connection with any suoh 
arrangement to undertake any liability or negageir.ent s of the 
vendors, transferors, or lessors, or to guarantee, in part 
or altogether, the principal or interest of any funded or 
other debt, or any dividend upon etook or shares: 

(K) To sell or lease the whole or any part of the Company s 
property, undertaking or business, or any interest therein, 
for cash or in consideration of any guarantee absolute or 
contingent in respeot of the principal or interest or divi¬ 
dend of or upon its capital of funded debt or any part 
thereof, or for the shares or obligations of or other inter¬ 
est in any Company having any objects in oommon with the 
Company, and either to hold any sUoh shares, obligations 
or other interests, or distribute the same in specie among 
the numbers. N 


(L) To incorporate the Members as a body, politio or corpor¬ 
ate, in accordance wit'& the laws of any State in whioh the 
company shall be carrying on or desirous of carrying 6n 
business, and to take all steps and to do all things 

necessary to give the Company, or any c 0D1 P an y subsidiary 
thereto, a legal domicile in any State, and otherwise 
to conform with the requirements of any concession or 
contraot obtained, entered into, or taken over: -■<, 

(M) To do all or any of the above, things in so far as their 
nature will allow, in any part of the world, and either 

alone or in conjunction with any State, association or 
person, and as principals or agents, and to agree for the 
carrying on of any part of the company s business by 
cont raot: 

(N) . To apply at the cost of the company for any Aot or A ota 
of Parliament to extend the company s powers, or to assist 
it to oarry out anything within its objects: 

(O) To do all such other things as are incidental or conducive 
to the attainment of the above objects. 

4. The liability of the Members is limited. 

5. The Capital of the Company is £1,000,000 divided into 300,000 
Shares of £6 each. 

WE, the several persona whose Names and Addresses are sub¬ 
scribed, are desirous of being formed into a company 
in pursuanoe of t is Memorandum of. Association, and we 
respectively agree to take the number of Shares in the 
capital of the Company set opposite our respective names. 

Number of 

Names, addresses, and Descriptions of Subscribers. Shares tahem 

by eaoh 

Charles Morrison 100 

63, c ol9m an St. .London 
No acoupations 

W. C.Quilter 100 

14 King's Arms Yard, 



H. H. Dob3on 100 

6. Tokenhouse Yard, London 

Elton Ellis 100 \ 

30,Gt. Winchester gt. London 

G.W. Batt • 100 

30,Gt. Winchester St., London 

Charles Waring 100 

10 Victoria Chambers, Westminster 

Contractor for Publio Works 

Cornelius gox, 100 

14, King's Arms Yard, London 
St ockbroker 

Dated thi3 19th day of w ay, 1883 

Witness to the above Signatures 
■ Frank crisp 


6. Old Jewry, pondoip. 

1S481 0 .N.L. 


7 17 8 

10/- 5/- 

aeticles oe association 

of the 

SWAN united electric light 
company, limited. 

"It is agreed as follows:- 

The regulations contained in Table "A" of the First 
"S<Sh9dule to '"The companies A°t, 1862, shall not apply to 
tiiis company, but the following shall be the regulations ox 
,the Company:- 

The oeal of the company shall be affixed to, and the 
3 any shall adopt and carry out, subjeot to any moflij. i- 
" - -■- — - -- --~ the contracts 

company - ... 

‘••oations whioh the...Direotors m a y approve, 

•mentioned in the Memorandum of Association. 


•>, Eygry "ember shall be entitled to a (jort if io ate, under 
the Common Seal of the company, specifying the Share or 
chares held by him, and the amount paid up thereon. If suoh 
Certificate be vrorn out or lost, it may bo renewed , on 
. Payment of one shilling, or such less sum .as t.xe Board may 
' prescribe, but the Board may require, re^sonabl'.e evidence 
of suoh destruotioh or loss, and an undertaking ty the 
person applying for suoh nev/ certificate to indemnify tine 
Company against loss by reason of suoh renewal* 

3 . If several persons are registered as joint holders of 
any share,any one of suoh persons may give effectual receipts 
for any dividend, bonus, or return of Capital Payable in 
respect of suoh Share. 

4. The Company shall not be bound by or recognise, eve 
though having not ioe thereof, any right in respect of a 
Share other than an absolute right thereto in the regist 
holders thereof for the time being, and the rights in oai 
of transmission hereinafter mentioned. 

CALLS ON shares. 

5. The Board of Direotors, in these Articles called "the 
Board", may from time to time make suoh galls as they de ??' 
fit upon the Members in respect of all monies unpaid on their 
Shares, provided that twenty one days notice at least be x 
given of each Call, and eaoh f/ rember shall be liable to Pay the 

amount of Calls so made to the persons and at the times ana 
places appointed by the Board. 

e o , 


LS0 f 

6 . A call 3hall be deemed to have been made-at the time 
when the resolution of the Board authorising such Call was 

7. If the call payable in respeot of any Share or any amount 
Payable on a Share under the terms of allotment be not paid 
before or on the day appointed for the payment thereof, the 
holder or allottee of 3uch Share shall be liable to pay interest 
for the same at any rate fixed by the Board not exceeding ten 
per oent. per a'num or if not rate be fixed at the rate of 

6 per oent. per annum from the day appointed for payment to the 
time, of actual payment. ’ 

8 . The Board may, if they think fit, receive from any Member 
willing to advanoe the same, all or any part of the monies 
due under any of the Shares held by him beyond the sums 
actually oailed for, either as a loan repayable or as a payment 
in ad ranee of Calls, but such advanoe, if repayable shall, 
until actually repaid, extinguish so far the lalbility upon 
the Shares in respeot of whioh it is received; and upon the 
monies so received, or so much thereof as from time to time 
exoeed3 the amount of the Calls then made upon the shares in 
respeot of which 3Uoh advance has been made, the -ompany may 
Pay suoh interest or fixed or other dividend as the M ember ^ 
Paying the same and the Board agree upon. 

transfer and transmission OF shabfs. 

9. The Transfer of any Share in the Company shall be by 
instrument in writing, in such formas the -poard may approve, 
signed by the transferor and transferee. There shall be 
paid to the Company in isspoot of the registration of any 
mransfor or Transmission, suoh fee, not exceeding five 
shillings, as tho Bourd deem fit. 

10 . mhe Instrument of Transfer shall be presented to the 
Company at their registered office in London, accompanied 
with the certificate of the shares,to be transferred, and 
such evidence as the Board may require to prove the title of 
the Transferor, and thereupon and upon payment of the proper 
fee, "the "’ransferee shall be registered a3 a M®mb 9r if be 

be approved by the Board. 

11. The Board may, without assigning any reason, decline 
to register any transfer ofShares to a person not approved 
by them for the purpose of suoh transfer, or made by any 
Member jointly or alone indebted or under any liability to 
the Company, whether for calls made but not due or otherwise. 

IS. The Transfer Books may be olosed during the fourteen 
days immediately preceding the Ordinary ^eneral Meting in 
eaoh year. 

13. n-he exeoutors or administrators of a deoeased Member, 
not being one of several joint holders, and in the case of 
the death of one, of two or more joint holders, the survivor 
or survivors shall be the only persons rooognised by the 
Company ashaving any title to his Share or bis interest 
in any 3ha^e, but nothing herein oontainod shall be taxen 

state of a deceased joint holder iron 
peot of any Share jointly held by hin 

to release the 
liability in re 

14. Any person beooming entitled to a Share in 
auence of the death or bankruptcy of any Men, ber, or 
consequence of the marriage of any female Member, m 
if approved by the Board, be registered as a Member 
such evidence of his title being produced as may be 
required by the Company, or may, instead of being r 
himself, exooute a transfer of suoh Share fro any pe 

on all Shares, and on the interest and dividends deolared 
or Payable ir. respect thereof, for all moneys due to and 
liabilities subsisting with the Company from or on the 
part of the registered holder or any of the registered 
holders thereof, either alone or jointly with any other 
person, inoluding Calls, the rosolut ions for wnioh ah&ll 
have oeen passed b„ the Board, although the times appointed 
for their payment may not, have arrived, and may enforoe 
3 uoh lien by sale or forfeiture of the Shares on whioh \ 
the sane may attaoh or any Part of them. Provided tnat 
suoh forfeiture shall not be made except in the oase or a 
debt or liability, the amount of w hi oh shall ^ve been. 
ascertained, and only so many Shares shall be so forfoi-od 
as the Auditors of the Company shall certify t o be the 
equivalent of suoh debt or liability at their then market 


IS. If any Member fail to pay any Call, or money 
payable under the term.3 of allotment of a Share, on the 
day appointed for payment thereof, the Board may at any 
time thereafter during suohtime as the same remains unpaid 
serve a notice on him requiring him to pay the same, 
together with interest and any expenses tnat may have 
accrued by reason of suoh non-payment. 

The notice shall name a further day on or befor 
suoh Call .or other money and all interest and 
S3 that may have aoorued by reason of suoh non- 
,t are to be paid. It shall also name the plaoe 
payment is t o be made (the place 30 named being 
■ the pegistered Office of the Company or some oth 
at which Calls of the Company a re usually made 
e) ,.,nd shall state that, in the event of non- 
it at or before the time and at the place appoints 
tare in respeot of which suoh payment is due will 
ible t 0 be forfeited. 

18. If the requisitions of any suoh notioe a3 afore 
are not complied with, any Share in respeot of which eu< 
notice has been given may afrany time thereafter, before 
payment of all money due thereon, with interest and 

expenses, hastoeen made, bo forfeited, by a resolutions of 
the Board to ^hat effoot. 

19. Any Share forfeited shall be deemed to be the 
-oronerty of the Company, and maybe held, extinguished, 
re-allotted, or disposed of in such manner a3 the Board 
thin!: fit. Any forfeiture may be annulled by resolution 
of the Board. 

30. Any Member vfhose Shares hava been forfeited 
shall, notwithstanding;, be liable to pay to the Company 
all Calls or other money owing upon such Shares at the 
time of the forfeiture. 

21. In the oa3e of the sale or i'9-allotment of a 
forfeited Share or the sale of any Share to enforce a 
lien of the Company, a certificate in writing under the 
Seal of the Cor: r,any that the Sh .r9 has been duly xorfelted 
or sold in accordance with the regulations of the '■ 

Company, shall be sufficient evidence of the, facts therein 
stated as against all persons entitl d to such. Share, 
and suoh declaration and the roceipt of the Company for 
the trice of suoh Share shall constitute a good title 
to the same, and a certificate of proprietorship snail 
be delivered to the ’’urohaser or Allottee, and ne snail 
b9 registered in respect thereof, and thereupon he shall 
b9 deemed the holder of the Sh'.re, discharged from all 
Calls or other money due prior to suoh purohase or 
allotment, and he shall not be bound to see to the 
apnl ioatlon of the purchase-money, nor shall his title 
to the Share be a ffooted by any irregularity in the 
rrooee&ings in reference to suoh 3ale or allotment. 


22, T'he Company may issue Share Warrants in respeot 
of’ "oaid-up Shares, but no suoh share Warrants 3h a ll entitle 
the"holder to any rights of voting except suoh, if any, 
as nreviously a^taohed to the shares. SubjJeot to ( the 
provisions of those Articles and of the Companies 
Aot 1867 b: the bearer of a Share Warrant shall be deemed 
to be a Member of the Company to the full extent, but 
he shall not exoroise his right, if any, to attend 
or vote at any General Moating, or to sign a reguiaf ion 
Tor or join in oonvening a Meeting, under the provisions 
hereinafter contained, unless he shall have, two clear 
days nreviously, deposited the Warrant at the Registered 
Office of the Company or other place appointed for the 
purpose by the Board. 

25. 5he stamp duty on every Share 

other expenses of or incident t o it s 
borne by the person applying for it. 

Warrant, and all 
issue, shall be 


24. In case of the loss of any Share Warrant, a ne.v one way 

on producing suoh evidene of his title and of the loss of 
the Warrant as the Board shall oonsider satisfactory, and on 
his giving to the Company suoh indemnity, with or without ^ 
security, as the Board shall require. 

25. The Company may provide by coupons or otherwise for the 
payment of future dividends on the Shares or Share included 
"in any Share Warrant. 


26. The Board may, with the sanotion of the Company 
previously given in General Meeting, oonvert any paid up Shares 
into Stock. When any Shares have been converted into Stock, 
th9 several holders of suoh stock may thenceforth transfer 
their respextive interests therein, or any part of such x 

interests, in the same manner and subjeot to the same regula¬ 
tions ae and subject to which any Shares inthe capital Pf the 
Company may he transferred, or *as near thereto as oircuastanoes 

27. The several holders of gtook shall he entitled to 
paetioipat9 in the dividends and profits of th9 company accord¬ 
ing to the amount of their respective interests in suoh X 

qtook: and suoh interests shall, in proport ion t o the amount 
thereof, confer on the holders thereof respectively the 3ame 
privileges and advantages for the purposes of voting at meet¬ 
ings of the Company, and for other purposes, as would have 
b9en oonferred hy Shares of equal amount of the olase oonverted 
in the Capital of the Company} hut so that none of suoh 
privileges or advantages, except the participation of the X 
dividends and profits of the Company, shall he oonferred hy 
any such aliquot part of consolidated Stook as would not, if 
existing in Shares, have oonferred euoh privileges or advan- 
t ag9s. 


38. The original oapital not required to he allotted under 
the Agreements mentioned in the Memorandum of Association, shall 
he allotted and issued hy the Board to suoh parsons and on 
such terras as the Directors ,ay in the interest of the Company s 
think fit, and either as fully or partly paid up Shares, and 
either with or without preference or priority as regards 
dividends, distribution of assets or otherwise over otner 
Shares, and either at a premium or di30ount,and either with or 
without a guaranteed rate of int-erest, and subject to suoh 
conditions as to the amount of dividends or interest to he paid 
thereon, and as to Payment hy way of deposit or oall, and as x 
to the amount of calls and the tine of payment thereof, or 
otherwise a3 they think fit to prescribe. Provided always that 
no Shares shall he allotted with any preference or priority 
aa regards dividends or otherwise, or at a disoount or suhjeot 
to any special conditions as to the amount of dividend or 
interest to he n a id thereon, without- the consent of a Meeting 
of the Company having been previously obtained to such 


39. The Board, with the sanotion of a General Meeting of the 
Company, miy from time to time lnorease the Capital of the 
Company the oreation of new Shares. Suoh Shares shall b9 of 
3uoh amount and shall lie issued on suoh terms and conditions 
as the company in General Meeting may direct, and subjeot to or 
in default of any suoh direotion, the new oapital shall he 
considered in all respeots as part of the original oapital of 
the Company, and all the lowers and provisions hereinbefore given 
or oontainea in the case of original capital, including the power 
to attach thereto any preference or priority may be exercised 
ip respeot t>f and shall apply to any such new Shares. 

30. The company shall have power to reduce its subscribed 
capital whether paid up or uncalled, and to oancel any unallotted. 
Shares, and also to consolidate or subdivide its Shares or any. 
of them into Shares of a larger or smaller denomination,- and the 
Company may return to its Members from time to time any amount 
paid upon their Shares in excess of that required to meat its 

geubbal meetings. 

31. The first General Meeting shall be held at such time, not 
being more than four calendar months after the registration \ 
of the company, and at suoh plaoe as the Board may determine, 

and shall tie termed the Statutory Meeting. 

32. Subsequent General Hastings 3hall be held at suoh time 
and plaC9 as may be prescribed by the c ora Pany in Gem.eral Meeting 
and if no other time or place is prescribed, a General Meeting 
3hall be held once in every year, at suoh time and place as may 
be determined upon by the Board. 

53. The 1 ast-mentioned General Meetings 3hall be oalled Ordin¬ 
ary General Meetings; all other General Meetings shall be oalled 
Extraordinary General Meetings. 

34. Th9 Baord may, whenever they think fit, and they shall 
upon a requisition made'in writing by ^embers of the company, 
holding together at least one-tenth of the Issued capital, 
upon whioh all calls for the time being have been paid, convene 
an Extraordinary General Meeting. 

35. Any requisition made by the Members shall express the 
object of the Meeting propoeed to be called, and shall be left 
at the Begi3tered Office of the Company, o* its principal 
place of business in London. 

36. Upon the receipt of suoh requisition the Board shall 
forthwith proceed to oonveme an Extraordinary General Meeting. 

If they do not prooeed to convene the same within twenty-one days 
from the date of the requisition, the requisit lonist s, or any 
other Members holding the prescribed number of Shares, upon 
whioh all Calls for the time being have been paid, may themselves 
convene an Extraordinary General Meeting. 

37. Seven clear days' notice at the least specifying the plaoe, 
the day, and the hour of meeting, and in case of speoial busin¬ 
ess the general nature of suoh business, shall be given to the 
Members in manner hereinafter mentioned, or in suoh other 
manner, if any, as may be prescribed by the company in General 
Meeting; but the non-raoeipt of suoh notice by any „eniber 


shall not invalidate the proceedings at any General 
treating. The report of the Board shall he deemed 
notioe of any speoial business mentioned or referred to 


38. The sanot ioning a dividend reoommended by the 
Board, the eleotion of Birectors and Auditors, and 
voting their remuneration, and the consideration of t he 
accounts and balance sheet and report of the Board at 
an Ordinary jesting, shall be deemsd ordinary business} 
but all business other than that before-mentioned, 
transacted At an Ordinary Meeting, and all business of 
whato var kind 'transacted a*t an "Ext raordinary Hosting 

shall be deemed special. •- 

39. Mo business shall be transacted at any General 
Meeting, except the nomination of a Chairman, the 
declaration of a dividend recommended by the Board, the 
re-eleotion of Auditors and Bireotors, and the voting 
of their remuneration t the 3ame rate as the year men 
last past, uni 333 ten Members shall be present in 
person or bv proxy, bub, save as aforesaid, five Members 
personally present shall bo a quorum for a General 
Meeting of the Company. 

40. If within an hour from the tim9 appointed for the 
Meetinga 4uorum, having regard to the business to be 
transacted, be not present, the Meeting, if oonve ed upontne 
reauisition of Members shall be dissolved} out m any om.r 
case it shall stand adjourned to the same in the next, at 
the same time and place} and if at such adjourned meeting 

a quorum is not present it. ahall be adjourned sine &j.e. 

II. The Chairman (if any) of the Board shall preside 
asChairnan at every General Meeting of the Company. 

43. If there be no suoh Chairman, or if at.any Meeting 
he is not present within fifteen minutes after the time 
a-pointed for holding the Meeting, the Directors present 
shall choose one of their number to act, and if tnere be 
no -.ireotor willing to aot, the Members present shall 
choose one of their number to be Chairman. 

43. The Chairman may, with the oonsent of the Meeting, 
'adjourn any Meeting from time to time and from plaoe 

place, but no business shall be transacted at any adjourned 
Meet inn- other than the business left unfinished at the 
Meeting from .vhioh the adjournment took place. , 

44. At any General Meeting, unless a poll is demanded ; 
in writing by at least five Members personally present 

and entitled to vote, a dedaration by the Chairman that a 
resolution has been carried and an entry *o that effect ■ 

in the book of proceedings of the Company, shall be 
sufficient evidence of the fact of its having boen carried, 
and (in case of an extraordinary or special resolution; | 
by the required majority, without proof of the number i 

or porportion of the votes recorded in favour of or 
against such rosolution. s - 1 



45. If a poll la demanded in writing by five or more Members 
personally present and entitled to vote, it shall be taken in 
suoii manner as the Chairman directs, and the result of such poll 
shall be deemed to be the resolution of the c om Pany in General 

45. Minutes shall be made in books provided for that purpose 
of all resolutions and proceedings of Goneral Meetings, and any ^ 
such minutes, if signed by any person purporting to be the 
Chairman of the Meeting to which they relate, or by any person 
thereat and appointed by the- Board to sign the same in his plaoe 
shall be received as evidence of the facts therein stated without 
further proof. 


„42 ■ ores*.®®. 

the Chairman shall be entitled to a second or casting vote. 

48. If any Member be a lunatio or idiot he may vote by his 
Committee, curator bonis, or other legal curator. 

49. If on9 or more persons are jointly entitled to a Share or 

Shares, the Member whose name stands first in the Register of 
Members as one o:' the holders of suoh share or shares, and no 
other, shall be entitled to vote in respect of the same. N 

50. Wo Member shallbe entitled to vote at any General Meeting 
unless all oalls due from him have been paid, and no Member shall 
be entitled to vote at any Meeting held after 140 expiration 

of three calendar months from the first general allotment of 
shares, in respeot of any Share that he has acquired by transfer 
unless he has been possessed of the Share in respeot of whioh. he 
claims to vote for at least three oilendar months previously , v 
to the time of holding the Meeting at whioh he proposes to vote. 

51 Votes may be given either personally or by proxy. 

53. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be under the hand 
of the appointor, or if such appointor be a corporation, under 
their Common seal, in suoh form as the Board may from time to 
*ime approve. No person shall be appointed a proxy unless a 
Member of the company and entitled to vote,...except that any 
Corporation being a Member may appoint any ..ember or officer 
of its own its proxy. 

53. The instrument appointing, a proxy shall be deposited at 
the registered offioe of the Company not less uhan forty-eight 
hours before ths time for holding the Meeting at whioh the 
person named in suoh instrument proposes to vote, but no . 

instrument appointing a proxy shall be valid after the axpiia 
tion of three oalsndar months from the date ofl its execution, 
except upon a poll demanded at, or at an adjournment of, a 
Meeting held within three oalsndar months of its date. 


54 "he first Director shall be appointed by a majority of the 
qubsoribers to the Memorandum of Assooiation , and unt il suoh 
appountment the said Subscribers, or a majority of tnerc, shall 
exercise all the powers exerciseable by a Board of Directors. 

66. The number of Directors shall never be le-ss than five, 
not more than ten. 

56. The qual if ioation of a Director shallbe the holding of 300 
area of the original: oaPital of the Company or the equivalent 
in any new capital; provided that, except in tin oase of an appoint¬ 
ment by the Subscribers to the Memorandum of . ssooiation or by the 
Directors under the power hereinafter given to appoint prior 
to the Ordinary General Meeting in 1863, or to fill a casual vacancy 
no person other than a retiring Direot®r shall be appointed or \ 
elected a Direotor unless he shall have held his qualification 
for at least three oalendar months next preceding the date of his 
eleotion, and at least seven days and not more than fourteen days 
notlos shall have been left at the registered of floe of the 
company of the Intention to propose him; but nothing herein 
contained shall be taken to prevent the Board appointed by the 
Subscribers from aoting prior to the first general allotment, 
although the Direotors may not be qualified. 

57. The remuneration of the Direotors shall be the sum of £3,000 
- ->r annum:; and, in addition thereto, a sum equal to 30 per-cent cf 
_ .,e net rrofits of eaoh year remaining over after payment of a 
dividend thereout for the year of 10 per cent, upon the c apital 
of the company, and suoh remuneration shall be divisible amongst 
the directors as they shall determine. 


58. The business of the Company shall be managed by the Board 
of directors, who may pay all expenses incurred in the formation 
and registration of the company, and may exorcise all such powers 
of the Company as ar9 not by Statute or by these Articles required .. 
to be exorcised by the company in General Meeting, subjeot never¬ 
theless to any regulations of these Abides; to the provisions 
of the Co-.nanies 1 Acts and to suoh regulations, being not incon¬ 
sistent with the aforesaid regulations or provisions, as may be 
subscribed by the company in General Meeting; but no regulation 
made by the c 0lr -Pany in General Meeting shall invalidate any prior 
Act cf the Board which would have been valid if such regulation 
had not boen, 

50. The Board may do the following things, but this Article shall 
't be learned to restrict the foregoing general powers:- 

(A). They may pay for 
in oa3h or in shares, 

;he acquisition of any property either 
or partly in oash and partly in Shares; 

(B) They m a y grant any ;ioenses for use of the company s 
patents, or for the exercise of any of the company s patent 
rights, and may sell, lot, or otherwise dispose of the 
whole or any part of the company's property, and with the 
consent of- a General Meeting may accept as the consideration 
or part of the consideration, fual license, or for the 


for any suoh license, or for the 
ile1 ett ingT or other disposition as aforesaid any shares, 
jbenburee, or other obligations of any other company carry¬ 
ing on or formed to oarry on any business comprised in the ^ 
objects of the company. 

(C) They may from time to time borrow any money upon the 
security of the whole or any part of the assets of the 
company including unoalled oapital and in order to secure 
monetr borrowed or for any other purpose, may oreate, issue, 
make, draw, accept and endorse respectively mortgage dooentui 
as bonds, or other obligations, or negotiable instruments; 
provided that every debenture or bond shall bear the seal y 
of the Compomy, and every bill, promissory note, cheque or 


other negotiable instrument drawn, made, or accepted 
shall he signed by one Direotor and countersigned, 
by the secretary or other officer of the Company 
appointed by the Board: 

(n). They may invest or lend the funds of the c ompany 
without security or in or upon suoh securities and 
in juch manner and upon such terms us to interest 
and otherwise, aa they doem fit, but so that no funds 
of the company shall be invested in the purchase of 
any of the shares or stook of the company: \ 

(E) They may from time to time appoint any one or 
more of their number Managing or neohnioal Director 
or Planaging or Technical Directors on suoh terms as 
to remuneration in addition to his or their fees as 
Directors or otherwise, and for suoh period as they 
deem fit, and may delegate to him any of their 
powers other than their powers to borrow and make v. 
c al 1 s: 

(f) m h9y may, if any Direotor be required to render 
any extraordinary service, repay all expenses incurred 
by him in connection therewith, and grant him in 
ad-.ition such special remuneration for the services 
rendered as they think proper. 

(G) They mayappoint upon such terms and oondit ions 
as they thin’: fit at any plaoe where the Company 
carry on or desire to carry on business any porson3 
who may ho lie bars or Directors of the Company or 
not a local or advi3ary Board, and may delegate to 
any suoh Board any of their powers relating to 
the conduct of the Company's local business, aid may 
regulate their proceedings and may discontinue and 
re-establish any suoh Board, and may dismiss any 
Member thereof and appoint a new Member or Members, 
and may fix the remuneration of the Members thereof 
whixh remuneration in the case of a Direotor of : he 
Company may be in addition to his remunerat ion as 

60. nhe continuing Directors may act notwithstanding any 
vacanoy in their body. 

61. The Board shall provide a seal for the use of the 
Company, and may exercise the powers of the "Companies seals 
Aot 1864", which are hereby given to the Company. Any 
dOouraent to whioh seal of the company shall be affixed, 
otherwise than under suoh Aot, shall be signed by two 
Direotors and countersigned by the secretary, or other 
offioer appointed by the B&ard. 



S3. The office of Direc 4- . or shall be vaoated - 

(A) T f he hold any other office or place of profit 
Under the Com.T> a ny, other than herein authorised, 
or participate in the profits of any contract with 
the Company: 

(B) If he beoone bankrupt or of unbound rr.ind or 
compound with his oreditors: 

(C) If he cease to hold his qualifications 

(D) If he send in a -written resignation to the Board 
and the ears be aooepted or be not withdrawn for 
seven days: 

(15) if he be absent from the Board meetings ooatiruoualy 
for six months without the o on sent of the Board. 

But the above rules shall Toe subjeot to the following 
e:coert i ons: That no Director shall vacate hia offioo by 
reason of his being a Member of any Company or partnership 
■vhloh has entered into contracts with the Company, or by 
rsas n of his being personally interostod either in his 
individual capacity or a3 a Member of any such Company or 
Partnership in any ooatraot with tho C rmpany, or any 
adventure or undertaking in whioh the Company may also 
have "an interest, and 3b shall be competent for any suoh 
Director or any film of whioh he is a partner to reoaan 
"or his or their benefit any profit under any suoh contract 
nevertheless no suoh Director shall vote in respoot of suoh N 
contract or work; and if he dees so vote his vote shall 
no 1 ; be' counted. 


63, At the Ordinary meeting noxt after the Statutory 
west ing, • sp 6 at tho Ordinary Mooting in every subsequent 
Mo a r, one-third of the Direotors for the time being, or 
if their number be not a multiple of three, then the 
number nearest to one-third shall retire from office. 

64. The one-third, or the nearest number, to retire 
at the first and second Ordinary Meetings of the Company, 
at whioh Directors should retire, shall, unless the 
Directors agree among themselves, be determined by ballot. 
In every subsequent yo ar tho one-third, or other nearest 
number who have been longest in office, shall retire. 

65. A retiring Director shall be re-eligible. 

66. The Companyat the General Meeting at whioh any 
Direotors retire in manner aforesaid shall, subject to any 
resolution reducing the number of Dirootors, fill up the 
vaoated offices by electing a like nurnbsr of persons. 

6?. If at any Mooting at whioh an el aot i on of D ir ectors 
ought to talus place the places of the vacating Diroctpis 
are ret filled up, the vaoating Directors, or auoh nave 
not had their daces filled up, shall oontinue in offioe ' 
until the Ordinary Meeting in the ne:d year, anc. so on 
from time to t ime until their places are filled up. 

68 "he Corcuiny may from time to time, in General 
Meeting, and within the lir its fixed by these Artioles, 
inorease or reduce the number of Direotrs, ana. Upon 
■oaaair , e ft ny resolution to increase, may appoint the 
additional directors necessary to oarry the same into effect, 
and jit also deter ine in what rot-tion such inc-eovsed 
or reduced number is to go out of offioo. 

nitu zr° 

^wusaJTU.sin2^ »*•- 

Meeting may he so appointed upon the terms thatheisnot 
to have any vede, and a ny parson ohosen ty the Board to 
fill a casu«l vaoanoy, shall retain his office so 1ong 
orly as the"vaoating iireotor would have retained ;he 
same if no vaoanoy had oocurreu. 

70. The Company in General Meeting, may, a ??°° ial 
11+ i on remove any Director before t expiration 
T- is period of ^ Office, and may by a n ordinary resolution 
anoint another person in his stead. The the 

■ " _. e a shall hold offioe during such time onl,> ua the 
Director in ?nose place he is appointed would have held 
the same if he had not bean removed. 


71. The Boird may meet together for tinra 
t>u qtna3a ma' adjourn and otherwise regulars their heetings 
b ! fit and may determine the quorum necessary 

fovthe transact ion of busine 33. Cuestions arising at any 
of the Board. 

73. The Board shall sleot a Chairman ofthe office 
and determine the period for which he is to hold office^. 

« *. Oh.l»«B Of 


73. The Board may delegate any of their sowers_to 
Committees consisting of suoh Member or Members of their 
body as they think fit. Any Committee so formed snail, 
except as herein otherwise provided in the exercise of 


the lowers so delegated, oonfoncs to any regulations that 
may he Imposed on them by the Board. 

74. A Committee may elect a Chairman of their Keatings. 
If no such Chairman is elected, or if he is not present 
at the time appointed for holding the same, the Members 
present shall choose one of their number to be Chairman of 
suoh Meeting. 

75. A Committee may meet and adjourn as they think proper: 
questions arising at any Meeting shall be determined by a 
majority 6f votes of the Members present; and in case of an 
equality of votes the Chairman shall have a aeoond or 
casting vote. 

76. All ACt3 of the Board, or of a Committee of Directors, 
or of any person aot ing a s a Director, shall, notwithstanding 
that it be afterwards discovered that thar9 was some defect 
in the appointment of any Directors or persons acting as 
aforesaid, or that they or any of them were disqualified, 
be as valid as if every suoh person had been duly appointed 
and was qualified to be a Direot or. 


77. 7ho Board may, with the sanction of the Company in 

qeneral Mooting, cleolara a dividend to be paid to the 
Members. Until such dividend shall amount in any year 
to 6 per ceht'. on the paid-up capital the same shall be 
P'iid in. proportion to the amount paid up on the Shares, and 
thereafter in proportion to the number cf Shares held by 
eaoh member irrespective of the anount paid-up thereon 
respect ively. 

78. 7he poard may, at their discretion, when the 

profits of the Company appear to them to justify suoh a 
course, declare any p«r in manner aforesaid at the end of 
any half of the Company s financial year an ad interim 
dividend not exceeding the rate of the la.,t year's dividend. 

79. The Board may, before recommending any dividend, 
set aside out of the profits of the Company, suoh 3um as 
theythink proper as a Reserve Fund to meet contingencies, or 
for equalising dividends, or for repairing or maintaining 
any property of the Company, or any part thereof; and subject 
to the regulations may, from time to time, apply the whole 
or any part of such peserve Fund for ary purposes of the 

80. The Board may deduct from the dividends or interest 
payable to any Member all suoh sums of money as may be due 
from him to th9 Company on account of Call3 or otherwise. 

81. Every dividend and instalment of interest shall belong 
-and he paid (subject t o the Company's lien) to those Members 
who shall be on the Register at the date of the meeting at 
whioh suoh dividend shall be deolared, or interest shall be 
payable, notwithstanding any subsequent transfer or transmission 
of Shares. 

83. Notice of any dividend that may have been deolared shall 
be given to each Member in manner hereinafter provided as t o 
notices generally. 

83, No dividend shall bear interest as againstthe Company. 

84. The Board shall cause aooounts to be kept of the assets 
and liabilities, receipts, and expenditure of the Company. The 
Books of Aooount shall be kept at theregistered Office of 
the Company. x 

86. Once at least in every year the Board shall lay before 
the Company in General Meeting a statement of the income and 
expenditure for the past year, and a balanoe sheet showing 
the assets and liabilities of the Company made up to a date 
not more than four months before suoh M eeting, acoompanied by 
a Report of the Board on the position and transactions of the 

86, Any monies Paid by the Company for the purchase of any 
other business, together with the oose of forming and establish¬ 
ing the Company and suoh of thocost of carrying on the business 
of the Co’v-oany for any period not exceeding two years from 
registration,^he Company deem fit, may be treated as capital 
expenditure, and may be spread over a series of years, and the 
amount of suoh expenditure for the time being outstanding may, 
for the purposes of calculating the profits of tho Company, 
for the purpose of dividends, be reokoned as an asset. 


87. Onoe at the leabt in every year, that is to say prepara¬ 
tory to the Ordinary general Meeting in eaoh year, after the 
meeting direot9d to bo oallod within four months of the 
registration of the Company, the aooounts of the Company shall 
be examined, and the correctness of tho balance sheet 
ascertained by one or more Auditor or Auditors. 

68. "he first Auditors shall be appointed by the Board} 
subsequent Auditors shall be appointed by the Company in 
General Meeting. 


89. If ono Auditor only is appointed all the jirovisions 
rein contained relative to Auditors shall apply to him. 

SO. The Auditors may 'oe Members of t ha Company} but no 
Bireotor or other officer of the Company shall be eligible 
during his continuance in offioe. 

91. The el dot ion of Auditors shall be made by the Company at 
their Ordinary Meeting in eaoh year. 

92. The remuneration of the first Auditors shall be fixed 
by the Board} that of subsequent Auditors 3hall be fixedby the 
Company in General Meeting. 

93. Any Auditor shall be re-eligible on his quitting offioe. 

94. If there be more than one Auditor appointed, and a 
casual vaoahoy ocrur in theoffioe of Auditor, it may be filled 
up by the Board, but so that only one 3Uoh appointment be made 
between any two ordinary General Meetings; but save a3 aforesaid, 
if any casual vaoanpy ocours, the 3oard s&all forth//ith call 
an extraordinary general Meeting for the gurposo of supplying 

95. If no election of Auditors i3 made in man nr aforesaid, 
the Board of Trade may, on the application of not leas than five 
Members of the Company, a: :, oint an Auditor for the ourrent year, 
and fix the remuneration to be paid to him by the Company for 
his services. 

96. Every Auditor ahall be supplied with a oopy of the balance 
■•"'oet and statement of receipts and expenditure, and it shall 
- his duty to examine the samo, with the accounts and vouchers 
relating thereto. 

97. Every Auditor shall have, at his request, a list delivered 
to him of all books kept by the Company, and shall at all 
reasonable times have aooess to the books and accounts of the 

98. The Auditors 3hall certify to the Members the oorroctness 
of the balance sheet and accounts, and may give such report to 
the Members upon the state of the Company’s affairs as they 
think proper. 

99. ANot ioe may besorved by the Company upon any Member either 
personally or by sending it through the post in an envelope 
addressed to suoh Member at his registered address within the 
United kingdom, or as t o Members not having such an address 
registered, by leaving th9 same at the Registered Office of the 
Company or at its principal place of businoss in London. 


100. All Notioes directed to be given to the Members shall, 
with respect to any Share to whioh persona are jointly entitled, 
he given to whichever of such persons is named first in the 
Register of Members} and not loe so given shall he sufficient 
notioe to all the holders of suoh Share. 

101. Any notice, if served hy post, shall he deemed to 
have~heen served at the time when, in the ordinary course of 
post, the same would he delivered} and in proving suoh service, 
it shall he sufficient to prove the address on the envelope 
enclosing the notioe and the posting of it. 


Charles Harrison, 53, Coleman St. London. 

No occupation. 

W, C. Quiltsr, 14 Rings Arms Yard, London. 

St ockbroker. 

H. K. Dohson, 6 Tokenhouse Yard, London. 


G. W. Batt, 30 Gt. Winchester St. London. 


R. "Ellis, 30 St. Winchester St. London, 

Charles v/aring, 10, Victoria Chambers, m estminster. 
Contractor for -'uhlic Works. 

Cornelius Cox, 14 Kings Arms Yard, London. 

Stook htoker. 

Dated this 19th day May, 1883. 

Wit ness to the above signatures - 

Frank Crisp 

80 Old JewryV-vLondon 



6d. 8644 

6 /_ • 26 JUN 1882 

HEADS OF AGREEMENT made th is sixteenth 
day of May One thousand eight hundred '553"elgEEy 
and County of Newcastle-upon-Tyne Merchant on 
behalf of the Swan Electric Light Company Limited 
hereinafter called the Swan Company of the one 
Moorgate Street London Public Aooountant, herein¬ 
after called the purchaser of the other part. 

1. THE Swan Company agrees to sell arid the 
purchaser to buy the patents processes business 
goodwill and all other assets and rights of the 
Swan Company of every kind. 

2. THE purchaser agrees within fourteen days 
from the date hereof to form a limited oompany 
under the Companies Acts and to transfer to suoh 
Oompany the said patents processes business 

g oodwill and other assets and. rights of the Swan 
ompany and to obtain the adoption of this 
Agreement by Buch Oompany hereinafter called the 
New Company. 

3. THE new Oompany shall have a oapital of 
One Million pounds sterling divided into Two 
hundred thousand shares of Five pounds eaoh and 
the first issue of such Bhares shall be One 
hundred thousand including the paid up shares 
hereinafter mentioned So many of the Baid first 
issue of shares as are not fully paid up shall be 
issued upon the terras of Two pounds per share 
being called up on each share within twelve months 
from the date hereof. 

4. THE purchaser shall as part of the consider¬ 
ation for the said sale to him procure the allot¬ 
ment of Eight thousand seven hundred and fifty 
shares in the Oompany (upon eaoh of which the 
full sura of £5 per share shall be oredited as 
having been actually paid) to the Swan Company 
or to their nominees and in Buch manner as nhey 
may request and shall oause to be done all acts 
necessary to constitute such paid up Bhares valid 
and legally paid up and free from any liability to 
the holders thereof. 

5. IN addition to the allotment of the said H 
shares and as further consideration for the said 
sale the New Company shall pay to the Swan ! 

Oompany the sura of Fifty thousand pounds in. oash 
within one month from the date hereof and the 
further sum of Twelve thousand pounds by four 
equal instalments on the seventh February in each 
of the years One thousand eight hundred and eighty 
three One thousand eight hundred and eighty four 
On© thousand eight hundred and eighty rive and 
One thousand eight hundred and eighty six. 

6. THE paid up sharea mentioned in the 
fourth clause hereof shall participate in dividends 
with the other shares in the Company in proportion 
to the amounts from time to time respectively paid 
or treated as paid up thereon until suoh dividends 
shall in eaoh year amount to Five poundB per oent 
per annum upon the oapital actually paid up and 
thereafter all the issued shares shall in eaoh year 
rank alike for dividends per share without reference 
to the amount paid or treated as paid up thereon. 

7. THE Hew Company shall pay and discharge all 
debts and liabilities of The Swan Company whether 
liquidated or unliquidated and Bhall oarry out and 
perform all contracts and agreements entered into 
by that Company whether with persons employed by the 
Company or otherwise howsoever. 

8. THE Hew Company shall purchase the Foreign 
and Colonial Patents connected with or relating to 
Electric Lighting belonging to Mr Joseph Wilson 
Swan or controlled by him (other than those for the 
Btorage of Electricity except as to his interests 

9. The purchaser shall use his best endeavour 
to secure the services or co-operation of Hr. R 
Evelyn Crompton and the use of his Patents upon terms 
to be approved of by The Swan Company. 

10. The purchaser shall endeavour to secure the 
services of Hr Joseph Wilson Swan aB Technical 
Direotor of the Hew Company for seven years at a 
remuneration of One thousand pounds a year he giving 
to the business of the New Company a sufficient amount 
of his time and attention but not being bound to 
devote himBelf exclusively thereto. 

11. THE purchaser may fix the shareB of the 
Hew Company at a larger or smaller amount than Five 
pounds eaoh in which case the provisions of this 
Agreement shall be varied accordingly but so that 
the amount of Oapital intended to be represented by 
the Shares hereinbefore provided for shall still be 
represented by suoh modified shares. 

12. The Swan Company may terminate this Agreement 
if the New Company shall not be incorporated and 

Two hundred and fifty thousand-pounds of the capital 
aotually subscribed within fourteen days from the date 

13. The costs of the Swan Company in connection 
with this sale shall be paid by the purchaser. 

14. THE Swan Company shall enter into a oovenant 
with the purchaser not to exercise the option given 
to them under the Agreement with Mr Sellon of giving 
up the right to use certain patents therein mentioned 
and shall execute and prooure to be executed all 
assignments and other deeds which may be reasonably 

required, by the Purchaser or the New Company to 
oarry out these heads but the purchaser and the 
New Company shall not require any covenants as 
to the said Patents except that the Swan Company 
have not incumbered. .The terms contained in these 
Heads shall be embodied'in a formal agreement which 
shall contain all usual and proper olauses for the 
more fully oarrying out the true intent and meaning 
of the Parties hereto. In oaBe of any difference of 
opinion as to the said Agreement or as to the proper 
oonstruotion hereof or upon any matter connected 
herewith or arising hereout such difference shall be 
refered to and settled by Mr I.P.Moulton on behalf of 
all parties. 

15. UPON the adoption of this Agreement or of 
the more formal Agreement mentioned in clause 14 
hereof by the Company that the purchaser shall be 
discharged from all liability in respect thereof. 

For the Swan Electric Light Company Limited, 



(Sgd) Robert Spence Watson, 



'Sgd) Wm. Walker 

Clerk to Quilter Ball & Oo. 
5 Moorgate Street. 


10 /- 

29 NOV.;■■ 

AM AGREEMENT -made the let day of October 1883 
(hereinafter oalled "The Edison Company") of the first 
(hereinafter oalled "The Swan Company") of the second part 
and GEORGE BLACK of 21 Burghley Road Kentish Town in the 
County of Middlesex Gentleman as Agent for and on behalf 
of a Company intended to be registered under the name of 
(hereinafter called the "United Company") of the third 
part. WHEREAS it is intended that the Edison Company and 
’the Swan Company respectively shall for the considerations 
hereinafter appearing sell its business goodwill and other 
property (with the exception Bet forth in the second 
Clause hereof) to the United Company subject to the 
provisions and otherwise in the manner and upon the terms 
hereinafter expressed. AND WHEREAS a print of the 
proposed Memorandum and Articles of Association of the 
United Company has been approved by the parties hereto of 
the first and second parts. 

NOW it is hereby agreed as follows 

1. The Edison Company shall Bell to the United Oompany 
and the United Company shall purchase from the Edison 
Oompany all the business goodwill patent rights privileges 
and other property whatsoever of the Edison Oompany. 

2. The Swan Oompany shall sell to the United Company and 
the United Company shall purchase from the Swan Oompany all 
the business goodwill patent rights privileges and other 
property whatsoever of the Swan: Company except only the , 
Foreign and Colonial Patents and the rights and privileges 
connected therewith and the business and goodwill of the 
Swan Oompany without the United Kingdom. 

3. The sale by each of the selling Companies shall take 

effect as from the 30th June last as from which date eaoh 
selling Company shall as between itself and the United 
Oompany be deemed to have carried on and to be oarrying on 
the business hereby agreed to be Bold for and on acoount of 
the United Oompany. The United Oompany shall as between 
itself and the selling Companies respectively take over and 
disoharge all the debts and liabilities of the said selling 
Companies respectively as on 30th June last (except such 
portion of the debts and liabilities of the Swan Oompany as 
are in respeot of the property not sold by them as aforesaid) 
but so that nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to extend 
the rights of any third parties or to create any direct liabil- 
between them or any of them and the United Oompany. ity 

4. As the consideration for suoh sale by the Edison Company 
the United Company shall allot to the Edison Oompany or as it 
may direct 45,000 ordinary or A Shares of £5 eaoh part of the 
original Capital of the United Company 40,000 of suoh Shares 
shall be issued as ShareB upon which the sum of £2-10s. haB 
been paid up and^the remaining 5,000 Shares shall be issued 
as fully paid Shares. The Edison Company shall have the 
option (to be exercised in writing within three months from 
the date hereof) of requiring that in lieu of any of the said 

2 . 

5.000 Shares the United. Company shall allot to it or as 
it may direct twice the number of ordinary or A ShareB 
to be issued as Shares upon which £2 10s per Share has 
been paid up. The United Company shall also from time 
to time issue (as further part of such consideration) 
to the Edison Company or as it may at any time hereafter 
direct fully paid-up B Shares of £5 each in the following 
proportions one fully paid up B Share for every £15 paid 
up or credited as paid up on the A Shares of the United 
Company whether such A Shares form part of the original 
capital of the United Company or of any of 
capital. The said B Shares shall not be entitled to 
receive any dividend until there has been paid as dividend 
on the ordinary or A Shares of the United Company a sum 
equal in the aggregate to a preferential cumulative 
dividend of 7 per cent, per annum on the amount paid up 
or credited as paid up on suoh A Shares but after Buch 
dividend has been paid the surplus profits available for 
dividend shall be divided between the A Shares and the 
B Shares in proportion to the amount paid up or credited 
as paid up thereon subject to the provisions of Clause 5 
in respeot of the A Shares to be allotted to the Swan 
Company as fully paid-up Shares. She voting power of the 
B Shares shan be P one vote for every two Shares each 
A Share being entitled to one vote. In the oa.Be ofa 
winding-up the holders of A Shares shall ^titled to 
receive in full the amount paid up or credited as paid up 
upon their Shares with any arrears of 7 
dividend in priority to any payment to the holders ot 
B Shares and any surplus of assets then remaining shall be 
distributed in the proportion of one-fourth among the 
holders of B Shares and three-fourths among the holders 
of A Shares but this provision shall not prejudice the 
rights of the holders of A Shares inter se in respeot ot 
A Shares issued under special conditions. 

5. As the consideration for suoh sale by the Swan 
Company the United Company Bhall allot to the Swan Company 
or as it may direct 61,400 ordinary or A Shares of £5 
saoh part of the original Capital of the United Company 
49,261 of such Shares Bhall be issued upon which 
the sum of £2 10 b. has been paid up and the remaining 
12,139 Shares shall be issued as fully P ai< *^;eB. Suoh 
last-mentioned fully paid Shares shall participate in 
dividends with the other ordinary or A Shares ^ proportion 

to the amounts from time to time respectively paid up or 

sffjfas s 

last-raentioned P fSl? r paid 9 Shhres shall^n each year < vaxOttose 

amount of dividend as each other Ordinary or A Share to be 
allotted to the Swan Company irrespective of the^ount 
„ iv. time beina paid up thereon. The Swan Company shall 

have ?he StiS ”fo P be exlrcised in writing within three 
months from the date hereof) of requiring that in lieu of 
any of the said 12,139 Shares the United ..Company shall 
a?¥ot to it or as it may direct twice the number of ordinary 
or A Shares to be issued as Shares upon which £2 10s. per 
Share has been paid up. 

0. The United Company shall have full power hereafter 
to issue any of the ordinary or A Shares part of the original 
oapital of the Company or any A Shares of inoreaBed capital 
as preferential guaranteed or deferred Shares provided that 
in no case shall the rights of the B Shareholders to 
participate in the profits of the United Company in manner 
hereinbefore provided by Clause 4 be thereby interferred 
with or their interest in the profits of the United 
Company diminished. 

7. All necessary Contracts shall be executed by the 
United Company and registered prior to the issue of the 
said Shares referred to in Clauses 4 and 5. 

8. The purohase shall be completed on the 31et day 

of Ootober instant whereupon the said Shares shall be allotted 
to the Edison Company and the Swan Company respectively or as 
they may respectively direct and each of the said Companies 
shall thereupon deliver such of the property hereby by it 
agreed to be sold as may be capable of delivery and shall 
execute and cause to be executed by all necessary parties 
all proper assignments and conveyances of the residue of the 
property hereby by it agreed to be sold including the said 
Letters Patent. 

9. The Patents hereby agreed to be sold to the United 
Company shall be assigned to Thomas Alva Edison The Swan 
Eleotrio Light Company Limited and R. E. Crompton & Co. or 
such one or more of them or to such other person or persons 
as the United Company may desire in trust for the United 
Company and such assignments shall be duly registered. 

A proper Deed of Trust containing the necessary powers for 
using the names of the. Trustees in case of litigation 
relating to the Patents shall be drawn up and executed prior 
to euoh registration. 

10. The United Company shall indemnify and keep harmless 
the Edison Company from all olaims against it of whatever 
nature arising previously to the 30th June last (other than 
claims under the Agreement of the 18th day of February 1882 
schedules to the Articles of Association of the Edison 
Company exoept those under Clause 15 of the said Agreement) 
and shall bear and pay all costs and charges of and incidental 
to the oarrying out of this Agreement and the winding up of 
the Edison Company. 

11, The United Company shall indemnify and keep harmless 
the Swan Company from all olaimB against it of whatever nature 
arising previously to the 30th June laBt (other than claims 
arising out of or connected with the property not sold by 
them as aforesaid) and shall bear and pay all oosts and ohargeB 
of and incidental to the oarrying out of this Agreement and 
the winding up of the Swan Company in case it shall determine 
to be wound up upon the execution of this Agreement or within 
six months thereafter but suoh costB shall not be inoreaBed 

by arrangements relating to the property not sold by them 
as aforesaid. 

4 . 

12. The Edison Company and the Swan Company shall 
eaoh if the necessary Resolutions for confirming this 
Agreement are passed at the Meetings of the respective 
Companies which have heen called for the 2nd day of October 
instant forthwith take all suoh steps as may he necessary 
to oarry out this Agreement in accordance with itB true 

IS. If the Shareholders' of the Edison Company or 
of the Swan Company refuse or negleot on or before the 
31st day of October instant to oonfirra this Agreement or 
to pass any resolution necessary for giving tte 

same then in either of suoh oases either of the Companies 
parties hereto may rescind this Agreement by notice in 
writing to the other. 

14. Neither the Edison Company nor the Swan Company 
shall be deemed to warrant the validity of any Letters 
Patent hereby agreed to be sold nor be liable for the non- 
performanoe by the other of anything hereby agreedtobe 
done but each of the said Companies shall be deemed to 
guarantee that it has not granted any Licenses to make use 
or vend the inventions the subject of the saidarticles 
any of them save in respeot to plant lamps or rf* 
made and already sold by them except those scheduled hereto. 

15. Eaoh selling Company shall ubs its best endeavours 
to prooure the assignment to the United Company of ali 
property hereby agreed to be sold and shall meanwhile hold 
the same in trust for the United Company. 

18. The said George Black shall incur responsibility 
whatever under this Agreement but so soon as the same is 
adopte^and confirmed by the United Company the same ,atoll be 
binding on suoh Oompany in the same way as if entered into 
under its Common Seal. 

17.If any doubt difference or dispute shall arise 
between the parties hereto or any of them S’® 1 done or 


srt&s s sss 


Licenses Granted by the Edison Oompany. 

1882 Span* 



3 August 11th License to the British Electrio Light 
y Limited. 

1883 August 3rd Agreement respecting Lamps with the 
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company. 

In witness whereof the Edison Company and the Swan 
Company have hereunto respectively Bet their Oommon Seal 
the day and year first above written. 

(Sgd) Milford Bidwell) 

6 ( Directors 

J. W. Wall ) 

H. s. l'rehearne Acting Secy. 

J. s, Trevor ) 

G. W. Batt ) 




James H, Ivory Secretary 



10 /- 

5 /- 


18 MAH 1895 

f %***»oz *; H 

TO ALL-TO'WHOM these Presents shall come Wm 

an ? Swan United Electric Light Company gl 
Limited (hereinafter referred to a B the United OompariPP 
whose registered Office is at 50 and 57 Queen Street 
m the Oity of London SendsJJree'ting WHEREAS by an 
Agreement dated the first day of October One thousand 
eight hundred and eighty three and made between the 
Edison Electric Light Company Limited (hereinafter 
referred to as the Edison Company) of the first part 
the Swan United Electric Light Company Limited 
(hereinafter referred to aB the Swan Company) of the 
seoond part and George Blaok as Agent for and on 
behalf of the United Company which was then not yet 
registered of the third part. It was agreed that the 
United Company should purchase all the business and 
property of the Edison Company and all the business and 
property of the Swan Company except its foreign Patents 
and business and that as the consideration for such 
purohase the United Company Bhould allot to the 
Edison Company or as it might direct Forty five 
thousand A Shares of Five pounds each of the United 
Company of which Forty thousand should be issued as 
Shares upon whioh Two pounds ten shillings had been 
paid the remaining Five thousand should be issued as 
fully paid and should also issue to the Edison Company 
or as it might direct fully paid B Shares of Five 
poundB each in the United Company in the proportion 
of one fully paid B share for every Fifteen pound B paid 
or credited as paid on .the A Shares of the United 
Company and should alBo allot to the Swan Company or as 
it might direct One thousand four hundred A Shares of 
Five pounds each of the United Oompany of whioh Forty 
nine thousand two hundred and sixty one Bhould be 
issued as Shares on which the sura of Two pounds ten 
shillings had been paid and the remaining Twelve 
thousand one hundred and thirty nine should be issued 
a B fully paid Shares And under the said Agreement the 
Edison Oompany and the Swan Oompany had respectively 
the option of requiring the allotment in lieu of the 
said fully paid A Shares to which they were respectively 
entitled of twioe the number of A Shares having two 
pounds ten shillings only paid thereon AND WHEREAS the 
said Agreement was duly adopted by the United Oompany 
after its incorporation AND WHEREAS it is desired to 
specify the number of shares which have in fact been 
allotted pursuant to the bald Agreement with the 
distinctive Nos. thereof. 

NOW these Presents WITNESS and the United 
Company hereby declares as follows:, 

THE number of A Shares of the United Company 
allotted and issued pursuant to the said Agreement 
as shares upon whioh the sum of Two pounds ten shillings 
had been paid was Eighty nine thousand two. hundred and 
sixty one whioh shares are distinguished in the books 
of the United Oompany by the Nos. 1 to 89861 inolUBive. 

S. THE number of A Shares of the United Company 

allotted and issued pursuant to the said Agreement 
as fully paid up was Seventeen thousand one hundred 
and thirty nine whioh shares are distinguished in 
the hooks of the Uniited Company by the Nos. 01 to 
017139 inclusive. 

3. THE number of B Shares of the United Company 

allotted and issued pursuant to the said Agreement 
as fully paid up is Twenty three thousand five 
hundred and sixty four whioh shares are distinguished 
in the books of the United Company by the Nos. B1 to 
B 23584 inclusive. 

IN WITNESS whereof the United Company has hereunto 
oaused its Common Seal to be affixed the nineteenth 
day of February One thousand eight hundred and ninety five. 

Edison and Swan United 
Eleotrio Light Company 
Limited was affixed 
hereto in the presence 
of s- 

(Sgd) N. FORBES ) 

( Directors 


Wo. 18984/38 

19 Aug. 1904. 

In the High Court of Justice 0018( 

Chancery Division 
^ Ur. Justice Buckley 

!■’ Tuesday the 26th day of July 1904 

In the Matter of The Companies Act 1867 

In the Matter of The Companies Act- 1877. 

Upon the Petition oi the above named Edison and Swan United 
Electric light Company limited and Reduced on the oth July 1904 
preferred unto this Court and upon hearing Counsel for the 
Petitioner and for Henry Wolfenden a Debenture Holder of the 
above named Company supporting the said Petition and upon 
reading the said Petition the Order dated the 13th July 1904 
(dispensing with the li3t of Creditors) the Affidavit of Henry 
Wolfenden filed the 8th July 1904 and the Affidavit of Henry 
Charles Cover filed the 13th July 1904 and the several exhibits 
inthe said Affidavits respectively referred to the London Gazette 
and the Times and the Electrical Review newspapers all dated the 
15th July 1904 and all containing a notice of the presentation 
of the said Petition and that the same was appointed to be 
heard on the 26th July 1904 And the said Henry Wolfenden by his 

THIS COURT DOTH ORDER that the cancellation and redut 
of the Capital of the above named Compuny resolved on ar; 
effected by the special resolution passed at an Extraorc 
General Meeting of the Petitioner the said Edison and Sv 
United Electric light Company limited and Reduced held c 
the 12th May 1904 and confirmed at an Extraordinary Gem 

2 . 

Meeting of the said Petitioner held on the 30th May 1904 and 
which resolution was in the words and figures following that is 
to say;- 

"That the capital of the Company he reduced from £1,000,000 
divided into 150,000 A shares of £5 each and 50,000 B shares 
of £5 each to £941,090 divided into 150,000 A shares of £5 each 
26436 "B" Shares of £5 each and 23564 B shares of £2. lo. 0. 
each and that such reduction he effected hy cancelling paid up 
capital which has been l03t or is unrepresented hy available 
assets to the extent of £2, 10. 0. per share on each of 
the 23564 B shares which have been issued and arc now outstanding 
and hy reducing the nominal amount of each of such 23564 B shares 
to £2. 10. 0." 

he and the same is hereby confirmed in conformity with the 
provisions of the above mentioned Acts. 

ABB IT IS ORDERED that this Order he produced the Registrar of 
Joint Stock Companies and that an Office Copy thereof he deliver¬ 
ed to him together with a Minute in the words or to the effect 
set forth in the Schedule hereto 

AND IT IS HRDERED that Notice of the Registration hy the 
Registrar of Joint Stock Companies of this Order arid-of the said 
Minute he published as follows that is to say once each in 
the "London Gazette" and in the Times and the Electrical Review 
newspapers within 10 days after such registration. 

ABD IT IS ORDERED that the addition of the words "and reduced" 
to the title of the said Company he continued for 3 months from 
the date of this Order 


Registrar Companies (Winding up) 



The Capital of the Edison and Swan United Electric light Company 
Limited and Reduced henceforth is £941090 divided into 

3 . 

150,000 A Shares of £5 each 26436 B Shares of £5 each and 
23564 B shares of £2. 10. 0. each and instead of the original 
capital of £1,000,000 divided into 150,000 A shares of £5 
each and 50,000 B shares of £5 each. 

At the time of the registration of this Hinute 116400 of the 
said A shares and 23564 of (he said B shares have been issued 
and the following amounts are to he deemed to have been paid up 
on the same respectively Upon each of the 99261 A shares 
numbered in the Register of the Company from 1 to 99261 inclusive 
the sum of £3 upon each oi the 17139 A shares numbered 01 to 
017139 in the said Register the whole amount thereof upon each 
of the said 23564 B shares numbered in the said Register from B1 
to B 23564 inclusive the sum of £2. 10. 0. 

The remainder of the capital is unissued 

Registrar Companies (Winding up). 




17 liar. 1906 

In the High Court of Justice 

Chancery Division 

Ur. Justice Warrington 

In the Matte 

Tuesday the 6th day of March 1906. 

■ of The Edison & Swan United Eleotrio light 
Company limited and Reduced 


In the Matter of the Companies Act iL867 

In the Matter of the Companies Act 1877 

Unon the Petition of the above named Edison & Swan United 
Electric light Company limited and Reduced on the 1st December 1905 

Preferred unto this Court AND UPOl-l hearing Counsel for the Petitioner 
and for Henry Wolfenden a Debenture Holder of the above named Company 
And upon reading the said Petition the Order doted the 21st February 
. 1906 (dispensing ••■ith the list of Creditors) and the Affidavit of 
Henry Wolfenden filed the 20th February 1906 and the Exhibits in 
the said Affidavit referred to The london Gazette and the Times 
and the Electrical Review newspapers all dated the 23rd February 
1906 and all containing a notice of the presentation of the said 
Petition and that the same was appointed to be heard on the 6th 
March 1906 

THIS COURT DOTH ORDER that the cancellation and reduction of the 
Capital of the above nnmed Company resolved on and effected by the 
Special Resolution passed at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the 
Petitioner The said Edison Sc Swan United Electrio light company 
limited and Reduced held bn the 12th October 1905 and confirmed at 
an Extraordinary General Meeting of the said Companyheld on the 30th 
October 1905 and which Resolution was in the words and figures 
following that is to say;- 

"That the Capital of the Company he reduced from £941090 divided 
into 150000 "A" Shares of £5 each 26436 "B" Shares of £5 each and 
23564 "B" shares of £2.10.0. each to £888071 divided into 150,000 
"A" Shares of £5 each 26436 "B" shares of £5 each and 23564 "B" 

Shares of 5/- each and that such reduction he effected hy cancelling 
paid up Capital which has heen lost or i3 unrepresented hy available 
assets to the extent of £2. 5. 0. per share on each of the 23564 "B" 
Shares which have heen issued and are now outstanding and hy reducing 
the nominal amount of each of such 23564 "B" shares to 5/-" 
he and the same is hereby confirmed in accordance with the provisions 
of the above mentioned Acts. 

AMD THE COURT DOTH HEREBY APPROVE the form of Dinute set forth 
in the Schedule hereto 

AMD IT IS ORDERED that this Order he produced to the Registrar 
of Joint Stock Companies and that an Orfice Copy thereof he delivered 
to him together with- a Minute in the words or to the effect set forth 
in the Schedule hereto 

AMD IT IS ORDERED that Rotice of the Registration hy the Registrar 
of Joint Stock Companies of this Order and of the said Iiinute he 
published as follows that is to say;- Once each in The London Gazette 
and in the Times and the Electrical Reviev/ Mewspapers within 10 days 
after such registration 

AMD IT IS ORDERED that the addition of the words "and Reduced" 
to the title of the said Company be continued for one month from the 
date of this order. 


Registrar Companies (Winding up). 



"The Capital of the Edison & Swan United Electric Light Company 
limited and Reduced henceforth is £888071 divided into 150,000 "A" 
shares of £5 each 26436 "B" shares of £5 each and 23564 "B" 

Bhareu of 5/- each instead of the former Capital of £941090 divided 
into 150,000 “A" shares of £5 each 26436 "B" shares of £5 each and 
23564 "B" snares of £2, 10s. each. 

At the time of the Registration of this Minute 116400 of the 
said "A" shares (numbered as hereinafter mentioned) and 23564 of the 
said "B" shares (numbered as hereinafter mentioned) have been issued 
and the foll&wing amounts are to be deemed to hnve been paid up on 
the same respectively. Upon each of the 99261 "A" shares numbered 
in the Register of the Company from 1 to 99261 inclusive the sum of 
£3 upon each of the 17139 "A" shares numbered 01 to 017139 in the 
said Register the whole amount thereof upon each of the said 
23564 "B" shares numbered in the said Register from B1 to B 23564 
inclusive the sum of 5/-. 

The remainder of the Capital is unissued". 


Ho. of Certificate 189840^/74 

Regis tered 


12 Mar. 1919 

The Companies Acts 1908 and 1913 
Company ] imited by ShareB 

•suant to Section 69 of the Companies (Consolidation) 1 Act 1908 


Passed 17th Eebruary 1919. 

At an Extraordinary.General Meeting of the "A" Shareholders of The 
Edison Swan Electric Company Limited duly convened and held at 
Winchester House Old Broad Street in the City of London on Monday the 
17th day of Eebruary 1919 the following Resolution was duly passed as 
an Extraordinary Resolution 


. "That for the purpose ofi.raising additional Y/orking Capital the 
Company shall be at liberty to convert all the existing "A" Shares issued 
and unissued into Ordinary Shares of £1 each and to consolidate the 
23564 "B" Shares 5/- paid into 5891 shares of £1 each and to convert 
them when so consolidated into Ordinary Shares of £1 each fully paid. 

And further to convert the unissued 26436 "B» Shares of £5 each into 
132180 Ordinary Shares of £1 each. All such Ordinary Shares to rank 
pari passu without any preference or right to cumulative dividends". 

"That for completing such conversion of the "B" Shares into 
Ordinary Shares the existing »B" Share Certificates be called in by 
the Directors and cancelled and new Certificates issued therefor". 

Dated this 11th day of March 1919 

R. H. PARKER Secretary. 

123/125 Queen Victoria Street London-E.C.4. 

I certify that the above is a true full and complete copy of the 
resolutions referred to 

R. H. PARKER Secretary ' 

Dated ; this 11th day of March 1919. CC] 

Mo. of Certificate 18984C/73 



12 liur.' 1919. 

The Companies Acts 1908 and 1913 


(Pursuant to Section 69 of the Companies (Consolidation) 
Act 1908) 


the Edison Swan Electric Company Limited . ; • 

Passed 17th February 1919. 

At an Extraordinary General Meeting of the "A" Shareholders of The 
Edison Swan Electric Company limited duly convened and held at Y/irnhester 
House Old Broad Street in the City of London on Monday the 1/th day of 
■ February 1919 the following Resolution was duly pussed as an Extraordinajy 
J Resolution 


"That for the purpose of raising additional Working Cupital the 
Company shall be at liberty to convert all the existing "A" Shares 
issued and unissued into Ordinary Sharesof £1 each and to consolidate 
the 23564 "B" Shares 5/- paid into 5091 Shares of £1 euch and to convert 
‘ them when so consolidated into Ordinary shares of £1 each fully paid. 

And further to convert the unissued 26436 "B" Shares of £5 each into 
132,160 Ordinary Shares of £1 each. And for further effecting that 
purpose the holders of existing "A" Shares agree to and hereby surrender 
and release all their rights in respect of cumulative -preference 
u dividends post present and future in order that all uuch new Shares 

shall rank pari passu with the "A" Shares when so converted as Ordinary 
Shares without preference or right to cumulative dividends". 

"That for completing such conversion of the "A" Shares into Ordinary 
shares the existing "A" Share Certificates be called in by the Directors 
and cancelled and new Certificates issued therefor". 

■Dated this 11th day of March 1919 



123/125 Queen Victoria Street londori E.C.4 

I certify that the above is a true full and complete copy of the 
resolutions referred to 

Por The Edison Swan Electric Co. Ltd. 



Dated this 11th day of March 1919. 

Ho. of Certificate 18984C/75 

12 Mar. 1919 

(Pursuant to Secti 

THE COMPANIES ACTS 1908 and 1913. 


>n 69 of the Companies (Consolidation) Act 1908 

Passed 17th Pebruary 1919 Confirmed 10th March 1919. 

At an Extraordinary General Meeting of the Members of The Edison 
Swan Electric Company Limited duly convened and held at Winchester 
House Old Broad Street in the City of London on Monday the 17th day of 
Pebruary 1919 the following Resolutions were duly passed us Extra¬ 
ordinary Resolutions; and at a subsequent Extraordinary General Meeting 
of the above named Company also duly convened and held at 123/125 queen 
Victoria Street in the City of London on u.onduy the 10th day of March 
1919 the following Extraordinary Resolutions were duly confirmed;- 

1. "That the 23564 "B" Shares 5/- paid be consolidated into 5891 Shaits 
of £1 each fully paid". 

2. "That each of the unissued 26436 "B" Shares of £5 each be divided 
into 5 shares of £1 each". 

3. "That the 138071 Shares resulting from such consolidation and 
division be converted into Ordinary Shares and be numbered 460237 to 
598307 inclusive". 

4. "That for completing such consolidation and conversion of the "B" 
Shares 5/- fully paid the existing Share Certificates be called in by 
the Directors and cancelled and new Certificates issued therefor". 

5. "That the Articles of Association of the Company be umended as 

(1) By striking out the letter "A" on the sixth line of Article 80 and 

'substituting therefor the word "Ordinary". 

(3) By striking out from Article- 85 the words commencing "First 
Preference Share" down to the end of the Article and substituting there¬ 
for the words "Share held by him". 

- (3) By striking out from Article 98 the letter "A" in the second line 
and the wor-is in the third line commencing "or 4000 "B" Shares" down to 
the words "the other" in the fourth line. 

(4) By striking out from Article 99 the letter "A" ir. the third line 


and substituting therefor the w»rd "Ordinary". 

'(5) By inserting in Article 131 sub section (1) (b) the words "former 
issued" after the words "dividends upon the" and by striking out the 
word "and" at the end of such sub section and substituting therefor the 
words "now represented by 376232 Ordinary Shares of £1 each fully paid 
J and 21895 Ordinary Shares of £1 each 12/- paid". 

(6) By striking out the whole of Sub Section 5 of Article 131 and 
substituting therefor the following; "(5) In carrying to the Reserve 
Fund such further 3uin as the Directors shall think fit" and by striking 

j out from Sub section (6) of the same Article the words "A and B" and 
substituting therefor the word "Ordinary". 

(7) By striking out from Article 153 the words in the fifth line 
...commencing "and in the second place" down to the end of the Article and 

suostituting therefor the words "and the residue shall be distributed 
between the holders of the Ordinary Shares". 

Dated the 11th day of March 1919 r. r. Parker 


123/125 queen Victoria Street London B.C.4. 

I certify that the above is a true full and complete copy of the 
Resolutions referred to 

\J J S’ 01, The Edison Swan Electric Co. 

Dated this 11th day of March Secretary. 


is required by Part II. of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, 
(Section 26), and the Companies (Particulars as to Directors) Act, 1917. 

jSummary of Share Capital and /,'^dO _ 

-.-Company, Limited, made up 

to the—-day of__.'19uf.^S^(being-the-four- 


. tJj&£Sb2-Jk " f... . 

Nominal Share Capital, • <Hro . 6-6-0 _—.Divided into* | nW, ^Shares of £*j /o eacl 

Total Number of Shares taken up* to the 13 _day of——j&ksA:_/£€?—!<}■____(which f ——- 

number must agree with the total shown in the list, as held by existing members) 1 /q. <to-q /£? '* 

Number of Shares issued subject to payment wholly in cash.. 

Number of Shares issued as fully paid up otherwise, than in cash.. 

Number of Shares issued as partly paid up to the extent of_per share 1 

otherwise than in cash .j 

JThere has been called up on each .oh_ &L _Shared. £ Jl _ 

§Total amount of Calls received, including payments on application and allotment. £ /Cro-0-0-0. _ 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_Shares which have \ ^ 

been issued as fully paid up otherwise than' in cash..) ~- 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_Shares which have 1 

been issued as partly paid up to the extent of_per Share otherwise i £ _ 

than in cash . J 

Total amount of Calls unpaid ... £ ~iuA ._ 

Total amount (if any) paid 0 

Number, of Shares or amount of Stock comprised in each Share / Number of Shares- £ — 

Warrant to bearer ’ ..;..i , . 

■ I Amount of Stock- £ — 

Total amount of debt due from the Company in respect of all mortgages and charges which) 
are required (or, in the case of a Company registered in Scotland, which, if the 
Company had been registered in England, would be required) to be registered with £ - 
the Registrar of Companies, or which would require registration if created after the 
first day of July, 1908....J 

Nolo.—Banking Companies must add a list ol all their places of business. 

The return must be signed, at the End, by the Manager or Secretary of the Company. 

v- , ■—■--- - - 

List of Persons holding Shares in the l£g4<Lgn 

Company Limited, on the_^i4t^-day of- Ju^A. - 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 

and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and 

List of Persons holding Shares in the c fdfcfdcd rLdfP 

Company Limited, on the (L U : A-.^ (H • Any 0 f__ ( 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


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Price Two-Pence. Form No. 8a. 

t lj?JG2_, and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 



|Particulars of Share 

^Number of Shares 
held by existing 

of the last Return, 
Return) of the Incor] 

>r(ln the^case of the first^ 

I of the lost Return, or (In the case of the first 
Return) of the incorporation of the Company, by 
| persons who have ceased to be members 





Date of Registration 


Date of Registration 
of Transfer 







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( Signature). 

List of Persons holding Shares in the 

Company Limited, on the day of _ __ 

the date of the last Return,' or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


t $!r3 . ..., and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 



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‘THE COMPANIES ACTS, 1908 to 1917.” 

Price—Four Pence. 
[Form No. 6AJ 

i as required by Part II. of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, 

J (Section 26), and the Companies (Particulars as to Directors) A^tJ'11917. 

S ummary of Share Capital and Shares of 

— jdad&'&sc iXyyJUr _ | /b~Xw /rifo j 

---Company, Limited, made up 

to the .. - -day of-_(being-the-four- 


Nominal Share Capital, £jdtt^jZZ 3 > -Divided into* Shares of ^ 

Total Number of Shares taken up* to the_ LL _day of LS£it_ _ig= (which ( 

number must agree with the total shown in the list, as held by existing members) j iqjt£, j 

Number of Shares issued subject to payment wholly in cash. 

Number of Shares issued as fully paid up otherwise than in cash.. 

Number of Shares issued as partly paid up to the extent of_per share 1 

otherwise than in cash .... 

{There has been called up on each -of _ _Shared .. . £ o S' _ 

« " •• —-„ ..'is . £ . 26 y.ya _ 

■■ ■* .. - - „ . .....£ s i i ‘ ’ _ 

jjTotal amount of Calls received, including payments on application and aUotmcnt. £ 35 ?, 3 ti >3 _ 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on-Shares which have 1 . 

been issued as fully paid up otherwise than in cash.|*- 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_Shares which have 1 

been issued as partly paid up to the extent of_tier Share otherwise. 

than in cash . r J- 

Total amount (if any) of sums paid by way of Commission in respect of shares or debentur 

(j| or allowed by way of Discount since the date of last Summary. 

Total amount (if any) paid on||-Shares forfeited. 

Total amount of Share Warrants to bearer issued and surrendered I Issued . 

respectively since date of last Summary . \ 

.( Surrendered . 

Number of Shares or amount of Stock comprised in each Share f Number o£ Shares.... 

Warrant to bearer ... j 

.I Amount of Stock .... 

Total \™ 0 ^ a °[ r d f‘fo f romthC in respect f a] , mort and charges whjch x 
__~ re oqu , y?' ln th ? case . ? f a Company registered in Scotland, which, if the 

Note.—Banking Companies must add a list of all their places of business. 

_ The return must be signed, at the End, by the Manager or Secretary of the Company. 


List of Persons holding Shares in the 'jdi,-*#-* 4<An.„, /LZf, 

Company Limited, on the _ d Aay n f 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
an Account of the Shares so held. 


Christian Name I A ,, 

• 1SJ ____ 

. 19&£, and of Persons who have held Shares therein at 

incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and 

any time since 
Addresses, and 

u> © 

X'l. 8 b i o j d, 

faist.h... Zo 'if ft 

... /UhO i 

mm * 

: h* 

* <vy } ■ ■ / -L ..4,c.:/u | 

-o-":-Al.-y /.. if,. 

'• (i'f /> . .. •? 

X •-..‘A r, 

^ <! :.C,... o / 4.., />v ., 

_ Xc.t-rv<_ _4^ ^ 


I'ffb ... 

P~Jy.:. L'M 

/ .,4. 7*,. j 5iJJrU^ v „ /, 

f 1 Y'-* ff *’£... ‘fyydo~, 

^ Xt Cf .4^ 

Hi / ,4—i,{w?. 


■ ■ •>> £ suy>c^ , 

/•-CiJ" V 

Mm,. “ 

f^fk. .. “ 

■ ■ 

f T 

. w 




... ... ..4 

© i .©... 



Certificate No_ 

“THE COMPANIES ACTS, 1908 to 1917.” 

is required by Part II. of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, 

(Section 26), and the Companies (Particulars as to Directors)'Act) 1917. 

Price—Four Pence. 
[Form No. 6A.] 

Summary nf Shfiro Capital and Shares of 

.' ($> ^VLoOy.KjeLJ stAjy&l'. 

Z¥ IS?»- 1 

---Company, Limited, made up 

to the__day of_ l&&S~ 1-ft-_(being the four¬ 
teenth day after the Bate of - the Fi r st Or dinary! General Meeting In 19_ =)j 

Nominal Share Capital, _Divided into* j Shares of £*j each 

Total Number of Shares taken up* to the_ litXX _day of^-.^!^B^'_/_ 22 £„ig; (which [ —&• 

number must agree with the total shown in the list, as held t>y existing members) j rajJ a, ft p 

Number of Shares issued subject to payment wholly in cash.. 

Number of Shares issued as fully paid up otherwise than in cash.. 

Number of Shares issued as partly paid up to the extent of_J._per share 1_ 

otherwise than in cash ... . .j 

__ Share*, . .A f. 

JThere has been called up on each _ 


!£)&£- _ 


§Total amount of Calls received, including payments on application and allotment. £ 3 SdU ^. 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_Shares which have l £ 

been issued as fully paid up otherwise than in cash.J - 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_Shares which have 1 

been issued as partly paid up to the extent of_per Share otherwise f £ __ 

than in cash .•. > 

Total amount of Calls unpaid . £ LiJ , _ 

Total amount (if any) of sums paid by way of Commission in respect of shares or debentures 1 „ 

or allowed by way of Discount since the date of last Summary.- 

Total amount (if any) paid on||-Shares forfeited. £ ndl , _ 

Shares .. £ ___ 

Stock .. £ _ 

Total amount of Share Warrants to bearer issued and surrendered J * ssue< * • 

respectively since date of last Summary '..| Surrendered £ 

Number of Shares or amount of Stock comprised in each Share / dumber of Shares- £ — 

Warrant to bearer . • , _. , „ 

l Amount of Stock .... £ — 

Total amount of debt due from the Company in respect of all mortgages and charges which) 
are required (or, in the case of a Company registered in Scotland, which, if the 
—Company had been registered in England, would be required) to be registered with 
the Registrar of Companies, or which would require registration if created after the 
first day of July, 1908.... 

Note.-Banklng Companies must add a list ot all their places ol business. 

nmts°hav!fbun t'th^ *tp num $ lT and nominaI 0ttiu * s 1 

number of Shares forfcited (if*any), ex * st * ngt Sfiarts * 

~ The return must be signed, at the End, by the Manager or Secretary of the Company. 

Presented for filing by_ —dlibdbitLlAi 

List of Persons holding Shares in the ^aJ£j 

Company Limited, on the _ A*y n { rf A _ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
an Account of the Shares so held. 


'fbd fi'j it~. (z^t fakt-P // i/ C;' 

h-iUL a . L.,«L.j Zf (&.(*+* iU K L*_ . 

p3 d'/bn-C^. /£u-oc fajc—i 

iu U,^s<u. J: H. ^ jL^u-k’ . C^£L,- 

. ft-! ./u>4 '.4 1$ $Ut-r*i-£...t ..t?!, fa,. _/ f 

y/ 7 ^ (y. Ac ft ^UcUu / .& 

. flf-j- a- 

. . : . /y' fa.Ur..^ S. £* AvA 

.//V / dyut & A*... k'l ,IU.(^ ll<C,LuJ- 'U | 

.'. #f iLcl^s.. ..» ,v. 2 

; 4; 4r^., U* -d**y f^clUZi . C./VW... 5 

-.JLvfa... JLlAPrrrjJc^.AjCte^tUL <#,. d. . t 'S 

4.. 4 ^, 4. .1“ * 5 

List of Persons holding Shares in the 

Company Limited, on the Hay of__ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
an Account of the Shares so held. 


lPOL, and of Persons who have held Shares therein at 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and 

any time since 
Addresses, and 



* Number of Shares 
held by existing 
Members at date of 
Return f 



; fafrirj 


“ j 


' 1+t 







, /(Vt’jy t-CiawtV^V 

. Alcftft'c* 

! ’ j 







? th,! J “ 1 ' I {Tan 

teturn, or (La the cose of the first of tl 

.! ?i c JL., ....tC 

i ,f f (UUJ Ai-aU* . 

/ /t ' • /) 

1 fy CL+Ujy. 

0 ! t J ^ If \ trr-'i i\x» ;£jrC 

0) -?"/ fhirfrt t{ **v^T ft. .. 

. ' />. / 9 , / ' 7 . 

?j /!r) ,kL„ 4 ,-is— a,, 6*~ws/a-* JU,U 'iUi-^ccSu 

btj «•*' KU-c<' /&&.*..(■ 2 o j ft. 

7 t*J ^ 't ' /uy 4 o rCiC-^ (s* 

3 ftS ^'m{i.■>•£• U-fA* £\,k.K j.vt/ ft. | '/£-« a. 

- -W. 

kW* ft ft. 

Ae-v \.Z!t/ha,uAim$\ 

• 1 • 

t When the Shares ore of different class e 
t Tho dote of Registration of each Trans 
opposite the name of the Transfer 
column, immediately opposite the 

C Signature )_ 

(State whether Manager or Secretary) _ 

Jlvldi so that the numbers o( each class held, i 

^ r 

irgi#j s reserved for binding, and mu# not be written across. # 

19 Xi , and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 

Return) of theincorporationxf the Company, by j 
Numbert I Date of Registration I 

fcj - 


L } 0. 


List of Persons holding Scares in the - 

Company Limited, on the p^MSc~jd L __day of-- 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held._ 




Sll H3 7 

i/3 li'j 
$!*} li ! 

^t'j liH 

2l( 1)3 

til iii tfjjLcLt' 

J&dL~ 3.A. &Cd V 

i tf- Is 

^vdrcsj- $v. /£t~n^tc*S 

/Ird&zJl S'j 

J* rc~voA /<p,uiAje ft. 




/*- 8 

Jlerild *j> 

L~i j *2 <*C4 &+«* 4 i^c. | 

J{-9-*>Tl^\ S’ d^O^d-xJ. J^ixjuU AnC. /KcArtddd ’° 

List of Persons holding Shares in the "7 cU O loo-z^ U^,fi J j 

Comnanv Limited-, on the rbu^Js dnv of jL^ert^yf- A 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 







Christian Name 




if/*' IS 

ttj m 
Uej 3s 
4n l&j 
4-/3 if 3 

*/»* tfj 
*lf in 

4-/cf 2oS 

^3 2/3 
Sfi a/J 




tJjU~ JcrU. 

^trrU-C^. $&jc 

kn~ d*Uf>JL 



fj’i! !f 

f IC~<AAwrn 

/oi fuc^a^cLJjL^ ij_ 

*f Js^-e L&- 

t>'0 /*. 

/j-n^O(aJLt hj-Coti* t 

3C "^(S. 

* L<U~~^u, ca^. AT. 

*/ J/c(3. 

// ta t-^/o. 

1 /Ur^Luf 


—« - 
















List of Persons holding Shares in the <Uo-a ^ 

Company Limited, on the day of _ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 

Folio i names, Addresses, and occupations 

'■fij 3&J 

jS.- f'.A— 

°J 2A/ 

*>! z>s 

i'H *¥) cLjr-U^ 

$u xn oLuu-d 

iTli’. 3/i JjLc^X 
i(?t XS/ IhuJU, 
i'L$ Xdi rjs-v^x 
fir 3SJ tf^L^ 
in jfo (Lit 

^JUy ?/#l 

' dSf-d!it-^ry^\/c\ 
■K^(A/L’cL^ fa Xv& S'.//. 

te'/lr^A^r. ?J Jt %(. g 

x i^L^d U^c & % 

JlX^U ft JbiMsJ h> U. r-j.P. s 

l0 % !b d#->d-a-\J ifr db. ^ 

jlL. d\*^-~ ivSaSy j(dc* fcdL~-£^-. 

dSLj ddtk (o lcbrU<aJ> dt "%&. dlAsd«-~J 

| f/vl.L-f' Sa — d^d^tu 

<h-™-<-U dx-rclt] df~ %6. X-^ if / '■ ./ 

binding, and 

19£i_, and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 

‘Number of Shares 
held by existing 
Members at date of ~ 

Xo-o Ams\ 


List of Persons holding Scares in the — i'L^ite. 

Company Limited, on the _day of- X< . -- 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


19l£i!_, and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 

In ^ 

^3 3?3 it^Cu 

\ii' 3i'3 
(>$ I ASj 

(si p£/ fla^eLAr^j 
fob' llh' 

fcj ^O^AJnrnX 
'fj ijZ AjulJ 

f jcji iyj 
yfi 2?l 

fsi aft Po«4t 

3o-t> 'Pi. t-pA* ^li~~cljL- r v*-a-~A 

IvC'Jkt '^Csvtb-V^CL—. 

!k(l\st(**Ax*p / ‘A Ih'A(c - —.y 

1 ett lo^txAXj\ 

px^. jii (o*Jx> Sf. ^ t — 

If*” Pita. —» 

••CnlcA Cj $4). 

/(, Jt~. •'^6. 

^yWu|(^( tf/vl . (Pn)'. Sc^^? (Pe—r^do-*A 
)k\ dj\L**3 tfud. 33 1 _^ -wo. 


^1/l^xA. —«—•, 

List of Persons holding Shares in the fcu^e-n 

Company Limited, on the day of__ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


fti Hfj L* 

155 L<\1 

!$tj' 3 t>l 

y(?i 3°i> 

Ik' iff f^A 

3oJ ^tryr^tu-rr 

^3. 3l3 
ky f/3 
ft ?// 
fl'f hi t'Tiub 

^6/trW<VO 4 ^ o 1kC> . 

fe /1^UK^£y ~hjL 

t ^ JA P&wj-J Sfto. 

Jhus><, /£u 

Px A^-et^-v-v lb^,\.Kr(As*a*Pj . 

^"hA^-C-w. /btsvtcJ Q-ve**^ &*-/€« 

lisL' vJ , 

PtsC<J 1^ &Cd $r\s»-<>~-2) £ hi. 

/khujl /iCunj /S JcyrvvV-xsA, 'Jl fy. 

^ , & 



X. /). 1 


• l frrfrl , and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
•incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 


‘Number of Shares 
held by existing 

} Particulars of Share 

Return) of the incorj 

{Particulars of Share 
of the lost Return, 
Return) of the^incorj 

Transferred since the date 

irfl llniwlf th^^TTI^nylVy 



Number t 

Date of Registration 
of Transfer 


Date of Registration 
of Transfer 

. to/ 

// X 







II ^ 



! t>-o rtf 

(Stall whether Mam 

ger or Secretary) ; 

•The -Sg^Namb 



he column must be added uj 

i throughout so os to melee one 

List of Persons holding Shares in the (a^a/7 s) 

Company Limited, on the day of /LZ-yu^J- _ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


Jea-*-c ^ JjjJ Xl-o. leLsfC 

y fi, H^iJUybu 
Jb~~Ky 'C&+Jr Jjw. 

i'S'L^Ju ^nde-Ty K\.n/vfrrO Jfv: fysO-n^AicU Jyb 

l vT^’ > / JlLiA — J" 

lZllyJL^~y^zJr\ X*mJ jLnao^f %, Jr l^Sfl 



/(tip "J 

/^ccXj-^z " 
Jlr&scjks\ £ 

'ZZoL~y^-~ " 

( T^Ju^y O 



l a , and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 

Certificate No.. 

( ff /32$o. } 

“THE COMPANIES ACTS, 1908 to 1917. 1 ‘ 


is required by Part II. of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, 
(Section 26), and the Companies (Particulars as to Directors) Act, 1917. 

-c ^ 

' Summary of Share Capital and Shares of the 
TodLwriM AtxA /hiOM> 'UviA&jd. 

.day of. 

. Company, Limited,' made up 
__(being the four¬ 

teenth day after the date of the First Ordinary General Meeting ji 

Nominal Share Capital, £. 

n the list, as held by existing members) 
Number of Shares issued subject to payment wholly in cash 
Number of Shares issued ns fully paid up otherwise than in cash 
Number of Shares issued as partly paid up to the extent of_ 

.per si 

I n n 

fey. . i 

,. £f..fey.#fetA., 

§Total amount of Calls received, including payments o 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid or 
been issued as fully paid up otherwise than in cash. 

Total amount (if any) agreed to be considered as paid on_ 

been issued as partly paid up to the extent of_ 

than in cash .... 

application and allotment. £ _ 

.Shares which have 1 £ 

Total amount of Calls unpaid . 

Total amount (if any) paid on||_ 

_Sharcs forfeited. £ _ 

■ are I ^ lares £ - 

.I Stock .. £_ 

Total amount of Share Warrants to bearer issued and surrendered ( Issuetl . 

; respectively since date of last Summary ..} Surrendered 

: Number of Shares or amount of Stock comprised in each Share 

Warrant to bearer 

( Number of Shares.. 
'1 Amount of Stock .. 

Total amount of debt due from the Company in respect of all mortgages and charges which') 

J are required (or, in the case of a Company registered in Scotland, which, if the 

1 in England, would be required) to be registered with j £ 
)r which would require registration if created after the 

Note.—Banking Companies must add a list of ail their places ot business. 

Presented for filing by_ 

List of Persons holding Shares in the f £1^.., \ 

Company Limited, on the_ k+obL day of_ JLuausU' * 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
an Account of the Shares so held. 


1 A****?. lL<U*nt*U- f 4 uuurUb /* 6 tci . /i/. 4 **^ H 

3 AyySrUS f AotuU /Uau^u^t^y eW. OytuU | 

' ...v*. 

5 &L*wtUu Ja**us. 2 <&&&**/% ' 4 * 6 . a 

| ££i^c 4 a£. 

1 /tinr/O+y. do 

7f £^d,^dtx tXwyJUsl, £*vddiUih*. . do 

— LL_tkm±&yt —^ 4 <_ 4 ^ 4 ^ do 

— te-..&a££±j.. - Mtu*d*d 

- t}_ Alx/Unj -^ 

-JAL £4duh£M -/£^z. AJa*^aortr^. £***+i 

Jll . /$*?+*&_ /trr- ZS d, 

—~~ £^f^dor^. i ^rikU- A,,.*. V /ckzjLeLoqgJi £ ~fZ. 

fysiW&Uf. &+46ddu. do 

_ fa 


—- 3 &urddZt>/C f# Arc &„d'. 

■dt+d&d £d*.c^Ltds /Cd^ 4 L& __ 

and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and 

List of Persons holding Shares in the___ 

Company Limited, on the_ 0 f_ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
an Account of the Shares so held. 

’comSl’ 51 



Christian Name 



/0 1 

Jp/m /d-telSUWl 

^ //til 




Z&SSv/SMif fy. M 



3.//{La&. /V./d 




1 /b SSf/tt /oaSC ^aSc . Jmj 










cfti 6*0^^. fa, 

S'ft ft-. /U.»r. 
f a£> &•. 

33 OAefi /Sraa^t St. 'Z.c. 

$3 A%/d. Stz. 

Savvy CZ/Lc&frt 6sxr. 

Sz Ss. Si\ ^ 

1-jiLc JV,. 


List of Persons holding Shares in the_ v 

Company Limited, on the Lc^W'C. 0 f 63^.^^W _ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


*7 AaesW l 

2 °f 

Zll ln D 4/Uco So*. % 


^ ,S &*t*tt4 *1 St. A.. ^ 

^7/ £W i&io ftr£^ Z2 Ob* rtyoA* ft- ^ ^ | 

Du^y^tt y&teuKioA Sy/ZveAu^tU Scvuiuu. Af. ^ Z 

Zjs &H*eZc , lut^^ j/tQi U /2/iU^U/J^Jt a fa aSo | 
v<j* Cd~<^u y.oj. 

7'Ct4UiA*uj %L*+. Ou»Arm< 13Albvil' /uau*um<? .kv. /&. & 
^l^WCQAU.c'. £du,&-*-d (7h. /&UJA& /Ajd^ . 

if. 6m. 0 C 3 

4 and of Persons who have held Shares therein at any time since 

incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 



^Number of Shares 
held by existing 
Members at date of 

J Particulars^ Shar 

Transferred since the date 
or (in the case of the first 
oration of the Company, by 
are stilt Members 

{Particulars of Shares Transferred since the date 
of the last Return, or (in the case of the first 
Return) of the incorporation of the Company, by 
( persons who have ceased to be Members 


| DatC oflSr ati0n | Humbert 

Date of Registration 
of Transfer 


















v L/0O 








/D /^UXy /$9i 

List of Persons holding Shares in the_ r - 

Company Limited, on the _day of.- &+$*& £ - 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


“/msCA. rfftAeA* Ascent //it/ /u^uy /Ae^toA I 

- I 

/omJ. W2 /$fzrzL*t 
tf-cC/Jod' ^otdiuji Jf-'&THtfr&y 

3/>S iti-i- s/- .^1 j /oS 

bsi&isi'. CAsOJ. 

\AZdj6Hcow t/'&wASy '&C. | 

tfrzt^tey fiLu. /I4w 'L/trrXl 

*! /b -^y ^ 

y/3 au*.A/i&jtf,Auu>. £'o'^/wt. Alsu* ~ ££" 

y/b M/XaaxA/, SiULfirz-d, £in^aL*ULe. 

V/ ~j /kdi^ttA-LA^Lt. ^&*U-ts3' %(> C/CfTTyixx^Aivx. St. 

3~jl ^/0V4££. /biu&£} SL6^*? */ 'A4sfT^ju-tj-f~/ZLi. tLv. St. 

List of Persons holding Shares in the • 

Company * nn the day of 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 






Surname Christian Name Address 




/{tyta-xrr-t S2t %JLL ^CcJUt\ v 



Jj-Aaas £&/rry. SiaJ. 

&& ?/CS 

ji/a-£LAJL ^ '&&-L4. Aj- 


/2&£<jL /f //^rz2^rn*-y , 4^ 


&\*xa*j /ay^u/- 


&6' /V-eoj ys>, 


/biJM.. ^Lo. &kM. dlacS< 'i* 

jA^y/Cd-Otsv // eZ&z&y- J^es25-jrj^t «££ £ 


. /{. $ $ ^AAiydo *Sn "j£c 


&asO<-pL /^f &X-£t. vfiuj 

<£j. £(;> t fy/uj-^/iCAst-£rL*. $- 


£*^AdAs\y&dU$je.. Ixy**?" £ dUt-e. ..'co-d 

_ ■ ______ ' 

1^_, and of Persons who have held Shares therein any time since 
incorporation of the Company, showing their Names and Addresses, and an 

List of Persons holding Shares in the_ r ? 

Company Limited, on the day -of_ £U*-4c*^U'. _• 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so. held. 







Christian Name 





/i>~ /Ccru^lf&^id £t~. 



/£" /Ciru*~Urou<-,4 <&-. 












G&J b 





sfC. ^/T f . 





faUu <4*4_L4z 

'<■ /uebt bc^fO. 





■ /*} (faofc Sr. /uaucS^Ji,. 






%uM. /Sum/Z ujt. bo. 




SddM. /clu^4Ji' 





*40 VV tb-t-ab^Uo y. &•' 



(siA-ftr? A 

Ci^jLfrrrtxyC .,! 

fttvU: te& k. 

<r d~ 


List of Persons holding Shares in the_ 

Company Limited, on the fetoCA. day of__ 

the date of the last Return, or (in the case of the first Return) of the 
Account of the Shares so held. 


^7 X- 

%/ £t 4o 

(ptd /^dA/rtnoe. £/ 60&M* fit-, ^un^unrt' 

&uAjrtivUL Ai-ditAu^ &.do 

b’t'J rfLaUrv^i 

<2v*. <£4 do 

&>/?$. fi'UiJaAS %*Aduo> ALt‘ do 

h<j/ /^L^uJc /(,/juvaS t. '&C do 

Uj'i *$jsu*xl, <ko,yc. / 1 ^>/C,A^ Z&Uofyt/z da 

7 ®*"^ dLcirfr&i- (ht-dOUa /£' dt &n^Lu*J^Ain~ (/Zl+d£U4 %5i, 

7^3 sdc<rCt *QUu**da &kud. ^da 
1$$ Juu^a^A CkjLo Jo 9dc^ Oj. do. 


£oadLd~. __ 

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y r/^‘ 

Edison Ore Milling Company, Ltd. Minute Book 

* .u T!£. min ii te bo ? k . covers the y ears 1879-1900 and contains material relating 
to the Edison Ore Milling Company, Ltd. This company was organized in 1879 to 
exploit Edison's ore milling patents in the United States and abroad. Included with 
the minutes are agreements, by-laws, resolutions, and articles of incorporation. 
There are also letters and reports by Sherburne B. Eaton and other company 
officials regarding Edison’s ore milling experiments and company finances. 
Attached to the first page is a letter of November 27, 1901 from Walter S. Mallory, 
vice-president of the company, to Alexander Elliott, 3r., Edison's legal counselor, 
stating that the information contained in this volume would be used as evidence in 
a dispute with the state of New York regarding taxes assessed against the 
company. The book is unpaginated. Approximately 300 pages have been used. 

November 27th,1901. 

Judge Elliott:- 

I am very anxious to get the following information at the 
earliest possible moment, so to make an affidavit to go to Albany, 
in relation to the taxes assessed against the Ore Milling Company. 
Will you,therefore get the records and minute book from Mr. Randolph 
and get for me the following information: 

First: Amount of the original capital stock ;date the 

Company was organized; the amount of the capital stock paid to Mr. 
Edison and for what it was paid. 

Second: Date the capital stock was increased; why it 

was increased and what additional stook was paid to Mr. Edison, 
and why. (My recollection is that it covered cash he had advanced.) 

T&ird: Patents: My recollection is that all patents 
have been taken out in the name of Mr. Edison, but that the original 
agreement specified that when the Edison Ore Milling Co. had done 
certain things and made oertaln payments, Mr. Edison was to assign 
the patentB to the Company. The Company, however, not carrying 
out this part of the agreement, the patents have never been assigned, 
and always have stood in the name of Mr. Edison. 

Also, that about two years ago, a new agreement was 
exeouted by him and all rights the Ore Milling Company had to the 
patents , were given up and the titles remain in Mr. Edison, con¬ 
sideration for this being the amount of money paid to Mr. Edison at 

that time. Please give me this amount. 

Yours very truly, 

rt yma/ cisAtx/C /A 

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Xi:w York, August 5th, 1SS7. 

Dkar Sir: 

A Special Meeting of the Stockholders of the Em* in Oki: Mil. UNO 
CoMiam. I.imi n:ii, will he held at the office of Mr. John C. Tomlinson, No. 
40 Wall Street. New York City, on the 15th day of September. 1SS7. at twelve 
o'clock noon, to consider a proposition to reorganize the Company and increase 
its Capital Stock from its present Capital of Three Hundred and Fifty Thousand 
Dollars to Two Million Dollars, and if thought advisable so to do, to take the 
necessary steps to effect such reorganization and such increase. 

Uy order of the Hoard of Directors. 




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Nt:w York, August 5th, 1887. 

Dr .ah Sir : 

Enclosed you will find a notice of a Special Meeting of the 
Stockholders of the Emsux Out: Mii.unu Company. Limited, and a statement of 
the Hoard of Directors of the affairs of the Company, and recommending that its 
capital stock be increased and the Company reorganized in the manner set forth. 

If you approve of carrying out the recommendation of the Hoard, will you 
either attend the meeting or execute and return to me the enclosed proxy ? 

Yours truly, 


Secretary , 

40 Wai.i. Struct, Nkw York. 


ivncni) alt plcu h\] tltcsc presents: that i, 

do (tart 1 by constitute and appoint John V. Tomlinson and. ]('. .S'. Perry 
or either of them, my attorneys and agents for me, and in my name, 
ldace and stead to vote as my proxy at a special meeting of the Stock¬ 
holders of the Edison Ore Milling Company, Limited, to be held on the 
13th day of September, 1887, or at any adjournments thereof. Accord¬ 
ing to the number of votes / should be entitled to vole if then and there 
personally present, hereby revoking all other and former powers of attorney 
or proxies, if any such there be. 

Ju SSlitncss CCl hereof, / have hereunto set, my hand, and, seal 
this day of One Thousand Eight Hundred, and 


Signed, sealed and, delivered,^ 

, ^ S* s.-tc S' > 

ponHos of 1»» experiments, iiml in addition an mimtil 
aalary of $10,000 a year, provided that amount was 
earned l>y tliu company, and !i0 por cent, of tlio net 
profits of the company roinnining, after paying such 
salary, and a dividend of 20 per cent, on its outstand- 

In the" early part of January, 1880, 220 shares df the 
treasury stock of the company were sold at prices 
varying from $100 to $21,0 a share, the company re¬ 
alizing $20,750 in casin'" 

At tho annual mooting of the stockholders of the 
company, hold on the 18tli day of January, 1881, tin- 
report of tho Board of Directors stated that tho assets 
of tho company consisted of $15,831.-10, and lottcrs 
patent and contracts, and that its oxisting dobts did 
not oxcced $250. 

During tho year 1881 tho company wns ongaged in 
experimenting upon separating tho iron from magnetic 
iron sands, according to tlio methods covered by the 
inventions of Mr. Edison and owned by tho company, 
and n largo amount of money was oxponded in this 

During tho yonr 1882 experiments and work on this 
subjoct were continued. 

From tho roport to tho stockholders at tlio annual 
meeting on January 10th, 1888, it appoarod that tlio in¬ 
ventions of tho company for sopnrntiiife tho iron from 
magnetic sands were a completo buccoss, but tlint diffi¬ 
culty had boon found in sinolthig tho oro after it had 

been separated, and becauBO oTtliis tho company had 
boon iinablo to dovolop its business. 

Attention wns called to tho fact that Mr.. Edison s 
numorotia engagements had prevented hint from doyot- 

!«*<i / ty/t jr*, ^ c- 

ing mucli timo'to experiments on separating tho prccions 
metals from rebellious ores, but that ho hoped to bo 

able to do so within tho coming year. 

During the year 1883 tlio business of the company 
wns practically at a standstill. By the roport to the 
stockholders nt their nnnunl meeting on tho 15th day 
of Jnnnary, 1881, it npponred that tlio company wns in¬ 
debted in tlio sum of about $1,500 ; tlint there wero no 
funds in tho treasury with which to pay tho indebt¬ 
edness ; that owing to this want of funds Mr. Edison 
had been provonted from conducting oxporimonts on 
gold and silver oroB; and tho attention of tho stock¬ 
holders wns called to tho fnct tlint while ho had. con¬ 
ducted experiments in this direction nt his ownoxponso 
tho company could not expect they would bo continued 
unless tho troasury wns supplied with adequate funds 
with which to pay for them. 

During the year 1881, owing to want of funds, no 
business whatever wns done by tlio company. From 
tho roport to tho stockholders, presented at tho annual 
meeting on January 20tl>, 1885, it appeared that tho 

dobts roforrod to in tho last animal report hnd not been 
paid, but that on tho contrary tho dobts of tho com¬ 
pany tlioii exceeded tho suin'of about $5,500; tlint 
tlioro wns no money in tho treasury and ho way of 
liquidating theso dobts, ns tlio only assets of'tho com¬ 
pany consisted of -13G shares of its capital stock, which 
hnd so far dopreciatod in valuo thnt they could not bo 
sold at any prico. 

Tho directors again urged tho necessity of rnising 
money to dischnrgo tho obligations .0 company, and 
to enablo Mr. Edison to contimio his experiments 
mention was also made of tho fact thnt during tho year 

,4 t 

lie liml conducted n number of experiments at his own 

From .Tnnunry, 1885, until tlio presold time no busi¬ 
ness has Won clone by tlio compnny, and its nfinirs have 
remained at a standstill. Tlio company is without 
funds to enable Mr. Edison to continue liis experiments 
and 1ms no means of raising them. The few slinres of 
stock in its treasury are practically unsalable and valuo- 

Wlmn the company was organized it'was thought 
that large profits would bo at once realized from its in¬ 
ventions for separating magnotie iron sands, but after 
largo expenditures it was found that while the inven¬ 
tions of Mr. Edison did nil that was claimed for them, 
they were rendered of no commercial valuo because of a 
difficulty, not then anticipated, in reducing the iron 
after separation. 

It 1ms always been the opinion of Mr. Edison that 
with proper facilities for experimenting at his disposal 
ho could invent means of separating the rebellious ores 
containing tlio precious metals. Many oxporimonts 
have been conducted by him in this direction at his 
own expense notwithstanding the obligation on tlio 
part of the compnny to pay for them, asoxjircssly pro¬ 
vided in the contract botwoon him and tlio company. 

Tlio company being without fundB and Mr. Edison 
being unwilling and unable to pay tho oxpouscs of fur¬ 
ther experimentation tho property of tlio compnny must 
bo regarded ns valueless unless some new arrangement 
can bo rnado with Mr. Edison by which these experi¬ 
ments can bo prosecuted. 

After consultation with your Bonrd of Directors ho 
has submitted tho following proposition : 

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That tho capibil of tho company bo increased from ' 
its present capital of §350,000 to $2,000,000. 

That of such two million dollars $525,000 in stock bo 
issued to tho present stockholders upon tlioir surrend¬ 
ering the stock now held by them, thus giving to ouch 
stockholder one and a half (14) slinres of stock in the 
reorganized compnny for each slinro now hold by him. 

That $1,175,000 in stock be issued to Sir. Edison in 
consideration of his making a’new agreement with the 
company, $250,000 of which to be placed by him in the 
treasury of the company, to be used for developing its ^ 

I si HS 

The new contract with Mr. Edison shall provide that 
1m will actively devoto himself to experimenting upon 
separating tho precious metals from tho rebellious ores, 
and will assign any inventions made by him relating to 
tho same to tho company. 

That ho will roliovo the company from its present obli¬ 
gation to pay him an annual salary of $10,000 and 30% 
of tlm not profits of its business, and release it from 
all moneys now duo him amounting to several thousand 

That ho will construct a special laboratory for ex¬ 
periments on separating ores, and will prosecute his 
experiments extensively, advancing thorofor from his 
own pocket whatever moneys may bo necessary up to 

In case his oxporimonts do not result successfully, 
Mr. Edison will make no claim on tho company to re¬ 
imburse this amount. Should 1m succeed, however, 1m 
will take in payment of his advances treasury stock at 
a valuo to bo lixcd by tlm Board of Directors, or cash 
realized from tlm side of such stock. 

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Your Board of Directors, after oaroful consideration 
of tlio subject, aro convinced that tho proposition sub¬ 
mitted by Mr. Edison is eminently fair and in tho in¬ 
terests of tho stockholders should bo carried out. Un¬ 
less it be effected on somo other plan of reorganization 
carried tlirongh, your Board aro of tho opinion that 
the corporation should bo dissolved and its affairs 

The Board of DmEcrons of the Edison Oiie 
Miluno Company, Limited, 

[ 15643 ] 

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H now nil m™ % these presents, 

fflrt J, M om c\aj Cl. 6 >cCl 4 trr) 

f/e- /cie/y cetuMa/e aw/ a/i/tccnt Ci ZD. ^hZib &V ^ O^Vtn^ 

<sA//ctvt:y a-nt/ jAjyea/ y&l we, aw/ m my name, fi/ace aw/ Jtcac/, fc 
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MH. THOS. A. EDISON, 12,219 1/2 shares by proxy from Mr.Mallory 

MP. ,0;!AS .BATCHELOR, 1,108 shares in person 

ME. W.S.PERRY, 270 l/2 stores in person 

MR .W.S.MALLORY, 280 3 haros in person 

-MP, H.L.ROGERS, 80 l/2 3 hare 3 in person 

H.DE SELDING, 34 shares in person 

MR. C.R.CARMAN, 15 shares in person 

TOTAL, 14,013 1/2 shares 



A. 0. TATE 

•.• 4 -. F. A. PHELPS JR. 


We certify that the above 14,013 l/2 shares wero voted on 




tQttow nil Men % these presents, 

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1 he Mail and Express, 

(> itooija. fourth Kloor. b4h»n 
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Chas.Batchelor, 1108 shares in person 
W.S.Perry, 147 l/2 » in person 

T.A.Edison, 12,119 l/2 " by proxy Mr,Perry 
W.S.Mallory, 648 "by » « » • 

Wm. Holzer 118 1/2 " in persom 

•Samuel Noyes 1/2 " .'in person 

Walter Cutting 164 " in person 

F.R.Upton, 418 1/2 ■ in person 

H.De Solding 32 " in person 

i 1 ---14,758 1/2 " 

For the following Directors 






We certify that the above 14,758 1/2 
shares were voted on this 15th day of 
January 1895. 



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NE^V YORK. TH!iRS^AY i EVENING. MAY 14 . 189 a' 

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Know all Men by these Presents, 

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Edison Telephone Company of Europe, Ltd. Records 

The Edison Telephone Company of Europe, Ltd. was organized in New York 
City in May 1879 to exploit Edison's telephone patents in continental Europe. 
Among the records of this company is a minute book for the period May 1879-April 
1881. The minutes pertain to contracts, patents, stock, and other matters brought 
before the Board of Directors. Included with the minutes are articles of 
incorporation, by-laws, resolutions, agreements, and lists of stockholders. Included 
also are copies of letters to Charles Nottebank, Theodore Puskas, and patent 
solicitors Brewer & Jensen. The book is unpaginated. Approximately 60 pages 
have been used. 

Two additional items have not been filmed: (1) a stock certificate book for 
1880 containing twelve filled-in certificates; and (2) a stock transfer book for 1880 
containing ten filled-in certificates. 

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The materials in this supplement cover the years 1875-1878. Most of the 
documents date from 1878. Included are letters, agreements, technical notes and 
drawings, legal statements, circulars, and other documents relating to the 
phongraph, multiplex telegraphy, the electric pen and autographic press, and the 
aerophone. Significant authors and recipients include Edison, George H. Bliss 
Edward H. Johnson, George B. Prescott, Theodore Puskas, and the Edison Electric 
Pen & Duplicating Press Company. 

Most of these documents are part of a cache of property stolen from the 
Edison National Historic Site in 1976. The stolen materials were recovered in 
1985, after the completion of the Thomas A. Edison Papers Microfilm Edition. Part 
I. There are approximately one hundred documents, and they appear on the 
microfilm in chronological order. 


The materials in this supplement cover the years 1875-1878. Most of the 
documents date from 1878. Included are letters, agreements, technical notes and 
drawings, legal statements, circulars, and other documents relating to the 
phongraph, multiplex telegraphy, the electric pen and autographic press, and the 
aerophone. Significant authors and recipients include Edison, George H. Bliss 
Edward H. Johnson, George B. Prescott, Theodore Puskas, and the Edison Electric 
Pen & Duplicating Press Company. 

Most of these documents are part of a cache of property stolen from the 
Edison National Historic Site in 1976. The stolen materials were recovered in 
1985, after the completion of the Thomas A. Edison Papers Microfilm Edition. Part 
L There are approximately one hundred documents, and they appear on the 
microfilm in chronological order. 



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This Duplicating or Transfer Ink, designed for the multiplication of copies by tpcans of the common 
Letter Press, lias properties entirely distindt from any other in the market. It will do the following: 

First ' One original writing will yield in the ordinary Letter Press, without other appliances than 
those used in ordinary copying. 20 to 30 copies upon Tissue Paper. 

Second. It will yield from 10 to 20 copies upon Letter Paper— an entirely new feature; these 
copies being re-transferred from a Tissue Cupy, arc right side up and readable from the faccol the paper 
and not through it. 

Third. It will also yield copies either from the original or from the copy at any timb subsequent to 
the original writing, thus making it practicable for Lawyers, Merchants, Brokers, Reporters, Insurance 
and Real Estate Agents, Clergymen, and the Professional Business Community generally, at any time to 
duplicate any paper which they may have on record. Alsu cnnblingthe recipient of a letter written witli 

^mcrican ^oicllji mjjang, 


Edison’s Duplicating Ink, 

Johnson's Ribbon Mucilage. 


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The remaining extant pages can be found on reel 4, frames 874-1044. 

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)~[ojj\m<^ 'i)ecjun<ac( Ifo ybofe* S?cfiiJbL<* Ife x>ornau£> ^^ejo&orticv 

q md CPfionocjnapRio (/n-ooriiioruo of ~Mn. ’tKottyi cuo :A-.CdiiS>an J a/nd ficuuyncj cinna/ncjed 
wilfil Flirm "fo yieaaluty pum utsdo/neox/X Lutlfi tfo ppododtion curiLj ump;-ioue/rnemt uncide/nlaJ 
to Ifiein dejuefcrpm&nJi , J c5 0/m ppepaned lb imcuu gamble/ a. ^enieo of fiednCbitiorvo , un “ 
/Stpucfruei amd entexteWiimc^ to a. -pupenPcCfioti electee/, C5n paint" of -foal" panetx) if 
©uen sejpaiPed im itb pouuen lb atfpaoT cund urftjun eat" Cclf efa/0,oea of cun imtefPi gemt 
Qjwmu/mtg . 

- ' CtVLy ppeoe/rit Out-fif imcfuid/e/s ffie -jb-PPooui/ncj •• 

£>d ijoovijCs vCJpscJdmg O^PicmocjnapR . 

£>cUocm>o iTVLajoi'ccJ “feJapPicmeJ. 

QcLLo unp )&pecd<t>ng leJejoIncme;. 

£,oi&fi of ujfn’cfi anai um egpa/l Pad im /leaped 1b 1ftetn ©apaciJlj lo pen-foam tfifii tuopK, 
fa r Lvft'icb tfiex| one debic|ned. • 

‘"[Fie/ S&p&cxKi/nc) cm op pap-Pi. - 

Tpiuo emu anti on , am abpoPodeip neui dLocouenij , J pPacej fin/yf" im opden , 

8accxupeJ ft" uo umcjpsbti'onouLiPcj Ifia modi’ innpopTamT im itb (se/nefVcemt effect upon.., 
Ifie ppopn&oio of s6)cumcai amd fiu/mam imdu/tst/ic, , of omp imue/ritiOYi of Pate c, eurija.: 

. •yj& - - ibtfie vendi’&T of fRei meuwj emoLmem^*^ci’eirituy|/) urRo Rtxoo ejcoum.W9®cl;.afv^|^ 

••(lie, it C§ cOl?P emtentaJln cun exuduunce) cues -fcrPPoujp: *f "* T '■ 

^l^e.oCfcd’icm/3, (J^uenjocCfionccP permarJ<n , J^Jon^o (xjutift u>eyid>o) Qfjjmet^&oPoO, 

HnumJ X-i- Lj , ^auyftfen , (ougJiimc) do, do, u)iiP t>e defiuenad im,lo tlna movJR 7 
of-lfio <ynad\irr,e> , cund jOoub/secyciemtEcj /jep/io-oLuccd tfiei OmcucRunei cuijR /suefi fidelity . 
of tone). T^xlfoodcdton , fi/mpf cuo w>. 6te,. cua cu'Jf +Cundfa am &KlRuiOiouom tw Pea/iTl, ao 
it OUufP Pie/' /Spomta/nI'cnxo , amd tip jne-cuoam of tfie; pi/mp'Picdp of Ifie. CXppanotouo , a dean 
C ur'd Son oboe) f-Xp-Pc u naJibn of- uufiicli Ua gt/Uem ,- ©annej Oonuieticm Cut once* to ccW tFioit 

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■tfia^AppancitUiO Ls ^lacdPp a. '^heoCt dbaaoucnp amd ncfl" a mean IpioK on top for p/io» 
dueonp daai|ati’oO effaetjo. _ Ifia Itfnown yipouTcCTion of-. £di^>crv> ao a. ppootacen 
of. p/ioudfi’ccxP imoemtiaruo ’ipj, Roiaeoen "tRa Tbeot c,uancunJe/e; '-S Rctoeu lo offtn of IReJ 
pemoamneobo of tfiCo (^eat'diioacruenp . 

^Jpiei si)peaJ<'tmg < teJepyPione).‘ 

< fpua imuontiem bi pamK noict Cm opden fceoauoe) of- ilo /nePcCfi’uei Cornmenci’ai ucdoai 
. omd ^cCemClifio imtenedt, tfioucjli -fa/i purLpooea of puJoftc <Sccficbiilbnp X( emtenTcummeirCf 
"CTw) nerf u>df adapted &t, pecuoern of. tte [o3 tficd tfie oofwm?) of nS'Oumd tt c,ujes» lotbo 
fumlted -fon ©ontpiiooCtimc^ &ru-cn|memt 1b a fancjei cAodiem&e), On opden Roxueoen 1b itf = 
GuotpxoCteJ "fRa ppacticoJ uoe of Ite 5$)peaJ'dmc, iRafepAcme) un-o Solpckinc, tnomntn i <a>o 
ifiile 'cSrvatpanmemt un tfiei ppeoenca) of tfie, 7 Voiduuncei to dlnedt my CXO*ai'ybtcumti at 

fumlted -pen ©ontp dooCTimy &ru-crx|m 
cuotfioCteJ ppadticoJ aoa tiia 
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lAe) ^ordfien Cmd of tR O U)Lrt<L> 0 

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itb iRe o/ider 
pund dtftencc 

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^uo l/mjemiion iyOsIpy .vinoo^ mould amd fia/3 -jfcwi CjjtecCten Capacdc, -jpn 
tenedting cund emTe/£taji /|$ feq' am .add Lam ce) iRam cUP Ifid* 'taPepfionic. deuice/a 
otFieri inroertaiteju& dornlm^Sdl;'^. ■•• •nofT open oded • BiJ|a/n SJectpo Ona^net 

olt'-offlan ^epftone/a , &(UnjLLppn: am t€mtine?q'..rieLU ,p_p i/n dp-teg,of Sfeatpo = Ofienmiec 
tancn’icrunca.d <bq &mdemt/arpr. oA> Q/n ojiia^ncd dl®iOTjenu lm,.jfie/ <Sfe,cIp 

citfien imue/iafcjuc, fflcnmBj 
att <StRen "'jefepfione/a , 

japan crun<ae,d <bq S-mimi^s ^ ■ , u - 

J^xsiemcd, ifie/ (3<^a^^ffi^, peispocltioe> amd vnctKi) ©teo Eq CLadaL/Pe. ^eJep-RamicL-;, 
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ap/aatutUq 1-Re/ cmPq ajfwanixtub im<So<i/>te/noe) Bq ouftii i XJacaJ amd Gqpnefr ^boloo 
Cam Be, "jfiam/arniirisd '.dicttcoydt- poi/rCt "lb am JJ^iwd mc#J a/nd Ifitns) fi&* 

p/ioda©e,d an a. warn«|h OuT crnae i.jnex^i^ ReandL&q$ UlF . Rcaweuen vnamq lisw 
maq be/, cund im am omJj|qajlife/'- rnamnenI ■>.■.■!>"•. ■‘v.V.v'r." ■ r*„’i t 
£^p-Pamd^jyq -j/e<iluJ >. 

C pTOa pant of Ifter ^Hlen^ajjnrnenriT io modulo puit. Ifie,’ Opinita/nd fiu/mojn of iRe/ 
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Openamd{ of Ifie. ^iieoendM. appanatu/j, amd if appanerntffi-paJibfa,iilb/tq ,1b a 'uaiij, 
(opief /Jcetofi of Ifie. fiwJffipq of .lRe<- ,deue/opmend^!af;.t^e>7jnoernKan/>. Qlo peiemlificj 
d Lab entail cm on rtFier ^a|b;& . a/nd -tReonie*.; of ^>cru^id jojqf; crtfien pj-iotu^. amd lediocLb 
Cov\bU/mption, of luma By ifie) S&pacukltn _ JVCq object '4' pimpPq- '"fe pFiotxi amd rnata. 
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panat cm cund acLoervfi^orndvU^cffrvitj ^fdtf’almimcmi 'pujarnd•lKe - fo?PoaJimq'qQnmcd - 
duiaetibnte. (^den of S}ioqriaimme) . 1 ^ Pant, 

t dAtcaaiccJ JaJap’ftoneJ, ^)peod<ijnq SeJejo-Rdne; coo oajupiWouiq, 

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cam oe. Ipi 

^udie/rioeJ,bdTua maim I 
Open amd f of Ifie. fieuer 
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fam SJeotpo < hia^ne<' ao one 
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feouenq im^.lfie/ SfeoIjiicLai 
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| tJooaJ amd Gqpnefr ^bofoo 
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»ft»moUian^ of. ipie/ ^/^ocLloo. 
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Bnu'ervitfom>t>. ^lo /6Czemtlfiej 

.^pecifio lOipe&lioinybB ^elecjnoqsfi •‘^ne/ - •• : 

T^emqtft of,, ^me/ oofiicdi im axj .be, opencuted I "to- loo ^W)UeA. ‘.3 

(R>cd1enq /leppined n iljEi opengution "to loo C>eJPjC> . . 

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Jh uuipe. adjpofuTsiq fpee. fpom JeJ'e.qricqolnic. appanadue. 

a TbmcjPe, toipe. conne^itimq -^dcdi 1 ■coil'Pi I'fie^ maun^ Ztiipe ),_ CL. (oxyped t/Jiine) *fo 
©cmneot "tfie. iblmqimq Atcdicm LOilPi I'Rei yefecjncip-Pi affi ixJ— cn (Tiaflenq. 

Oenmuioicm Tfie. -fpe/2/ case/ of. a/une; amd Cjodfieru.) aam cjemencxJFq be, ^ad 
&L| appPiocCtion "lb "Ifie/ CA3. Ll. c [&lex^pcqo^i offidaio ifteq Raijimq cdujax|0 en<yic</se.d 
a aommondaibPej pcxbPi'o ppintt' i/n mui /ieqand, eopeoiailq im peioUicm "feyvlri.Cdi/iort* 
imappo-oenmernti.' O^Uu/aq (^mapo/mie^) wiacj cUoo (be, appried 1o of fe&tloePq. 

f ' C^V^cobiciannvO . f ' 

-^\1" iRe, ’s^inqimq C^)Tcdtiom . 

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appancClu>o _^>fiooo)C> iRe. e^e-CLCTion of ifte. qpe^den nunn^ien of OnTi/itjo 

£eWi/nc| >lpTdstp /isqand /ificnJd fee Rad to $e/[n jieputcxjicm im dRe G'lq 
im uuRicii Ifitin uoiceO ane, jieppoduc.ed, t^eLn dtqPe/ op’ ©xe-cod'iori La •fjie/ = 
opewt'-CL) /lecoqmdzpd , doRict Rdo .Q leiPimCj effect /fhe, 5&oppiamo eopec^ 
i'afPq /ifiouicl ibe, of a Ricjli cndwt^menCt. ^Pxwe.-jApt>tb ©am UoucU&-j (be, 
P\ad a/a TJoPumfeenjC , fRexj ^)ecmq .cxtjpdoled &q iRe/ ‘YtooeftZj . 

. C5Picr^ crqfiop-pi. •' 

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clo&O mdf/iecjpune, lR& xw>e, of U)ipo<s &Jo. v5 ifienefope, vnaJ-Le, tlRe/ pecamd 
pant of ifiei emtenteammemit; "tRcu> du>imiAotmq iRie, ^ii/nqeroo , amd peiPdimq up 
iRe, xoinej at am >, Kc/uoi . a/auaJPL, alscrut IS. (P.-A/^. vi pecjpLne, ^on i1> 
ppopen &*&ihckicrri no pancqbRiemcJia of amt, ^o/if - amd emfu, a qoO/d: pmq» 
eq amd (Jr^et pRapen fe.pimq amd pRap ordb I Fie, mcnUP of Ifie -Macfidne,, 
apomjFis >btaqe) im p^ePemceJ' of Ifie/ HAaol'iemce/, Ifie/se/ ane, mat'imdw>pem/s = 
cJj& Bed tfiep a,dd 1b f\e) cCnpaclujemeAxj of Ifie/ C^FiLbiticm . 

( ^Hdoejitu^ijnq . 

*]Fle PooiqeJ 0^n>1lnP> ^RovJcl RcwO ppamimeM^ me. qemenal fecdluieo Reanim 0on=.. 
■fevned . Butpmail Rarnd BtUo ^fioxJd bel-fqplRi im <>oidenaJs?e. delbU iRcJ 
poimtsft made} - amd &e,j , cueJP dLotriLbuled . ^fie; /jacaJ pcqocn,<a pFicnJd im/ient. 
cw> pc^utbptfie/ ocmicra^^ountb amd (JovnmemlKi cws to Ifie) -faJfLlimevCt of 
•'ppcnmi*eb'^^eutPecI ^ p5fcp"en>ii LuP>«nc. vS 'fiaue, £i>cftiioi!#jfe^“‘P'acFr, ^ QobLfipt" 

of- adoe/Lfinfmq LmuanialrPq pcLLjb Tan^elq. 

ousuoJPt, peaoh Ifla Qttq >bewena.P Roupvs im acLuamoe? of iRe/ 
Op-emimc, of Ifie) emtentcummemT amo] waJ<k/ cl ppiefiwimaruq tebt on jib ■* 
Reanba,! cu> <San 2q coo Ifie, -oouie, ®am “Be otitaimed • v5t i* ujeP? lo ncu«J 
/leponlenjo pjiebemt' cxI^lfiLci pepeojibaJ . . | 

Lmu^ len/vn^, one; ^ I00 : . pen'yiiqRct. amd compjnefiemd ccPP tRe, necebbCLncj. 
ajapancttoocs, Kvu/^eif amd cme> a^uta/vCt. 

©anrLL) looo feet' of 1 'Jnbuicde.d office) Uiine) for eormccitimq no, impljuvtt 
merdp U)dR Ifie, c/uJpideJ aiinei -yopeoicnxo^c, B/ia-uq W "lo Ifie fRoJ? U)lmdou). 

On pefe.cti/nq itie) S^imqimiq Sl$ttcLticm f.At abcmtc\im 0^)cCttencj Ui 

o{jtbjimairPe/_ •' __'i 

tHm, -bimaJl penmn namcLej to Ifie (JocdterLcj on lsJec,ncLpm Crffioet 
• yiuLfficeb fon iRej '^LmcpimC) ,S2^tbtia-n 

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Uititaal (position of 3878, at |patis, 



NK\v York, Manh g, 1878. 

soon as possible. If they have failed to receive this form, which 
has in all cases been sent to them by mall with their permits 
for space, they should at once notify the Commissioner-General 



<3 9 ^42. ^< 
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[APRIL 5, 1878?] 





A. R. BREWER, Seo’y. 

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187 p" 


ipv-w 0 -^ 

E& ison /Speaking Phonograph, Sompany', 

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A Note on the Sources 

The pages which have been 
filmed are the best copies 
available. Every technical 
effort possible has bee 
made to ensure legibility. 



Alfred P. Sloan foundation 
Charles Edison Fund 
The Hyde and Watson foundation 
Geraldine U. Dodge Foundation 


National Science foundation 
National Endowment for the Humanities 


Alabama Power Company 
Amerada Hess Corporation 

Atlantic Electric 

Association of Edison Illuminating 

Dattclle Memorial Institute foundation 
The Boston Edison foundation 
Cabot Corporation foundation 
Carolina Power and Light Company 
Consolidated Edison Company of 
New York, Inc. 

Consumers Power Company 
Corning Glass Works foundation 
Duke Power Company 
Exxon Corporation 
Florida Power & Light Company 
General Electric foundation 
Gould Inc. foundation 
Gulf States Utilities Company 
Idaho Power Company 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 

Iowa Power and Light Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley H. Katz 
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. 
McGraw-Edison Company 
Middle South Services, Inc. 

Minnesota Power 

New Jersey Bell Telephone Company 
New York State Electric & Gas 

North American Philips Corporation 
Philadelphia Electric Company 
Philips International B.V. 

Public Service Electric and Gas 
RCA Corporation 
Robert Bosch GmbH 
San Diego Gas & Electric 
Savannah Electric and Power Company 
Schering Plough foundation 
Texas Utilities Company 
Transamerica Delaval Inc. 
Wcstinghousc Educational foundation 
Wisconsin Public Service 



Bulgers, The State University of 
New Jersey 

Edward J. Bloustein 
T. Alexander Pond 
Tilden G. Edelstein 
John Gillis 

New Jersey Historical Commission 
Bernard Bush 
Howard L. Green 

National Park Service, Edison 
National Historic Site 
Roy W. Weaver 
Edward J. Pershey 
Smithsonian Institution 
Bernard Finn 
Arthur P. Molella 


James Brittain, Georgia Institute of Technolog)’ 
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., Harvard University 
Neil Harris, University of Chicago 
Thomas Parke Hughes, University of Pennsylvania 
Arthur Link, Princeton University 

Robert E. Schofield, Iowa State University 


William C. Hittinger (chairman), RCA Corporation 
Edward J. Bloustein, Rutgers, The State University of N.J. 
Cees Bruynes, North American Philips Corporation 
Paul J. Christiansen, Charles Edison Fund 
Philip F. Dietz, Wcstinghouse Electric Corporation 
Roland W. Schmitt, General Electric Corporation 
Harold W. Sonn, Public Service Electric and Gas Company 
Morris Tanenbaum, AT&T 


Ji*oru rap£A^ 


( 1879 - 1886 ) 

Tliomas E. Jeffrey 

Microfilm Editor and Associate Director 

Paul B. Israel 
Assistant Editor 

Mary Ann Hellrigel Douglas G. Tarr 

David W. Hutchings Robert A. Rosenberg 

Editorial Associates 

John Deasey 
Barbara B. Tomblln 
Jacquelyn Miller 
Maria Antonakakls 

dent Assistants 

Keith A. Nler 
Assistant Editor 

Reese V. Jenkins 
Director and Editor 

Leonard DeGraaf 
Joseph P. Sullivan 
Alan Stein 
Karen Kozak 


Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site 
New Jersey Historical Commission 

Smithsonian Institution 

University Publications of America 
Frederick, Maryland